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Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Application of the Administrative Litigation Law of the People's Republic of China [Effective]
最高人民法院关于适用《中华人民共和国行政诉讼法》的解释 [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】

 
Announcement of the Supreme People's Court 

最高人民法院公告

The Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Application of the Administrative Litigation Law of the People's Republic of China, as adopted at the 1,726th meeting of the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court on November 13, 2017, is hereby issued, and shall come into force on February 8, 2018. 《最高人民法院关于适用〈中华人民共和国行政诉讼法〉的解释》已于2017年11月13日由最高人民法院审判委员会第1726次会议通过,现予公布,自2018年2月8日起施行。
Supreme People's Court 最高人民法院
February 6, 2018 2018年2月6日
Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Application of the Administrative Litigation Law of the People's Republic of China 最高人民法院关于适用《中华人民共和国行政诉讼法》的解释
(Adopted at the 1,726th meeting of the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court on November 13, 2017, and coming into force on February 8, 2018; Interpretation No. 1 [2018] of the Supreme People's Court) (2017年11月13日最高人民法院审判委员会第1726次会议通过,自2018年2月8日起施行 法释〔2018〕1号)
For the purposes of correctly applying the Administrative Litigation Law of the People's Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as the "Administrative Litigation Law"), this Interpretation is developed based on the administrative trial practices of people's courts. 为正确适用《中华人民共和国行政诉讼法》(以下简称行政诉讼法),结合人民法院行政审判工作实际,制定本解释。
I Scope of Cases Acceptable 

一、受案范围

Article 1 An administrative action taken by an administrative agency or its employee, against which a citizen, legal person or any other organization files a complaint according to the law, shall be within the scope of cases acceptable.   第一条 公民、法人或者其他组织对行政机关及其工作人员的行政行为不服,依法提起诉讼的,属于人民法院行政诉讼的受案范围。
The following actions shall be outside the scope of cases acceptable of the administrative litigation in people's courts: 下列行为不属于人民法院行政诉讼的受案范围:
(1) The actions taken by public security, national security and other authorities as expressly authorized by the Criminal Procedure Law. (一)公安、国家安全等机关依照刑事诉讼法的明确授权实施的行为;
(2) Mediation actions and arbitral actions as specified by the law. (二)调解行为以及法律规定的仲裁行为;
(3) Administrative guidance actions. (三)行政指导行为;
(4) Repeated disposition actions rejecting the petitions filed by parties against administrative actions. (四)驳回当事人对行政行为提起申诉的重复处理行为;
(5) Actions taken by an administrative agency, without producing external legal effect. (五)行政机关作出的不产生外部法律效力的行为;
(6) Preparation, discussion, research, reporting level by level, consultation, and other actions of a procedural nature taken by an administrative agency for an administrative action. (六)行政机关为作出行政行为而实施的准备、论证、研究、层报、咨询等过程性行为;
(7) Enforcement actions taken by an administrative agency according to the effective judgment or notice for assistance in enforcement from a people's court, unless the administrative agency expands the scope of enforcement or conducts enforcement in violation of the law. (七)行政机关根据人民法院的生效裁判、协助执行通知书作出的执行行为,但行政机关扩大执行范围或者采取违法方式实施的除外;
(8) Hearing reports, law enforcement inspection, urgency for duty fulfillment, and other actions taken by an administrative agency against a subordinate one based on their hierarchal supervisory relationship. (八)上级行政机关基于内部层级监督关系对下级行政机关作出的听取报告、执法检查、督促履责等行为;
(9) Registration, acceptance, assignment, transfer, re-inspection, reexamination opinions, and other actions taken by an administrative agency pertaining to public complaint items. (九)行政机关针对信访事项作出的登记、受理、交办、转送、复查、复核意见等行为;
(10) Actions having no actual impact on the rights and obligations of citizens, legal persons or other organizations. (十)对公民、法人或者其他组织权利义务不产生实际影响的行为。
Article 2 As mentioned in Article 13(1) of the Administrative Litigation Law, "national action" means an action which the State Council, the Central Military Commission, the Ministry of National Defense, or the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as authorized by the Constitution or the Law, takes in relation to national defense or diplomatic affairs in the name of the state, or an action that a state agency declares a state of emergency as authorized by the Constitution or the law.   第二条 行政诉讼法十三条第一项规定的“国家行为”,是指国务院、中央军事委员会、国防部、外交部等根据宪法和法律的授权,以国家的名义实施的有关国防和外交事务的行为,以及经宪法和法律授权的国家机关宣布紧急状态等行为。
As mentioned in Article 13(2) of the Administrative Litigation Law, "decisions and orders with general binding force" means regulatory documents which an administrative agency issues neither against nor in favor of particular targets and which is susceptible of repeated application. 行政诉讼法十三条第二项规定的“具有普遍约束力的决定、命令”,是指行政机关针对不特定对象发布的能反复适用的规范性文件。
As mentioned in Article 13(3) of the Administrative Litigation Law, "decisions on reward, punishment, appointment or dismissal of their employees" means decisions made by administrative agencies relating to the rights and obligations of their employees of administrative agencies as civil servants. 行政诉讼法十三条第三项规定的“对行政机关工作人员的奖惩、任免等决定”,是指行政机关作出的涉及行政机关工作人员公务员权利义务的决定。
As mentioned in "administrative action taken by an administrative agency as a final adjudication according to the law" in Article 13(4) of the Administrative Litigation Law, "law" means the regulatory documents enacted and adopted by the National People's Congress or its Standing Committee. 行政诉讼法十三条第四项规定的“法律规定由行政机关最终裁决的行政行为”中的“法律”,是指全国人民代表大会及其常务委员会制定、通过的规范性文件。
II. Jurisdiction 

二、管辖

Article 3 The administrative tribunals of the people's courts at all levels shall decide administrative cases and hear cases that administrative agencies apply for enforcement of their administrative actions.   第三条 各级人民法院行政审判庭审理行政案件和审查行政机关申请执行其行政行为的案件。
Special people's courts and people's courts shall neither decide administrative cases nor hear cases that administrative agencies apply for enforcement of their administrative actions. Railway transport courts and other special people's courts deciding administrative cases shall be governed by paragraph 2, Article 18 of the Administrative Litigation Law. 专门人民法院、人民法庭不审理行政案件,也不审查和执行行政机关申请执行其行政行为的案件。铁路运输法院等专门人民法院审理行政案件,应当执行行政诉讼法十八条第二款的规定。
Article 4 After docketed a case has been docketed, the jurisdiction of the people's court with which the complaint is filed shall not be affected by the change of the place of the domicile of either party, addition of any defendant, or the modification of any other facts or legal status.   第四条 立案后,受诉人民法院的管辖权不受当事人住所地改变、追加被告等事实和法律状态变更的影响。
Article 5 Any of the following cases shall be "a major or complicated case within its territorial jurisdiction" in Article 15(3) of the Administrative Litigation Law.   第五条 有下列情形之一的,属于行政诉讼法十五条第三项规定的“本辖区内重大、复杂的案件”:
(1) A joinder of proceedings case having a material social impact. (一)社会影响重大的共同诉讼案件;
(2) A case, either foreign-related or relating to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the Macao Special Administrative Region, or the Taiwan region. (二)涉外或者涉及香港特别行政区、澳门特别行政区、台湾地区的案件;
(3) Any other major or complicated case. (三)其他重大、复杂案件。
Article 6 Where a party files a complaint with an intermediate people's court on the ground that the case is such a major or complicated one that it deems it inappropriate for the low-level people's court of competent jurisdiction to exercise its jurisdiction, or under Article 52 of the Administrative Litigation Law, the intermediate people's court shall take any of the following actions within seven days, according to the different circumstances:   第六条 当事人以案件重大复杂为由,认为有管辖权的基层人民法院不宜行使管辖权或者根据行政诉讼法五十二条的规定,向中级人民法院起诉,中级人民法院应当根据不同情况在七日内分别作出以下处理:
(1) Deciding to try it, (一)决定自行审理;
(2) Appointing another low-level people's court within its territorial jurisdiction to exercise jurisdiction. (二)指定本辖区其他基层人民法院管辖;
(3) Notifying the party in writing of filing a complaint with a low-level people's court of competent jurisdiction. (三)书面告知当事人向有管辖权的基层人民法院起诉。
Article 7 Where a low-level people's court deems it necessary for the intermediate people's court to try, or designate jurisdiction over, an administrative case over which the low-level people's court has jurisdiction as a court of first instance, it may request the intermediate people's court to make a decision. The intermediate people's court shall take any of the following actions within seven days, according to the different circumstances:   第七条 基层人民法院对其管辖的第一审行政案件,认为需要由中级人民法院审理或者指定管辖的,可以报请中级人民法院决定。中级人民法院应当根据不同情况在七日内分别作出以下处理:
(1) Deciding to try it, (一)决定自行审理;
(2) Appointing another low-level people's court within its territorial jurisdiction to exercise jurisdiction. (二)指定本辖区其他基层人民法院管辖;
(3) Deciding to have the requesting people's court try it. (三)决定由报请的人民法院审理。
Article 8 As mentioned in Article 19 of the Administrative Litigation Law, "the place where the plaintiff is located" includes the place of household registration, the place of habitual residence, and the place of confinement of personal freedom of a plaintiff.   第八条 行政诉讼法十九条规定的“原告所在地”,包括原告的户籍所在地、经常居住地和被限制人身自由地。
With respect to a complaint against an administrative agency that, on the ground of the same fact, take compulsory administrative measures to limit the personal freedom of a citizen in addition to other compulsory administrative measures or administrative punishment, the people's court in the place where the defendant or the plaintiff is located shall be the people's court of competent jurisdiction. 对行政机关基于同一事实,既采取限制公民人身自由的行政强制措施,又采取其他行政强制措施或者行政处罚不服的,由被告所在地或者原告所在地的人民法院管辖。
Article 9 "Administrative litigation involving real property" in Article 20 of the Administrative Litigation Law means litigation instituted arising from a change of the real right in real property caused by an administrative action.   第九条 行政诉讼法二十条规定的“因不动产提起的行政诉讼”是指因行政行为导致不动产物权变动而提起的诉讼。
For registered real property, the location recorded in the real property register shall be the place where the real property is located; and for unregistered real property, the place where the real property is actually located shall be the place where the real property is located. 不动产已登记的,以不动产登记簿记载的所在地为不动产所在地;不动产未登记的,以不动产实际所在地为不动产所在地。
Article 10 Where a people's court has accepted a case, the plaintiff shall raise an objection to its jurisdiction within 15 days from the day of receiving a copy of the written complaint.   第十条 人民法院受理案件后,被告提出管辖异议的,应当在收到起诉状副本之日起十五日内提出。
The people's court shall review the objection to its jurisdiction raised by the party. A ruling shall be entered to transfer the case to the people's court of competent jurisdiction if the objection is sustained; otherwise, to overrule the objection. 对当事人提出的管辖异议,人民法院应当进行审查。异议成立的,裁定将案件移送有管辖权的人民法院;异议不成立的,裁定驳回。
Where a people's court determines that it has jurisdiction after reviewing an objection to its jurisdiction, its jurisdiction shall not be changed because a party adds or modifies claims, unless the provisions regarding hierarchical jurisdiction or exclusive jurisdiction are violated. 人民法院对管辖异议审查后确定有管辖权的,不因当事人增加或者变更诉讼请求等改变管辖,但违反级别管辖、专属管辖规定的除外。
Article 11 Under any of the following circumstances, a people's court shall conduct no review:   第十一条 有下列情形之一的,人民法院不予审查:
(1) For a case remitted for retrial to or retried under the procedure at first instance by the people's court, a party raises an objection to its jurisdiction. (一)人民法院发回重审或者按第一审程序再审的案件,当事人提出管辖异议的;
(2) A party raises an objection to the jurisdiction in the procedure at second instance, instead of doing so within the period and in the form as specified by the law in the procedure at first instance (二)当事人在第一审程序中未按照法律规定的期限和形式提出管辖异议,在第二审程序中提出的。
III. Primary Litigation Participants 

三、诉讼参加人

Article 12 Under any of the following circumstances, a citizen, a legal person, or any other organization shall be "with an interest in the administrative action" in paragraph 1, Article 25 of the Administrative Litigation Law:   第十二条 有下列情形之一的,属于行政诉讼法二十五条第一款规定的“与行政行为有利害关系”:
(1) The administrative action against which a complaint is filed involves the contiguous right, or the right of fair competition, of the citizen, legal person, or other organization. (一)被诉的行政行为涉及其相邻权或者公平竞争权的;
(2) The citizen, legal person, or other organization is added as third party in administrative reconsideration or any other administrative procedure. (二)在行政复议等行政程序中被追加为第三人的;
(3) The citizen, legal person, or other organization requires the administrative agency to hold the author of an injury legally liable in accordance with the law. (三)要求行政机关依法追究加害人法律责任的;
(4) The revocation or modification of an administrative action involves the lawful rights and interests of the citizen, legal person, or other organization. (四)撤销或者变更行政行为涉及其合法权益的;
(5) The citizen, legal person, or other organization complains to an administrative agency in order to maintain his/her/its lawful rights and interests, and the administrative agency charged with complaint processing duties processes or fails to process the complaint. (五)为维护自身合法权益向行政机关投诉,具有处理投诉职责的行政机关作出或者未作出处理的;
(6) Otherwise with an interest in the administrative action. (六)其他与行政行为有利害关系的情形。
Article 13 Where a creditor files administrative litigation on the ground that the administrative action taken by an administrative agency in favor of the debtor damages the satisfaction of the claim, the people's court shall inform the creditor of bringing an civil action over the civil dispute, unless the administrative agency is legally required to provide protection or give consideration when taking the administrative action.   第十三条 债权人以行政机关对债务人所作的行政行为损害债权实现为由提起行政诉讼的,人民法院应当告知其就民事争议提起民事诉讼,但行政机关作出行政行为时依法应予保护或者应予考虑的除外。
Article 14 As mentioned in paragraph 2, Article 25 of the Administrative Litigation Law, "close relatives" include spouse, parents, children, siblings, paternal grandparents, maternal grandparents, paternal grandchildren, maternal grandchildren, and other relatives in supporting relationship.   第十四条 行政诉讼法二十五条第二款规定的“近亲属”,包括配偶、父母、子女、兄弟姐妹、祖父母、外祖父母、孙子女、外孙子女和其他具有扶养、赡养关系的亲属。
If a citizen cannot file a complaint by reason of confined personal freedom, his/her close relative may, as authorized viva voce, or in writing, by him/her, do so in the name of the citizen. If the close relative cannot contact the citizen before filing a complaint, he may file it first and supplement the power of attorney during the litigation. 公民因被限制人身自由而不能提起诉讼的,其近亲属可以依其口头或者书面委托以该公民的名义提起诉讼。近亲属起诉时无法与被限制人身自由的公民取得联系,近亲属可以先行起诉,并在诉讼中补充提交委托证明。
Article 15 Where a partnership enterprise files a complaint with a people's court, the enterprise by the name confirmed and registered shall be the plaintiff. All the partners of an individual partnership without being legally registered to obtain a business license shall be a joint plaintiff; and all partners may elect a representative and shall issue a letter of election to the representative.   第十五条 合伙企业向人民法院提起诉讼的,应当以核准登记的字号为原告。未依法登记领取营业执照的个人合伙的全体合伙人为共同原告;全体合伙人可以推选代表人,被推选的代表人,应当由全体合伙人出具推选书。
If an individual industrial and commercial household files a complaint in a people's court, the proprietor as registered in business license shall be the plaintiff. If it has a name, the individual industrial and commercial household by the name registered in the business license shall be the plaintiff, with its basic information specified. 个体工商户向人民法院提起诉讼的,以营业执照上登记的经营者为原告。有字号的,以营业执照上登记的字号为原告,并应当注明该字号经营者的基本信息。
Article 16 Where the general shareholders' meeting, the shareholders' meeting, or the board of directors of a joint-stock enterprise deems an administrative action taken by an administrative agency to infringe upon the autonomy of the enterprise, it may file a complaint in the name of the enterprise.   第十六条 股份制企业的股东大会、股东会、董事会等认为行政机关作出的行政行为侵犯企业经营自主权的,可以企业名义提起诉讼。
If a party to a jointly operated enterprise, a Chinese-foreign equity joint venture or a Chinese-foreign contractual joint venture deems that the rights and interests of the enterprise or the party itself is infringed upon by an administrative action, it may file a complaint in its own name. 联营企业、中外合资或者合作企业的联营、合资、合作各方,认为联营、合资、合作企业权益或者自己一方合法权益受行政行为侵害的,可以自己的名义提起诉讼。
If a non-state-owned enterprise is deregistered, revoked, consolidated, compelled to merge, sold, or split by an administrative agency, or its affiliation is changed by the same, the enterprise or its legal representative may file a complaint. 非国有企业被行政机关注销、撤销、合并、强令兼并、出售、分立或者改变企业隶属关系的,该企业或者其法定代表人可以提起诉讼。
Article 17 A capital contributor or founder of a public institution, social group, foundation, social service institution, or any other non-profit legal person that deems an administrative action to infringe upon the lawful rights and interests of the legal person may file a complaint in its own name.   第十七条 事业单位、社会团体、基金会、社会服务机构等非营利法人的出资人、设立人认为行政行为损害法人合法权益的,可以自己的名义提起诉讼。
Article 18 A unit owners' committee may file a complaint in its own name against an administrative action taken by an administrative agency and involving the common interests of the unit owners.   第十八条 业主委员会对于行政机关作出的涉及业主共有利益的行政行为,可以自己的名义提起诉讼。
If the unit owners' committee fails to do so, the unit owners whose private portions represent a majority of the total area of the building, or whose number represents a majority may file a complaint. 业主委员会不起诉的,专有部分占建筑物总面积过半数或者占总户数过半数的业主可以提起诉讼。
Article 19 Where a party files a complaint in a people's court against an administrative action permitted by a higher-level administrative agency, the agency which has signed the document producing legal effect towards the party shall be the defendant.   第十九条 当事人不服经上级行政机关批准的行政行为,向人民法院提起诉讼的,以在对外发生法律效力的文书上署名的机关为被告。
Article 20 Where a party files a complaint against an administrative action taken in its own name by an institution which an administrative agency establishes and vests administrative functions in but which is incapable of independently assuming legal liability, the administrative agency shall be the defendant.   第二十条 行政机关组建并赋予行政管理职能但不具有独立承担法律责任能力的机构,以自己的名义作出行政行为,当事人不服提起诉讼的,应当以组建该机构的行政机关为被告。
If a party files a complaint against an administrative action which a body, dispatched body or any other organization of an administrative agency, which exercises administrative power as authorized by the law, regulations or rules, takes beyond the authorization, the body or the organization shall be the defendant. 法律、法规或者规章授权行使行政职权的行政机关内设机构、派出机构或者其他组织,超出法定授权范围实施行政行为,当事人不服提起诉讼的,应当以实施该行为的机构或者组织为被告。
If the law, regulations or rules are silent, and an administrative agency authorizes its body, dispatched body or any other organization to exercise administrative power, the authorization shall constitute the authorization as described in Article 26 of the Administrative Litigation Law. Where a party files a complaint, the administrative agency shall be the defendant. 没有法律、法规或者规章规定,行政机关授权其内设机构、派出机构或者其他组织行使行政职权的,属于行政诉讼法二十六条规定的委托。当事人不服提起诉讼的,应当以该行政机关为被告。
Article 21 Where a party files a complaint against an administrative action taken by an administrative agency of development zone established as permitted by the provincial people's government or the State Council, the administrative agency shall be the defendant; in the event of a complaint against an administrative action taken by a functional department of an administrative agency of development zone established as permitted by the provincial people's government or the State Council, the functional department shall be the defendant; in the event of a complaint against an administrative action taken by a functional department of any other administrative agency of development zone, the administrative agency shall be the defendant; and if an administrative agency of development zone disqualifies as an administrative entity, the local people's government establishing the agency shall be the defendant.   第二十一条 当事人对由国务院、省级人民政府批准设立的开发区管理机构作出的行政行为不服提起诉讼的,以该开发区管理机构为被告;对由国务院、省级人民政府批准设立的开发区管理机构所属职能部门作出的行政行为不服提起诉讼的,以其职能部门为被告;对其他开发区管理机构所属职能部门作出的行政行为不服提起诉讼的,以开发区管理机构为被告;开发区管理机构没有行政主体资格的,以设立该机构的地方人民政府为被告。
Article 22 As mentioned in paragraph 2, Article 26 of the Administrative Litigation Law, "the reconsideration agency's decision modifies the original administrative action" means that the reconsideration agency's decision modifies the disposition results from the original administrative action. If the reconsideration agency modifies the principal facts and evidence recognized by the original administrative action, or the basis of rules applied by the same, instead of the disposition results from the original administrative action, the reconsideration agency shall be deemed to have sustained the original administrative action.   第二十二条 行政诉讼法二十六条第二款规定的“复议机关改变原行政行为”,是指复议机关改变原行政行为的处理结果。复议机关改变原行政行为所认定的主要事实和证据、改变原行政行为所适用的规范依据,但未改变原行政行为处理结果的,视为复议机关维持原行政行为。
If the reconsideration agency determines that the original administrative action is null, the determination shall represent modification of the original administrative action. 复议机关确认原行政行为无效,属于改变原行政行为。
If the reconsideration agency determines, except on grounds of violation of the statutory procedure, that the original administrative action is illegal, the determination shall represent modification of the original administrative action. 复议机关确认原行政行为违法,属于改变原行政行为,但复议机关以违反法定程序为由确认原行政行为违法的除外。
Article 23 Where an administrative agency is dissolved or has its power modified to the extent that no administrative agency continues to exercise the power, the people's government to which it is affiliated shall be the defendant; and in a vertical chain of command, the administrative agency at the next higher level shall be the defendant.   第二十三条 行政机关被撤销或者职权变更,没有继续行使其职权的行政机关的,以其所属的人民政府为被告;实行垂直领导的,以垂直领导的上一级行政机关为被告。
Article 24 Where a party files a complaint against an action that a villagers' committee or neighborhood committee fulfills administrative duties as authorized by the law, regulations or rules, the villagers' committee or neighborhood committee shall be the defendant.   第二十四条 当事人对村民委员会或者居民委员会依据法律、法规、规章的授权履行行政管理职责的行为不服提起诉讼的,以村民委员会或者居民委员会为被告。
If a party files a complaint against an action taken by a villagers' committee or neighborhood committee as authorized by an administrative agency, the authorizing administrative agency shall be the defendant. 当事人对村民委员会、居民委员会受行政机关委托作出的行为不服提起诉讼的,以委托的行政机关为被告。
If a party files a complaint against an administrative action which an institution of higher learning or any other public institution, or a lawyers association, an association of certified public accountants, or any other industry association takes as authorized by the law, regulations or rules, the public institution or industry association shall be the defendant. 当事人对高等学校等事业单位以及律师协会、注册会计师协会等行业协会依据法律、法规、规章的授权实施的行政行为不服提起诉讼的,以该事业单位、行业协会为被告。
If a party files a complaint against an action which an institution of higher learning or any other public institution, or a lawyers association, an association of certified public accountants, or any other industry association takes as authorized by an administrative agency, the administrative agency shall be the defendant. 当事人对高等学校等事业单位以及律师协会、注册会计师协会等行业协会受行政机关委托作出的行为不服提起诉讼的,以委托的行政机关为被告。
Article 25 Where a condemnee files a complaint against an administrative action which the building expropriation authority determined by the municipal or country people's government takes over the course of organizing and implementing building expropriation and compensation, the building expropriation authority shall be the defendant.   第二十五条 市、县级人民政府确定的房屋征收部门组织实施房屋征收与补偿工作过程中作出行政行为,被征收人不服提起诉讼的,以房屋征收部门为被告。
If a condemnee files a complaint against an action which an expropriation implementing entity, as authorized by the building expropriation authority, takes to the extent of its authority, the building expropriation authority shall be the defendant. 征收实施单位受房屋征收部门委托,在委托范围内从事的行为,被征收人不服提起诉讼的,应当以房屋征收部门为被告。
Article 26 Where the defendant in the complaint filed by the plaintiff is unqualified, the people's court shall notify the plaintiff of modifying the defendant; and, if the plaintiff disagrees to do so, enter a ruling to reject the complaint.   第二十六条 原告所起诉的被告不适格,人民法院应当告知原告变更被告;原告不同意变更的,裁定驳回起诉。
If the plaintiff disagrees about the necessary addition of a defendant, the people's court shall notify the latter of participating in the proceedings as a third party, unless the latter is an administrative reconsideration agency as a co-defendant. 应当追加被告而原告不同意追加的,人民法院应当通知其以第三人的身份参加诉讼,但行政复议机关作共同被告的除外。
Article 27 Where a party who must be in a joinder of proceedings fails to participate in the proceedings, the people's court shall notify the party in accordance with the law of doing so; and the party may also apply to the people's court for participation.   第二十七条 必须共同进行诉讼的当事人没有参加诉讼的,人民法院应当依法通知其参加;当事人也可以向人民法院申请参加。
The people's court shall review the application filed by the party and, if the grounds for the application are unfounded, enter a ruling to reject the application; otherwise, notify the party in writing of participating in the proceedings. 人民法院应当对当事人提出的申请进行审查,申请理由不成立的,裁定驳回;申请理由成立的,书面通知其参加诉讼。
For the purposes of the preceding paragraph, "must be in a joinder of proceedings" means proceedings in which, under Article 27 of the Administrative Litigation Law, a people's court must decide concurrently administrative disputes arising from the same administrative action to which either side or both sides consist of two or more persons. 前款所称的必须共同进行诉讼,是指按照行政诉讼法二十七条的规定,当事人一方或者双方为两人以上,因同一行政行为发生行政争议,人民法院必须合并审理的诉讼。
Article 28 When adding a party to a joinder of proceedings, the people's court shall notify the other parties. If a plaintiff that shall be added has expressly renounced its substantial rights, non-addition may be allowed; and one that is unwilling to participate in the proceedings and refuses to renounce its substantial rights shall be added as a third party, who will neither participate in the proceedings nor obstruct the trial and judgment of the case by the people's court.   第二十八条 人民法院追加共同诉讼的当事人时,应当通知其他当事人。应当追加的原告,已明确表示放弃实体权利的,可不予追加;既不愿意参加诉讼,又不放弃实体权利的,应追加为第三人,其不参加诉讼,不能阻碍人民法院对案件的审理和裁判。
Article 29 As mentioned in Article 28 of the Administrative Litigation Law, "a large number of parties" means ten persons or more.   第二十九条 行政诉讼法二十八条规定的“人数众多”,一般指十人以上。
Under Article 28 of the Administrative Litigation Law, if one side in a joinder of proceedings consists of a large number of parties, the parties may elect representatives. Failing that, the people's court may select representatives from the parties filing the complaint. 根据行政诉讼法二十八条的规定,当事人一方人数众多的,由当事人推选代表人。当事人推选不出的,可以由人民法院在起诉的当事人中指定代表人。
The number of the representatives as specified in Article 28 of the Administrative Litigation Law shall be two to five. The representatives may appoint one to two persons as the litigation representatives. 行政诉讼法二十八条规定的代表人为二至五人。代表人可以委托一至二人作为诉讼代理人。
Article 30 Where the same administrative action of an administrative agency affects two or more interested parties, and a portion thereof file a complaint against the administrative action, the people's court shall notify the other interested parties of participating in the proceedings as third parties.   第三十条 行政机关的同一行政行为涉及两个以上利害关系人,其中一部分利害关系人对行政行为不服提起诉讼,人民法院应当通知没有起诉的其他利害关系人作为第三人参加诉讼。
If a third party is interested in the disposition results of an administrative case, it may apply for participating in the proceedings, or the people's court may notify it of doing so. If a people's court enters a judgment that imposes any obligation on a third party or derogates from the rights and interests of the third party, the third party shall have the right to file an appeal, or petition for retrial. 与行政案件处理结果有利害关系的第三人,可以申请参加诉讼,或者由人民法院通知其参加诉讼。人民法院判决其承担义务或者减损其权益的第三人,有权提出上诉或者申请再审。
If a third party as mentioned in Article 29 of the Administrative Litigation Law fails to participate in an action for a cause not attributable to it, and there is evidence that the effective judgment, ruling or consent judgment is injurious to its rights and interests, it may, pursuant to Article 90 of the Administrative Litigation Law, within six months from the day when it knows or should have known that its rights and interests have been injured, file a petition for retrial in the people's court at a higher level. 行政诉讼法二十九条规定的第三人,因不能归责于本人的事由未参加诉讼,但有证据证明发生法律效力的判决、裁定、调解书损害其合法权益的,可以依照行政诉讼法九十条的规定,自知道或者应当知道其合法权益受到损害之日起六个月内,向上一级人民法院申请再审。
Article 31 A party seeking to appoint a litigation representative shall submit a power of attorney signed or seal by it to the people's court. The power of attorney shall state the authorized matters and specific authority. If a citizen cannot make an appointment in writing under special circumstances, another person may do so on his/her behalf, as confirmed by him/her by sealing it or any other means, which the people's court shall verify and file; and if the administrative agency against which the complaint is filed or any other agency obliged to assist refuses the people's court request for verification from a citizen whose personal freedom is confined, the appointment shall be deemed effective. A party terminating or modifying the appointment shall file a written report with the people's court.   第三十一条 当事人委托诉讼代理人,应当向人民法院提交由委托人签名或者盖章的授权委托书。委托书应当载明委托事项和具体权限。公民在特殊情况下无法书面委托的,也可以由他人代书,并由自己捺印等方式确认,人民法院应当核实并记录在卷;被诉行政机关或者其他有义务协助的机关拒绝人民法院向被限制人身自由的公民核实的,视为委托成立。当事人解除或者变更委托的,应当书面报告人民法院。
Article 32 In accordance with paragraph 2(2), Article31 of the Administrative Litigation Law, an employee with a lawful labor relationship with a party may act as the litigation representative of the party in the name of the party's employee. In such a case, any of the following evidence shall be provided.   第三十二条 依照行政诉讼法三十一条第二款第二项规定,与当事人有合法劳动人事关系的职工,可以当事人工作人员的名义作为诉讼代理人。以当事人的工作人员身份参加诉讼活动,应当提交以下证据之一加以证明:
(1) Acknowledgment of contributions to social insurance. (一)缴纳社会保险记录凭证;
(2) Acknowledgment of payments of salaries. (二)领取工资凭证;
(3) Other evidence of an employee of the party. (三)其他能够证明其为当事人工作人员身份的证据。
Article 33 Where, in accordance with paragraph 2(3), Article 31 of the Administrative Litigation Law, a relevant social group seeks to recommend a citizen for the office of litigation representative, it shall meet the following conditions:   第三十三条 根据行政诉讼法三十一条第二款第三项规定,有关社会团体推荐公民担任诉讼代理人的,应当符合下列条件:
(1) The social group is a non-profit corporate organization lawfully registered and formed or lawfully exempted from registration. (一)社会团体属于依法登记设立或者依法免予登记设立的非营利性法人组织;
(2) The represented party is a member of the social group, or the place of domicile of either party is within the activity area of the social group. (二)被代理人属于该社会团体的成员,或者当事人一方住所地位于该社会团体的活动地域;
(3) The matter is within the scope of business as indicated in the bylaws of the social group. (三)代理事务属于该社会团体章程载明的业务范围;
(4) The recommended citizen is the person in charge of the social group or an employee that has a legal labor relationship with the social group. (四)被推荐的公民是该社会团体的负责人或者与该社会团体有合法劳动人事关系的工作人员。
As recommended by the All-China Patent Agents Association, a patent agent may act as a litigation representative in an administrative patent case. 专利代理人经中华全国专利代理人协会推荐,可以在专利行政案件中担任诉讼代理人。
IV. Evidence 

四、证据

Article 34 Where a defendant applies for postponing providing evidence under paragraph 1, Article 36 of the Administrative Litigation Law, it shall do so in writing with the people's court within 15 days from the date of receiving a copy of the written complaint. If the people's court permits the application, the defendant shall provide evidence within 15 days after the elimination of the good reason. Provision upon the lapse of the period shall be deemed as an absence of evidence corresponding to the administrative action against which the complaint is filed.   第三十四条 根据行政诉讼法三十六条第一款的规定,被告申请延期提供证据的,应当在收到起诉状副本之日起十五日内以书面方式向人民法院提出。人民法院准许延期提供的,被告应当在正当事由消除后十五日内提供证据。逾期提供的,视为被诉行政行为没有相应的证据。
Article 35 The plaintiff or a third party shall provide evidence before a court hearing or the date of exchange of evidence lists as designated by the people's court. If an application for postponing providing evidence is filed for a good reason, it may, with the permission of the people's court, be provided during court investigation. Where a party provides evidence upon the lapse of the period, the people's court shall order it to state the reasons; and if it refuses to do so or states untenable reasons, it shall be deemed to have waive its right to adduce evidence.   第三十五条 原告或者第三人应当在开庭审理前或者人民法院指定的交换证据清单之日提供证据。因正当事由申请延期提供证据的,经人民法院准许,可以在法庭调查中提供。逾期提供证据的,人民法院应当责令其说明理由;拒不说明理由或者理由不成立的,视为放弃举证权利。
The people's court shall not admit evidence which the plaintiff or any third party neglects to provide at the procedure at first instance without good reason but provides in the procedure at second instance. 原告或者第三人在第一审程序中无正当事由未提供而在第二审程序中提供的证据,人民法院不予接纳。
Article 36 A party shall apply to the people's court in writing for extending the period for adducing evidence, before the lapse of the period.   第三十六条 当事人申请延长举证期限,应当在举证期限届满前向人民法院提出书面申请。
If the reasons for the application are tenable, a people's court shall permit it, appropriately extend the period for adducing evidence, and notify other parties. Otherwise, the people's court shall grant no permission and notify the applicant. 申请理由成立的,人民法院应当准许,适当延长举证期限,并通知其他当事人。申请理由不成立的,人民法院不予准许,并通知申请人。
Article 37 Under Article 39 of the Administrative Litigation Law, a people's court may order a party to provide or supplement evidence relating to any fact beyond dispute among parties, but affecting national interests, public interests, or the lawful rights and interests of any other person.   第三十七条 根据行政诉讼法三十九条的规定,对当事人无争议,但涉及国家利益、公共利益或者他人合法权益的事实,人民法院可以责令当事人提供或者补充有关证据。
Article 38 With respect to a case in which the facts are complicated, or there is much evidence, the people's court may organize parties to show evidence to or exchange evidence with each other before a court hearing and file the information on the exchange of evidence lists.   第三十八条 对于案情比较复杂或者证据数量较多的案件,人民法院可以组织当事人在开庭前向对方出示或者交换证据,并将交换证据清单的情况记录在卷。
Evidence beyond dispute among parties over the course of the change of evidence before the court hearing and filed may be used as basis to determine the facts of the case after the judge has made statements in the court hearing. 当事人在庭前证据交换过程中没有争议并记录在卷的证据,经审判人员在庭审中说明后,可以作为认定案件事实的依据。
Article 39 If a party applies for investigating and collecting evidence, irrelevant or meaningless to factum probandum, or otherwise unnecessary to investigate or collect, the people's court shall grant no permission.   第三十九条 当事人申请调查收集证据,但该证据与待证事实无关联、对证明待证事实无意义或者其他无调查收集必要的,人民法院不予准许。
Article 40 A people's court shall inform a witness, before testifying at trial, of his/her obligation to give true testimony and the legal consequence of giving false testimony.   第四十条 人民法院在证人出庭作证前应当告知其如实作证的义务以及作伪证的法律后果。
The travel, accommodation, board and lodging, and other necessary costs and loss for missed work incurred by a witness for discharging his/her obligation of testifying at trial shall be borne by the parties on the losing side. 证人因履行出庭作证义务而支出的交通、住宿、就餐等必要费用以及误工损失,由败诉一方当事人承担。
Article 41 Where, under any of the following circumstances, the plaintiff or a third party requests relevant administrative law enforcement personnel to make statements at trial, the people's court may grant permission:   第四十一条 有下列情形之一,原告或者第三人要求相关行政执法人员出庭说明的,人民法院可以准许:
(1) Doubting the lawfulness or authenticity of the on-site transcripts. (一)对现场笔录的合法性或者真实性有异议的;
(2) Doubting the types or quantity of the impounded property. (二)对扣押财产的品种或者数量有异议的;
(3) Doubting the sampling or preservation of things inspected. (三)对检验的物品取样或者保管有异议的;
(4) Doubting the lawfulness of the identities of administrative law enforcement personnel. (四)对行政执法人员身份的合法性有异议的;
(5) Otherwise requesting statements at trial. (五)需要出庭说明的其他情形。
Article 42 Evidence able to reflect the true circumstances of a case, relevant to factum probandum, from sources and in forms as required by the law, shall be used as the basis to determine the facts of the case.   第四十二条 能够反映案件真实情况、与待证事实相关联、来源和形式符合法律规定的证据,应当作为认定案件事实的根据。
Article 43 Any of the following shall be the "illegally obtained evidence" as described in paragraph 3, Article 43 of the Administrative Litigation Law:   第四十三条 有下列情形之一的,属于行政诉讼法四十三条第三款规定的“以非法手段取得的证据”:
(1) An evidential material collected in serious violation of the statutory procedures; (一)严重违反法定程序收集的证据材料;
(2) An evidential material obtained by any means in violation of the mandatory provisions of the law and injurious to the lawful rights and interests of another person. (二)以违反法律强制性规定的手段获取且侵害他人合法权益的证据材料;
(3) An evidential material obtained by inducement, fraud, coercion, violence or any other means. (三)以利诱、欺诈、胁迫、暴力等手段获取的证据材料。
Article 44 A people's court may, if necessary, require a party in person, or a law enforcement employee of the administrative agency, to appear in court to be inquired about any facts regarding the case and before the inquiry, require the party or the employee to sign an undertaking.   第四十四条 人民法院认为有必要的,可以要求当事人本人或者行政机关执法人员到庭,就案件有关事实接受询问。在询问之前,可以要求其签署保证书。
The undertaking shall specify making statements faithfully, voluntarily accepting punishment in the case of any false statements, and other content. The party or the employee shall sign or seal the undertaking. 保证书应当载明据实陈述、如有虚假陈述愿意接受处罚等内容。当事人或者行政机关执法人员应当在保证书上签名或者捺印。
Where a party who has the burden of proof refuses to appear in court, be inquired, or sign the undertaking, and there is a lack of other evidence of factum probandum, the people's court shall not affirm the facts the party claims. 负有举证责任的当事人拒绝到庭、拒绝接受询问或者拒绝签署保证书,待证事实又欠缺其他证据加以佐证的,人民法院对其主张的事实不予认定。
Article 45 Where the defendant has evidence that it required in the administrative procedure according to the statutory procedures the plaintiff or any other third party to provide evidence, and the plaintiff or the third party failed to do so as legally required, but provides the evidence in the legal procedure, the people's court shall generally not admit it.   第四十五条 被告有证据证明其在行政程序中依照法定程序要求原告或者第三人提供证据,原告或者第三人依法应当提供而没有提供,在诉讼程序中提供的证据,人民法院一般不予采纳。
Article 46 Where the plaintiff or a third party has evidence that the defendant holds evidence in favor of the plaintiff or the third party, it may, before the trial in court, apply to the people's court in writing for ordering the administrative agency to submit the evidence.   第四十六条 原告或者第三人确有证据证明被告持有的证据对原告或者第三人有利的,可以在开庭审理前书面申请人民法院责令行政机关提交。
If the grounds for the application are tenable, the people's court shall do so, and the expenses for submitting evidence shall be repaid by the applicant. If the administrative agency refuses to submit it without good reason, the people's court may presume that any fact based on which the plaintiff or any third party claims is tenable. 申请理由成立的,人民法院应当责令行政机关提交,因提交证据所产生的费用,由申请人预付。行政机关无正当理由拒不提交的,人民法院可以推定原告或者第三人基于该证据主张的事实成立。
If the party having evidence destroys it, or does any act causing that the use of the evidence is impossible, in order to obstruct its use by the opposite party, the people's court may presume that any fact based on which the opposite party claims is tenable and, in addition, dispose according to Article 59 of the Administrative Litigation Law. 持有证据的当事人以妨碍对方当事人使用为目的,毁灭有关证据或者实施其他致使证据不能使用行为的,人民法院可以推定对方当事人基于该证据主张的事实成立,并可依照行政诉讼法五十九条规定处理。
Article 47 According to paragraph 2, Article 38 of the Administrative Litigation Law, if the plaintiff cannot adduce evidence of damage for the reasons of the defendant in an administrative compensation or reimbursement case, the defendant shall have the burden of proving the damage.   第四十七条 根据行政诉讼法三十八条第二款的规定,在行政赔偿、补偿案件中,因被告的原因导致原告无法就损害情况举证的,应当由被告就该损害情况承担举证责任。
If the value each party claims cannot be affirmed, the party having the burden of proof shall apply for appraisal, unless the law, regulations or rules require the administrative agency to conduct assessment or appraisal in accordance with the law when taking the administrative action; if the party having the burden of proof refuses to do so, the party shall bear adverse legal consequences. 对于各方主张损失的价值无法认定的,应当由负有举证责任的一方当事人申请鉴定,但法律、法规、规章规定行政机关在作出行政行为时依法应当评估或者鉴定的除外;负有举证责任的当事人拒绝申请鉴定的,由其承担不利的法律后果。
If the loss incurred by a party cannot be appraised for objective reasons, the people's court shall determine the amount of compensation according to specific circumstances, in consideration of the party's claims and on-record evidence, following the judge's professional ethics, with logical reasoning, life experience and common sense, among others. 当事人的损失因客观原因无法鉴定的,人民法院应当结合当事人的主张和在案证据,遵循法官职业道德,运用逻辑推理和生活经验、生活常识等,酌情确定赔偿数额。
V. Time Periods and Service 

五、期间、送达

Article 48 A time period may be either legal or designated by a people's court.   第四十八条 期间包括法定期间和人民法院指定的期间。
Time periods shall be calculated by hour, day, month and year. The hour and the day from which a time period begins to run shall not be counted within the time period. 期间以时、日、月、年计算。期间开始的时和日,不计算在期间内。
If the last day of a time period is a holiday, the period shall expire on the first day following the holiday. 期间届满的最后一日是节假日的,以节假日后的第一日为期间届满的日期。
A time period shall not include the travel time, and a litigation document that is mailed before the expiry of the time period shall deemed to be mailed within the expiry. 期间不包括在途时间,诉讼文书在期满前交邮的,视为在期限内发送。
Article 49 Where the plaintiff is notified of making supplements and corrections for any omission or any other mistake in the written complaint, time period for docketing a case as prescribed in paragraph 2, Article 51 of the Administrative Litigation Law shall be counted from the day after supplements and corrections have been submitted to the people's court. For a case transferred to a people's court at a lower level by a people's court at a higher level, it shall be counted from the day after the people's court in which the complaint is filed receives the written complaint.   第四十九条 行政诉讼法五十一条第二款规定的立案期限,因起诉状内容欠缺或者有其他错误通知原告限期补正的,从补正后递交人民法院的次日起算。由上级人民法院转交下级人民法院立案的案件,从受诉人民法院收到起诉状的次日起算。
Article 50 Each of the time periods for trial in Articles 81, 83 and 88 of the Administrative Litigation Law shall be the period from the day when the case is docketed to the day when the judgment is declared or the consent judgment is served, excluding the time period of announcement, appraisal, mediation, suspension of proceedings, deciding the objection to jurisdiction raised by a party, or processing the jurisdictional disputes between people's courts.   第五十条 行政诉讼法八十一条、第八十三条、第八十八条规定的审理期限,是指从立案之日起至裁判宣告、调解书送达之日止的期间,但公告期间、鉴定期间、调解期间、中止诉讼期间、审理当事人提出的管辖异议以及处理人民法院之间的管辖争议期间不应计算在内。
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