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Convention on the Rights of the Child [Effective]
儿童权利公约 [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】

 
Preamble 序言

 
The States Parties to the present Convention, 本公约缔约国,

Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
 
考虑到按照《联合国宪章》所宣布的原则,对人类家庭所有成员的固有尊严及其平等和不移的权利的承认,乃是世界自由、正义与和平的基础,

Bearing in mind that the peoples of the United Nations have, in the Charter, reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights and in the dignity and worth of the human person, and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
 
铭记联合国人民在《宪章》中重申对基本人权和人格尊严与价值的信念,并决心促成更广泛自由中的社会进步及更高的生活水平,

Recognizing that the United Nations has, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the International Covenants on Human Rights, proclaimed and agreed that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth therein, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status,
 
认识到联合国在《世界人权宣言》和关于人权的两项国际公约中宣布和同意:人人有资格享受这些文书中所载的一切权利和自由,不因种族、肤色、性别、语言、宗教、政治或其他见解、国籍或社会出身、财产、出生或其他身份等而有任何区别,回顾联合国在《世界人权宣言》中宣布:儿童有权享受特别照料和协助,

Recalling that, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations has proclaimed that childhood is entitled to special care and assistance,
 
深信家庭作为社会的基本单元,作为家庭所有成员、特别是儿童的成长和幸福的自然环境,应获得必要的保护和协助,以充分负起它在社会上的责任,

Convinced that the family, as the fundamental group of society and the natural environment for the growth and well-being of all its members and particularly children, should be afforded the necessary protection and assistance so that it can fully assume its responsibilities within the community,
 
确认为了充分而和谐地发展其个性,应让儿童在家庭环境里,在幸福、亲爱和谅解的气氛中成长,

Recognizing that the child, for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding,
 
考虑到应充分培养儿童可在社会上独立生活,并在《联合国宪章》宣布的理想的精神下,特别是在和平、尊严、宽容、自由、平等和团结的精神下,抚养他们成长,铭记给予儿童特殊照料的需要已在1924年《日内瓦儿童权利宣言》和在大会1959年11月20日通过的《儿童权利宣言》中予以申明,并在《世界人权宣言》、《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》(特别是第23和第24条)、《经济、社会、文化权利国际公约》(特别是第10条)以及关心儿童福利的各专门机构和国际组织的章程及有关文书中得到确认,

Considering that the child should be fully prepared to live an individual life in society, and brought up in the spirit of the ideals proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, and in particular in the spirit of peace, dignity, tolerance, freedom, equality and solidarity,
 
铭记如《儿童权利宣言》所示,“儿童因身心尚未成熟,在其出生以前和以后均需要特殊的保护和照料,包括法律上的适当保护”,

Bearing in mind that the need to extend particular care to the child has been stated in the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924 and in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted by the General Assembly on 20 November 1959 and recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (in particular in articles 23 and 24), in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (in particular in article 10) and in the statutes and relevant instruments of specialized agencies and international organizations concerned with the welfare of children, '
 
回顾《关于儿童保护和儿童福利、特别是国内和国际寄养和收养办法的社会和法律原则宣言》、《联合国少年司法最低限度标准规则》(北京规则)以及《在非常状态和武装冲突中保护妇女和儿童宣言》,

Bearing in mind that, as indicated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, "the child, by reason of his physical and mental immaturity, needs special safeguards and care, including appropriate legal protection, before as well as after birth",
 
确认世界各国都有生活在极端困难情况下的儿童,对这些儿童需要给予特别的照顾,

Recalling the provisions of the Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children, with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption Nationally and Internationally; the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules) ; and the Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict,
 
适当考虑到每一民族的传统及文化价值对儿童保护及和谐发展的重要性,

Recognizing that, in all countries in the world, there are children living in exceptionally difficult conditions, and that such children need special consideration,
 
确认国际合作对于改善每一国家、特别是发展中国家儿童的生活条件的重要性,

Taking due account of the importance of the traditions and cultural values of each people for the protection and harmonious development of the child,
 
兹协议如下:

Recognizing the importance of international co-operation for improving the living conditions of children in every country, in particular in the developing countries,
 

Have agreed as follows:
 第一部分

 
PART 1 第一条

 
为本公约之目的,儿童系指18岁以下的任何人,除非对其适用之法律规定成年年龄低于18岁。
Article 1 

For the purposes of the present Convention, a child means every human being below the age of eighteen years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.
 第二条

 
1、缔约国应尊重本公约所载列的权利,并确保其管辖范围内的每一儿童均享受此种权利,不因儿童或其父母或法定监护人的种族、肤色、性别、语言、宗教、政治或其他见解、民族、族裔或社会出身、财产、伤残、出生或其他身份而有任何差别。
Article 2 
2、缔约国应采取一切适当措施确保儿童得到保护,不受基于儿童父母、法定监护人或家庭成员的身份、活动、所表达的观点或信仰而加诸的一切形式的歧视或惩罚。

1. States Parties shall respect and ensure the rights set forth in the present Convention to each child within their jurisdiction without discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child's or his or her parent's or legal guardian's race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status.
 

2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that the child is protected against all forms of discrimination or punishment on the basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of the child's parents, legal guardians, or family members.
 第三条

 
1、关于儿童的一切行动,不论是由公私社会福利机构、法院、行政当局或立法机构执行,均应以儿童的最大利益为一种首要考虑。
Article 3 
2、缔约国承担确保儿童享有其幸福所必需的保护和照料,考虑到其父母、法定监护人、或任何对其负有法律责任的个人的权利和义务,并为此采取一切适当的立法和行政措施。

1. In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration.
 
3、缔约国应确保负责照料或保护儿童的机构、服务部门及设施符合主管当局规定的标准,尤其是安全、卫生、工作人员数目和资格以及有效监督等方面的标准。

2. States Parties undertake to ensure the child such protection and care as is necessary for his or her well-being, taking into account the rights and duties of his or her parents, legal guardians, or other individuals legally responsible for him or her, and, to this end, shall take all appropriate legislative and administrative measures.
 

3. States Parties shall ensure that the institutions, services and facilities responsible for the care or protection of children shall conform with the standards established by competent authorities, particularly in the areas of safety, health, in the number and suitability of their staff, as well as competent supervision.
 第四条

 
缔约国应采取一切适当的立法、行政和其他措施以实现本公约所确认的权利。关于经济、社会及文化权利,缔约国应根据其现有资源所允许的最大限度并视需要在国际合作范围内采取此类措施。
Article 4 

States Parties shall undertake all appropriate legislative, administrative, and other measures for the implementation of the rights recognized in the present Convention. With regard to economic, social and cultural rights, States Parties shall undertake such measures to the maximum extent of their available resources and, where needed, within the framework of international co-operation.
 第五条

 
缔约国应尊重父母或于适用时尊重当地习俗认定的大家庭或社会成员、法定监护人或其他对儿童负有法律责任的人以下的责任、权利和义务,以符合儿童不同阶段接受能力的方式适当指导和指引儿童行使本公约所确认的权利。
Article 5 

States Parties shall respect the responsibilities, rights and duties of parents or, where applicable, the members of the extended family or community as provided for by local custom, legal guardians or other persons legally responsible for the child, to provide, in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child, appropriate direction and guidance in the exercise by the child of the rights recognized in the present Convention.
 第六条

 
1、缔约国确认每个儿童均有固有的生命权。
Article 6 
2、缔约国应最大限度地确保儿童的存活与发展。

1. States Parties recognize that every child has the inherent right to life.
 

2. States Parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child.
 第七条

 
1、儿童出生后应立即登记,并有自出生起获得姓名的权利,有获得国籍的权利。以及尽可能知道谁是其父母并受其父母照料的权利。
Article 7 
2、缔约国应确保这些权利按照本国法律及其根据有关国际文书在这一领域承担的义务予以实施,尤应注意不如此儿童即无国籍之情形。

1. The child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality and. as far as possible, the right to know and be cared for by his or her parents.
 

2. States Parties shall ensure the implementation of these rights in accordance with their national law and their obligations under the relevant international instruments in this field, in particular where the child would otherwise be stateless.
 第八条

 
1、缔约国承担尊重儿童维护其身份包括法律所承认的国籍、姓名及家庭关系而不受非法干扰的权利。
Article 8 
2、如有儿童被非法剥夺其身份方面的部分或全部要素,缔约国应提供适当协助和保护,以便迅速重新确立其身份。

1. States Parties undertake to respect the right of the child to preserve his or her identity, including nationality, name and family relations as recognized by law without unlawful interference.
 

2. Where a child is illegally deprived of some or all of the elements of his or her identity, States Parties shall provide appropriate assistance and protection, with a view to re-establishing speedily his or her identity.
 第九条

 
 
1、缔约国应确保不违背儿童父母的意愿使儿童与父母分离,除非主管当局按照适用的法律和程序,经法院审查,判定这样的分离符合儿童的最大利益而确有必要。在诸如由于父母的虐待或忽视、或父母分居而必须确定儿童居住地点的特殊情况下,这种裁决可能有必要。

 
2、凡按本条第1款进行诉讼,均应给予所有有关方面以参加诉讼并阐明自己意见之机会。
Article 9 
3、缔约国应尊重与父母一方或双方分离的儿童同父母经常保持个人关系及直接联系的权利,但违反儿童最大利益者除外。

1. States Parties shall ensure that a child shall not be separated from his or her parents against their will, except when competent authorities subject to judicial review determine, in accordance with applicable law and procedures, that such separation is necessary for the best interests of the child. Such determination may be necessary in a particular case such as one involving abuse or neglect of the child by the parents, or one where the parents are living separately and a decision must be made as to the child's place of residence.
 
4、如果这种分离是因缔约国对父母一方或双方或对儿童所采取的任何行动,诸如拘留、监禁、流放、驱逐或死亡(包括该人在该国拘禁中因任何原因而死亡)所致,该缔约国应按请求将该等家庭成员下落的基本情况告知父母、儿童或适当时告知另一家庭成员,除非提供这类情况会有损儿童的福祉,缔约国还应确保有关人员不致因提出这类请求而承受不利后果。

2. In any proceedings pursuant to paragraph 1 of the present article, all interested parties shall be given an opportunity to participate in the proceedings and make their views known.
 

3. States Parties shall respect the right of the child who is separated from one or both parents to maintain personal relations and direct contact with both parents on a regular basis, except if it is contrary to the child's best interests. 4. Where such separation results from any action initiated by a State Party, such as the detention, imprisonment, exile, deportation or death (including death arising from any cause while the person is in the custody of the State) of one or both parents or of the child, that State Party shall, upon request, provide the parents, the child or, if appropriate, another member of the family with the essential information concerning the whereabouts of the absent member(s) of the family unless the provision of the information would be detrimental to the well-being of the child. States Parties shall further ensure that the submission of such a request shall of itself entail no adverse consequences for the person(s) concerned.
 第十条

 
1、按照第九条第1款所规定的缔约国的义务,对于儿童或其父母要求进入或离开一缔约国以便与家人团聚的申请,缔约国应以积极的人道主义态度迅速予以办理。缔约国还应确保申请人及其家庭成员不致因提出这类请求而承受不利后果。
Article 10 
2、父母居住在不同国家的儿童,除特殊情况以外,应有权同父母双方经常保持个人关系和直接联系。为此目的,并按照第九条第1款所规定的缔约国的义务,缔约国应尊重儿童及其父母离开包括其本国在内的任何国家和进入其本国的权利。离开任何国家的权利只应受法律所规定并为保护国家安全、公共秩序、公共卫生或道德、或他人的权利和自由所必需且与本公约所承认的其他权利不相抵触的限制约束。

1. In accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article 9, paragraph 1, applications by a child or his or her parents to enter or leave a State Party for the purpose of family reunification shall be dealt with by States Parties in a positive, humane and expeditious manner. States Parties shall further ensure that the submission of such a request shall entail no adverse consequences for the applicants and for the members of their family.
 

2. A child whose parents reside in different States shall have the right to maintain on a regular basis, save in exceptional circumstances personal relations and direct contacts with both parents. Towards that end and in accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article 9, paragraph 1, States Parties shall respect the right of the child and his or her parents to leave any country, including their own, and to enter their own country. The right to leave any country shall be subject only to such restrictions as are prescribed by law and which are necessary to protect the national security, public order (ordre public), public health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others and are consistent with the other rights recognized in the present Convention.
 第十一条

 
1、缔约国应采取措施制止非法将儿童移转国外和不使返回本国的行为。
Article 11 
2、为此目的,缔约国应致力缔结双边或多边协定或加入现有协定。

1. States Parties shall take measures to combat the illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad.
 

2. To this end, States Parties shall promote the conclusion of bilateral or multilateral agreements or accession to existing agreements.
 第十二条

 
 
1、缔约国应确保有主见能力的儿童有权对影响到其本人的一切事项自由发表自己的意见,对儿童的意见应按照其年龄和成熟程度给以适当的看待。

 
2、为此目的,儿童特别应有机会在影响到儿童的任何司法和行政诉讼中,以符合国家法律的诉讼规则的方式,直接或通过代表或适当机构陈述意见。
Article 12 

1. States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child.
 第十三条

2. For this purpose, the child shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the child, either directly, or through a representative or an appropriate body, in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of national law.
 
1、儿童应有自由发表言论的权利:此项权利应包括通过口头、书面或印刷、艺术形式或儿童所选择的任何其他媒介,寻求、接受和传递各种信息和思想的自由,而不论国界。

 
2、此项权利的行使可受某些限制约束,但这些限制仅限于法律所规定并为以下目的所必需:
Article 13 
(a)尊重他人的权利和名誉;

1. The child shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of the child's choice.
 
(b)保护国家安全或公共秩序或公共卫生或道德。

2. The exercise of this right may be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:
 

(a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others; or
 第十四条

(b) For the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or morals.
 
1、缔约国应尊重儿童享有思想、信仰和宗教自由的权利。

 
2、缔约国应尊重父母并于适用时尊重法定监护人以下的权利和义务,以符合儿童不同阶段接受能力的方式指导儿童行使其权利。
Article 14 
3、表明个人宗教或信仰的自由,仅受法律所规定并为保护公共安全、秩序、卫生或道德或他人之基本权利和自由所必需的这类限制约束。

1. States Parties shall respect the right of the child to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
 

2. States Parties shall respect the rights and duties of the parents and, when applicable, legal guardians, to provide direction to the child in the exercise of his or her right in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child.
 第十五条

3. Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health or morals, or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others.
 
1、缔约国确认儿童享有结社自由及和平集会自由的权利。

 
2、对此项权利的行使不得加以限制,除非符合法律所规定并在民主社会中为国家安全或公共安全、公共秩序、保护公共卫生或道德或保护他人的权利和自由所必需。
Article 15 

1. States Parties recognize the rights of the child to freedom of association and to freedom of peaceful assembly.
 第十六条

2. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of these rights other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.
 
1、儿童的隐私、家庭、住宅或通信不受任意或非法干涉,其荣誉和名誉不受非法攻击。

 
2、儿童有权享受法律保护,以免受这类干涉或攻击。
Article 16 

1. No child shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his or her honour and reputation.
 第十七条

2. The child has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
 
缔约国确认大众传播媒介的重要作用,并应确保儿童能够从多种的国家和国际来源获得信息和资料,尤其是旨在促进其社会、精神和道德福祉和身心健康的信息和资料。为此目的,缔约国应:

 
(a)鼓励大众传播媒介本着第二十九条的精神散播在社会和文化方面有益于儿童的信息和资料;
Article 17 
(b)鼓励在编制、交流和散播来自不同文化、国家和国际来源的这类信息和资料方面进行国际合作;

States Parties recognize the important function performed by the mass media and shall ensure that the child has access to information and material from a diversity of national and international sources, especially those aimed at the promotion of his or her social, spiritual and moral well-being and physical and mental health. To this end, States Parties shall:
 
(c)鼓励儿童读物的著作和普及;

(a) Encourage the mass media to disseminate information and material of social and cultural benefit to the child and in accordance with the spirit of article 29;
 
(d)鼓励大众传播媒介特别注意属于少数群体或土著居民的儿童在语言方面的需要;

(b) Encourage international co-operation in the production, exchange and dissemination of such information and material from a diversity of cultural, national and international sources;
 
(e)鼓励根据第十三条和第十八条的规定制定适当的准则,保护儿童不受可能损害其福祉的信息和资料之害。

(c) Encourage the production and dissemination of children's books;
 

(d) Encourage the mass media to have particular regard to the linguistic needs of the child who belongs to a minority group or who is indigenous;
 第十八条

(e) Encourage the development of appropriate guidelines for the protection of the child from information and material injurious to his or her well-being, bearing in mind the provisions of articles 13 and 18.
 
1、缔约国应尽其最大努力,确保父母双方对儿童的养育和发展负有共同责任的原则得到确认。父母、或视具体情况而定的法定监护人对儿童的养育和发展负有首要责任。儿童的最大利益将是他们主要关心的事。

 
2、为保证和促进本公约所列举的权利,缔约国应在父母和法定监护人履行其抚养儿童的责任方面给予适当协助,并应确保发展育儿机构、设施和服务。
Article 18 
3、缔约国应采取一切适当措施确保就业父母的子女有权享受他们有资格得到的托儿服务和设施。

1. States Parties shall use their best efforts to ensure recognition of the principle that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing and development of the child. Parents or, as the case may be, legal guardians, have the primary responsibility for the upbringing and development of the child. The best interests of the child will be their basic concern.
 

2. For the purpose of guaranteeing and promoting the rights set forth in the present Convention, States Parties shall render appropriate assistance to parents and legal guardians in the performance of their child-rearing responsibilities and shall ensure the development of institutions, facilities and services for the care of children.
 第十九条

3. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that children of working parents have the right to benefit from child-care services and facilities for which they are eligible.
 
1、缔约国应采取一切适当的立法、行政、社会和教育措施,保护儿童在受父母、法定监护人或其他任何负责照管儿童的人的照料时,不致受到任何形式的身心摧残、伤害或凌辱,忽视或照料不周,虐待或剥削,包括性侵犯。

 
2、这类保护性措施应酌情包括采取有效程序以建立社会方案,向儿童和负责照管儿童的人提供必要的支助,采取其他预防形式,查明、报告、查询、调查、处理和追究前述的虐待儿童事件,以及在适当时进行司法干预。
Article 19 

1. States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child.
 第二十条

2. Such protective measures should, as appropriate, include effective procedures for the establishment of social programmes to provide necessary support for the child and for those who have the care of the child, as well as for other forms of prevention and for identification, reporting, referral, investigation, treatment and follow-up of instances of child maltreatment described heretofore, and, as appropriate, for judicial involvement.
 
1、暂时或永久脱离家庭环境的儿童,或为其最大利益不得在这种环境中继续生活的儿童,应有权得到国家的特别保护和协助。

 
2、缔约国应按照本国法律确保此类儿童得到其他方式的照顾。
......

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