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General Provisions of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China [Effective]
中华人民共和国民法总则 [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】

Order of the President of the People's Republic of China 

中华人民共和国主席令

(No. 66) (第六十六号)

The General Provisions of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China, as adopted at the 5th Session of the Twelfth National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on March 15, 2017, are hereby issued, and shall come into force on October 1, 2017. 《中华人民共和国民法总则》已由中华人民共和国第十二届全国人民代表大会第五次会议于2017年3月15日通过,现予公布,自2017年10月1日起施行。
President of the People's Republic of China: Xi Jinping 中华人民共和国主席 习近平
March 15, 2017 2017年3月15日
General Provisions of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国民法总则
(Adopted at the 5th Session of the Twelfth National People's Congress on March 15, 2017) (2017年3月15日第十二届全国人民代表大会第五次会议通过)
Table of Contents 目录
Chapter I Basic Provisions 第一章 基本规定
Chapter II Natural Persons 第二章 自然人
Section 1 Capacity for Civil Rights and Capacity for Civil Conduct 第一节 民事权利能力和民事行为能力
Section 2 Guardianship 第二节 监护
Section 3 Declaration of Absence and Declaration of Death 第三节 宣告失踪和宣告死亡
Section 4 Individual Industrial and Commercial Households and Rural Usufructuary Households 第四节 个体工商户和农村承包经营户
Chapter III Legal Persons 第三章 法 人
Section 1 General Rules 第一节 一般规定
Section 2 For-Profit Legal Persons 第二节 营利法人
Section 3 Non-Profit Legal Persons 第三节 非营利法人
Section 4 Special Legal Persons 第四节 特别法人
Chapter IV Unincorporated Organizations 第四章 非法人组织
Chapter V Civil Rights 第五章 民事权利
Chapter VI Juridical Acts 第六章 民事法律行为
Section 1 General Rules 第一节 一般规定
Section 2 Declaration of Will 第二节 意思表示
Section 3 Validity of Juridical Acts 第三节 民事法律行为的效力
Section 4 Juridical Acts Subject to Conditions or Terms 第四节 民事法律行为的附条件和附期限
Chapter VII Agency 第七章 代 理
Section 1 General Rules 第一节 一般规定
Section 2 Agency by Mandate 第二节 委托代理
Section 3 Termination of Agency 第三节 代理终止
Chapter VIII Civil Liability 第八章 民事责任
Chapter IX Extinctive Prescription 第九章 诉讼时效
Chapter X Calculation of Time Periods 第十章 期间计算
Chapter XI Supplemental Provisions 第十一章 附 则
Chapter I Basic Provisions 

第一章 基本规定

Article 1 For the purposes of protecting the lawful rights and interests of the parties to civil legal relations, regulating civil relations, maintaining the social and economic order, meeting the developmental requirements of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and upholding core socialist values, this Law is enacted in accordance with the Constitution北京大学互联网法律中心.   第一条 为了保护民事主体的合法权益,调整民事关系,维护社会和经济秩序,适应中国特色社会主义发展要求,弘扬社会主义核心价值观,根据宪法,制定本法。
Article 2 Civil law regulates the personal relationships and property relationships among natural persons, legal persons, and organizations without juridical personality, as equal parties.   第二条 民法调整平等主体的自然人、法人和非法人组织之间的人身关系和财产关系。
Article 3 The personal rights, property rights, and other lawful rights and interests of the parties to civil legal relations shall be protected by law, and no organization or individual may infringe upon such rights and interests.   第三条 民事主体的人身权利、财产权利以及其他合法权益受法律保护,任何组织或者个人不得侵犯。
Article 4 All parties to civil legal relations are equal in legal status in civil activities.   第四条 民事主体在民事活动中的法律地位一律平等。
Article 5 The parties to civil legal relations shall conduct civil activities under the principle of free will, and create, modify, or terminate civil legal relations according to their own wills.   第五条 民事主体从事民事活动,应当遵循自愿原则,按照自己的意思设立、变更、终止民事法律关系。
Article 6 The parties to civil legal relations shall conduct civil activities under the principle of fairness, and rationally determine the rights and obligations of each party.   第六条 民事主体从事民事活动,应当遵循公平原则,合理确定各方的权利和义务。
Article 7 The parties to civil legal relations shall conduct civil activities under the principle of good faith, adhere to honesty, and fulfill their promises.   第七条 民事主体从事民事活动,应当遵循诚信原则,秉持诚实,恪守承诺。
Article 8 The parties to civil legal relations shall not conduct civil activities in violation of the law, nor contrary to public order and good morals.   第八条 民事主体从事民事活动,不得违反法律,不得违背公序良俗。
Article 9 The parties to civil legal relations shall conduct civil activities contributing to the conservation of resources and protection of environment.   第九条 民事主体从事民事活动,应当有利于节约资源、保护生态环境。
Article 10 Civil disputes shall be resolved in accordance with the law; or if the law is silent, customs may apply, but not contrary to public order and good morals.   第十条 处理民事纠纷,应当依照法律;法律没有规定的,可以适用习惯,但是不得违背公序良俗。
Article 11 Where there are any special provisions on civil relations in any other law, such special provisions shall apply.   第十一条 其他法律对民事关系有特别规定的,依照其规定。
Article 12 The law of the People's Republic of China shall apply to civil activities within the territory of the People's Republic of China, except as otherwise provided for by any law.   第十二条 中华人民共和国领域内的民事活动,适用中华人民共和国法律。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Chapter II Natural Persons 

第二章 自然人

Section 1 Capacity for Civil Rights and Capacity for Civil Conduct 

第一节 民事权利能力和民事行为能力

Article 13 A natural person has the capacity for civil rights from the moment of birth to the moment of death, enjoying civil rights and assuming civil obligations in accordance with the law.   第十三条 自然人从出生时起到死亡时止,具有民事权利能力,依法享有民事权利,承担民事义务。
Article 14 All natural persons are equal in capacity for civil rights.   第十四条 自然人的民事权利能力一律平等。
Article 15 The time of birth and the time of death of a natural person shall be the ones recorded on his or her birth certificate or death certificate; or in the absence of a birth certificate or death certificate, the time shall be the one recorded in the household registration or any other valid identity registration. If there is any other evidence sufficient to overturn the aforesaid time, the time proved by such evidence shall prevail.   第十五条 自然人的出生时间和死亡时间,以出生证明、死亡证明记载的时间为准;没有出生证明、死亡证明的,以户籍登记或者其他有效身份登记记载的时间为准。有其他证据足以推翻以上记载时间的,以该证据证明的时间为准。
Article 16 Where the protection of the interests of a fetus is involved in, among others, a succession or acceptance of a gift, the fetus shall be presumed to have capacity for civil rights. However, in case of a stillborn, the fetus's capacity for civil rights has never existed.   第十六条 涉及遗产继承、接受赠与等胎儿利益保护的,胎儿视为具有民事权利能力。但是胎儿娩出时为死体的,其民事权利能力自始不存在。
Article 17 A natural person attaining the age of eighteen is an adult. A natural person under the age of eighteen is a minor.   第十七条 十八周岁以上的自然人为成年人。不满十八周岁的自然人为未成年人。
Article 18 An adult has full capacity for civil conduct, and may perform juridical acts independently.   第十八条 成年人为完全民事行为能力人,可以独立实施民事法律行为。
A minor attaining the age of sixteen and primarily relying on his or her own labor income in living is deemed a person with full capacity for civil conduct. 十六周岁以上的未成年人,以自己的劳动收入为主要生活来源的,视为完全民事行为能力人。
Article 19 A minor attaining the age of eight is a person with limited capacity for civil conduct, who shall be represented by his or her statutory agent in performing juridical acts or whose performance of juridical acts shall be consented to or ratified by his or her statutory agent, but may alone perform juridical acts which purely benefit the minor or are commensurate with his or her age and intelligence.   第十九条 八周岁以上的未成年人为限制民事行为能力人,实施民事法律行为由其法定代理人代理或者经其法定代理人同意、追认,但是可以独立实施纯获利益的民事法律行为或者与其年龄、智力相适应的民事法律行为。
Article 20 A minor under the age of eight is a person without capacity for civil conduct, who shall be represented in performing civil juridical acts by his or her statutory agent.   第二十条 不满八周岁的未成年人为无民事行为能力人,由其法定代理人代理实施民事法律行为。
Article 21 An adult incapable of discerning his or her conduct is a person without capacity for civil conduct, who shall be represented by his or her statutory agent in performing juridical acts.   第二十一条 不能辨认自己行为的成年人为无民事行为能力人,由其法定代理人代理实施民事法律行为。
The provision of the preceding paragraph shall also apply to a minor attaining the age of eight without the power of discernment of his or her conduct. 八周岁以上的未成年人不能辨认自己行为的,适用前款规定。
Article 22 An adult incapable of fully discerning his or her conduct shall be a person with limited capacity for civil conduct, who shall be represented by his or her statutory agent in performing juridical acts or whose performance of juridical acts shall be consented to or ratified by his or her statutory agent, but may perform alone juridical acts which purely benefit the adult or are commensurate with his or her intelligence and mental health.   第二十二条 不能完全辨认自己行为的成年人为限制民事行为能力人,实施民事法律行为由其法定代理人代理或者经其法定代理人同意、追认,但是可以独立实施纯获利益的民事法律行为或者与其智力、精神健康状况相适应的民事法律行为。
Article 23 The guardian of a person without capacity for civil conduct or with limited capacity for civil conduct shall be the statutory agent of the person.   第二十三条 无民事行为能力人、限制民事行为能力人的监护人是其法定代理人。
Article 24 For an adult incapable of discerning or fully discerning his or her conduct, an interested party or a relevant organization may apply to a people's court for determining the adult as a person without capacity for civil conduct or a person with limited capacity for civil conduct.   第二十四条 不能辨认或者不能完全辨认自己行为的成年人,其利害关系人或者有关组织,可以向人民法院申请认定该成年人为无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人。
After the adult is determined by a people's court as a person without capacity for civil conduct or a person with limited capacity for civil conduct, the people's court may, based on the recovery of his or her intelligence or mental health, determine the adult as a person with limited capacity for civil conduct or a person with full capacity for civil conduct, upon his or her application or application of an interested party or a relevant organization. 被人民法院认定为无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人的,经本人、利害关系人或者有关组织申请,人民法院可以根据其智力、精神健康恢复的状况,认定该成年人恢复为限制民事行为能力人或者完全民事行为能力人。
For the purposes of this article, the relevant organizations include but are not limited to: an urban residents' committee, a villagers' committee, a school, a medical institution, a women's federation, a disabled persons' federation, an organization legally formed for seniors, and a civil affairs department, among others. 本条规定的有关组织包括:居民委员会、村民委员会、学校、医疗机构、妇女联合会、残疾人联合会、依法设立的老年人组织、民政部门等。
Article 25 The domicile of a natural person shall be his or her residence recorded in the household registration or any other valid identity registration; but if his or her habitual residence is different from the domicile, the habitual residence shall be deemed his or her domicile.   第二十五条 自然人以户籍登记或者其他有效身份登记记载的居所为住所;经常居所与住所不一致的,经常居所视为住所。
Section 2 Guardianship 

第二节 监 护

Article 26 Parents have the obligations of maintenance, education, and protection of their minor children.   第二十六条 父母对未成年子女负有抚养、教育和保护的义务。
Adult children have the obligations of supporting, assistance, and protection of their parents. 成年子女对父母负有赡养、扶助和保护的义务。
Article 27 The parents of a minor are his or her guardians.   第二十七条 父母是未成年子女的监护人。
Where both parents of a minor are dead or incapable of acting as a guardian, one of the following persons capable of acting as a guardian shall act as the guardian of the minor in the following order: 未成年人的父母已经死亡或者没有监护能力的,由下列有监护能力的人按顺序担任监护人:
(1) Paternal or maternal grandparents of the minor. (一)祖父母、外祖父母;
(2) Elder brothers or sisters of the minor. (二)兄、姐;
(3) Other individuals or organizations willing to act as the guardian, provided that it is approved by the urban residents' committee, villagers' committee, or civil affairs department of the place of the minor's domicile. (三)其他愿意担任监护人的个人或者组织,但是须经未成年人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会或者民政部门同意。
Article 28 One of the following persons capable of acting as a guardian shall, in the following order, act as the guardian of an adult without capacity for civil conduct or with limited capacity for civil conduct:   第二十八条 无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力的成年人,由下列有监护能力的人按顺序担任监护人:
(1) Spouse of the adult. (一)配偶;
(2) Parents or children of the adult. (二)父母、子女;
(3) Other close relatives of the adult. (三)其他近亲属;
(4) Other individuals or organizations willing to act as the guardian, provided that it is approved by the urban residents' committee, villagers' committee, or civil affairs department of the place of the adult's domicile. (四)其他愿意担任监护人的个人或者组织,但是须经被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会或者民政部门同意。
Article 29 Where the parents of a ward are his or her guardians, they may designate the guardian by a will.   第二十九条 被监护人的父母担任监护人的,可以通过遗嘱指定监护人。
Article 30 Persons legally qualified for guardianship may, by agreement, determine the guardian. The true will of the ward shall be respected in the determination of guardian by agreement.   第三十条 依法具有监护资格的人之间可以协议确定监护人。协议确定监护人应当尊重被监护人的真实意愿。
Article 31 In case of any dispute over the determination of guardian, the urban residents' committee, villagers' committee, or civil affairs department of the place of the ward's domicile may designate the guardian, and against the aforesaid designation, the relevant parties may apply to the people's court for designating the guardian; and the relevant parties may, notwithstanding, directly apply to the people's court for designating the guardian.   第三十一条 对监护人的确定有争议的,由被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会或者民政部门指定监护人,有关当事人对指定不服的,可以向人民法院申请指定监护人;有关当事人也可以直接向人民法院申请指定监护人。
The urban residents' committee, villagers' committee, civil affairs department, or people's court shall respect the true will of the ward, and designate the guardian from among persons legally qualified for guardianship under the principle of most benefiting the ward. 居民委员会、村民委员会、民政部门或者人民法院应当尊重被监护人的真实意愿,按照最有利于被监护人的原则在依法具有监护资格的人中指定监护人。
Before the guardian is designated under paragraph 1 of this article, if the personal rights, property rights, and other lawful rights and interests of the ward are under no protection, the urban residents' committee, villagers' committee, relevant organization prescribed by the law, or civil affairs department of the place of the ward's domicile shall act as the provisional guardian. 依照本条第一款规定指定监护人前,被监护人的人身权利、财产权利以及其他合法权益处于无人保护状态的,由被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会、法律规定的有关组织或者民政部门担任临时监护人。
After designation, the guardian shall not be replaced without permission; and in case of replacement without permission, the designated guardian is not relieved of his or her responsibilities. 监护人被指定后,不得擅自变更;擅自变更的,不免除被指定的监护人的责任。
Article 32 Where there is no person legally qualified for guardianship, the civil affairs department may or the urban residents' committee or villagers' committee of the place of the ward's domicile satisfying the conditions for performing the duty of guardianship may act as the guardian.   第三十二条 没有依法具有监护资格的人的,监护人由民政部门担任,也可以由具备履行监护职责条件的被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会担任。
Article 33 An adult with full capacity for civil conduct may, by consulting in advance with his or her close relatives or other individuals or organizations willing to act as a guardian, determine his or her guardian in writing. When the adult loses all or part of capacity for civil conduct, the guardian determined by consultation shall perform the duty of guardianship of the adult.   第三十三条 具有完全民事行为能力的成年人,可以与其近亲属、其他愿意担任监护人的个人或者组织事先协商,以书面形式确定自己的监护人。协商确定的监护人在该成年人丧失或者部分丧失民事行为能力时,履行监护职责。
Article 34 The duties of a guardian include but are not limited to representing the ward in performing juridical acts and protecting the personal rights, property rights, and other lawful rights and interests of the ward.   第三十四条 监护人的职责是代理被监护人实施民事法律行为,保护被监护人的人身权利、财产权利以及其他合法权益等。
The guardian's rights arising from performance of the duty of guardianship in accordance with the law shall be protected by law. 监护人依法履行监护职责产生的权利,受法律保护。
A guardian failing to perform the duty of guardianship or infringing upon the ward's lawful rights and interests shall assume legal liability. 监护人不履行监护职责或者侵害被监护人合法权益的,应当承担法律责任。
Article 35 A guardian shall perform the duty of guardianship under the principle of most benefiting the ward. The guardian shall not dispose of the ward's property unless for safeguarding the ward's interests.   第三十五条 监护人应当按照最有利于被监护人的原则履行监护职责。监护人除为维护被监护人利益外,不得处分被监护人的财产。
The guardian of a minor shall, in the performance of the duty of guardianship, respect the ward's true will when making decisions related to the ward's interests according to the ward's age and intelligence. 未成年人的监护人履行监护职责,在作出与被监护人利益有关的决定时,应当根据被监护人的年龄和智力状况,尊重被监护人的真实意愿。
The guardian of an adult shall, in the performance of the duty of guardianship, respect the ward's true will to the fullest extent, safeguard and assist the ward in performing juridical acts that are commensurate with the ward's intelligence and mental health. The guardian shall not interfere with any affairs that the ward is capable of handling alone. 成年人的监护人履行监护职责,应当最大程度地尊重被监护人的真实意愿,保障并协助被监护人实施与其智力、精神健康状况相适应的民事法律行为。对被监护人有能力独立处理的事务,监护人不得干涉。
Article 36 Where a guardian falls under any of the following circumstances, the people's court shall, upon application of the relevant individual or organization, disqualify the guardian, arrange necessary provisional guardianship measures, and designate another guardian in accordance with the law under the principle of most benefiting the ward:   第三十六条 监护人有下列情形之一的,人民法院根据有关个人或者组织的申请,撤销其监护人资格,安排必要的临时监护措施,并按照最有利于被监护人的原则依法指定监护人:
(1) Acting seriously to the detriment of the ward's physical and mental health. (一)实施严重损害被监护人身心健康行为的;
(2) Being slack in performing the duty of guardianship, or being incapable of performing the duty of guardianship but refusing to delegate part or all of the duty of guardianship to another person, which causes distress of the ward. (二)怠于履行监护职责,或者无法履行监护职责并且拒绝将监护职责部分或者全部委托给他人,导致被监护人处于危困状态的;
(3) Otherwise seriously infringing upon the ward's lawful rights and interests. (三)实施严重侵害被监护人合法权益的其他行为的。
For the purposes of this article, the relevant individuals and organizations include but are not limited to: any other person legally qualified for guardianship, an urban residents' committee, a villagers' committee, a school, a medical institution, a women's federation, a disabled persons' federation, an organization for the protection of minors, an organization legally formed for seniors, and a civil affairs department. 本条规定的有关个人和组织包括:其他依法具有监护资格的人,居民委员会、村民委员会、学校、医疗机构、妇女联合会、残疾人联合会、未成年人保护组织、依法设立的老年人组织、民政部门等。
Where the individuals and organizations except the civil affairs department as prescribed in the preceding paragraph fail to apply for the disqualification of the guardian to the people's court in a timely manner, the civil affairs department shall file such an application with the people's court. 前款规定的个人和民政部门以外的组织未及时向人民法院申请撤销监护人资格的,民政部门应当向人民法院申请。
Article 37 Parents, children, and spouses who support the wards in the form of child support, support for elderly parents, or spousal support in accordance with the law shall continue to perform such obligations after they are disqualified by the people's courts as guardians.   第三十七条 依法负担被监护人抚养费、赡养费、扶养费的父母、子女、配偶等,被人民法院撤销监护人资格后,应当继续履行负担的义务。
Article 38 Where the ward's parent or child shows true repentance after being disqualified from guardianship by the people's court, except one having committed an intentional crime on the ward, the people's court may, by respecting the ward's true will and according to the circumstances, reinstate his or her guardianship upon his or her application, and the guardianship between the guardian designated by the people's court and the ward shall terminate concurrently.   第三十八条 被监护人的父母或者子女被人民法院撤销监护人资格后,除对被监护人实施故意犯罪的外,确有悔改表现的,经其申请,人民法院可以在尊重被监护人真实意愿的前提下,视情况恢复其监护人资格,人民法院指定的监护人与被监护人的监护关系同时终止。
Article 39 Under any of the following circumstances, the guardianship shall terminate:   第三十九条 有下列情形之一的,监护关系终止:
(1) The ward obtains or regains full capacity for civil conduct. (一)被监护人取得或者恢复完全民事行为能力;
(2) The guardian becomes incapable of guardianship. (二)监护人丧失监护能力;
(3) The ward or the guardian dies. (三)被监护人或者监护人死亡;
(4) The guardian relationship otherwise terminates as determined by a people's court. (四)人民法院认定监护关系终止的其他情形。
If the ward still needs guardianship after the guardianship terminates, another guardian shall be determined in accordance with the law. 监护关系终止后,被监护人仍然需要监护的,应当依法另行确定监护人。
Section 3 Declaration of Absence and Declaration of Death 

第三节 宣告失踪和宣告死亡

Article 40 Where a natural person has disappeared for two years, an interested party may apply to a people's court for a declaration of absence of the natural person.   第四十条 自然人下落不明满二年的,利害关系人可以向人民法院申请宣告该自然人为失踪人。
Article 41 The period of disappearance of a natural person shall be counted from the day when he or she is not heard from. If a person disappears during a war, the period of disappearance shall be counted from the day when the war ends or from the date of absence as confirmed by the relevant authority.   第四十一条 自然人下落不明的时间从其失去音讯之日起计算。战争期间下落不明的,下落不明的时间自战争结束之日或者有关机关确定的下落不明之日起计算。
Article 42 The property of an absentee shall be under the custody of his or her spouse, adult children, parents, or any other person willing to act as custodian of the property.   第四十二条 失踪人的财产由其配偶、成年子女、父母或者其他愿意担任财产代管人的人代管。
If there is any dispute over custody or the persons as mentioned in the preceding paragraph do not exist or are incapable of custody, the property shall be under the custody of a person designated by a people's court. 代管有争议,没有前款规定的人,或者前款规定的人无代管能力的,由人民法院指定的人代管。
Article 43 The property custodian shall appropriately manage the absentee's property, and protect the property rights and interests of the absentee.   第四十三条 财产代管人应当妥善管理失踪人的财产,维护其财产权益。
Any taxes and debts owed and other expenses payable by the absentee shall be paid by the property custodian out of the absentee's property. 失踪人所欠税款、债务和应付的其他费用,由财产代管人从失踪人的财产中支付。
Where the property custodian causes damage to the absentee's property intentionally or with gross negligence, the custodian shall assume compensatory liability. 财产代管人因故意或者重大过失造成失踪人财产损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。
Article 44 Where the property custodian fails to perform the duty of custody, infringes upon the absentee's property rights and interests, or becomes incapable of custody, an interested party for the absentee may apply to a people's court for replacement of the property custodian.   第四十四条 财产代管人不履行代管职责、侵害失踪人财产权益或者丧失代管能力的,失踪人的利害关系人可以向人民法院申请变更财产代管人。
The property custodian may, for good reason, apply to a people's court for replacement of the property custodian. 财产代管人有正当理由的,可以向人民法院申请变更财产代管人。
Where the people's court decides to replace the property custodian, the replacement custodian shall have the right to require the original custodian to hand over relevant property and report on property custody in a timely manner. 人民法院变更财产代管人的,变更后的财产代管人有权要求原财产代管人及时移交有关财产并报告财产代管情况。
Article 45 Where an absentee reappears, the people's court shall revoke the declaration of absence upon application of the person or an interested party.   第四十五条 失踪人重新出现,经本人或者利害关系人申请,人民法院应当撤销失踪宣告。
Where an absentee reappears, the person shall have the right to require the property custodian to hand over relevant property and report on property custody in a timely manner. 失踪人重新出现,有权要求财产代管人及时移交有关财产并报告财产代管情况。
Article 46 Where a natural person falls under any of the following circumstances, an interested party may apply to a people's court for a declaration of death of the natural person:   第四十六条 自然人有下列情形之一的,利害关系人可以向人民法院申请宣告该自然人死亡:
(1) The natural person has disappeared for four years. (一)下落不明满四年;
(2) The natural person has disappeared for two years from an accident. (二)因意外事件,下落不明满二年。
Where a person has disappeared from an accident, and it is impossible for the person to survive the accident as certified by the relevant authority, an application for a declaration of death of the person is not subject to the two-year period. 因意外事件下落不明,经有关机关证明该自然人不可能生存的,申请宣告死亡不受二年时间的限制。
Article 47 Where both an application for a declaration of death and an application for a declaration of absence of the same natural person are filed by the interested parties with a people's court, the people's court shall declare the death of the person if the conditions for a declaration of death as set out in this Law are met.   第四十七条 对同一自然人,有的利害关系人申请宣告死亡,有的利害关系人申请宣告失踪,符合本法规定的宣告死亡条件的,人民法院应当宣告死亡。
Article 48 The day when the people's court renders a judgment to declare the death of a person shall be deemed the date of death of the person; but if the person is declared dead for his or her disappearance from an accident, the day when the accident occurred shall be deemed the date of death of the person.   第四十八条 被宣告死亡的人,人民法院宣告死亡的判决作出之日视为其死亡的日期;因意外事件下落不明宣告死亡的,意外事件发生之日视为其死亡的日期。
Article 49 Where a natural person declared dead is alive, the validity of the juridical acts performed by the natural person during the period of declared death shall not be affected.   第四十九条 自然人被宣告死亡但是并未死亡的,不影响该自然人在被宣告死亡期间实施的民事法律行为的效力。
Article 50 Where a person declared dead reappears, the people's court shall revoke the declaration of death upon application of the person or an interested party.   第五十条 被宣告死亡的人重新出现,经本人或者利害关系人申请,人民法院应当撤销死亡宣告。
Article 51 The marital relationship of a person declared dead shall be extinguished from the date of declaration of death. If the declaration of death is revoked, the marital relationship shall resume automatically from the date of revocation of the declaration of death, unless his or her spouse has remarried or submits to the marriage registration authority a written statement of refusal to resume marriage.   第五十一条 被宣告死亡的人的婚姻关系,自死亡宣告之日起消灭。死亡宣告被撤销的,婚姻关系自撤销死亡宣告之日起自行恢复,但是其配偶再婚或者向婚姻登记机关书面声明不愿意恢复的除外。
Article 52 Where a child of a person declared dead is legally adopted by another person during the period of his or her declared death, the person shall not claim nullity of the adoption on the ground that the adoption is without his or her approval after the declaration of death is revoked.   第五十二条 被宣告死亡的人在被宣告死亡期间,其子女被他人依法收养的,在死亡宣告被撤销后,不得以未经本人同意为由主张收养关系无效。
Article 53 Where the declaration of death of a person is revoked, the person shall have the right to reclaim his or her property which has devolved to other parties to civil legal relationships in accordance with the law of succession

法小宝

. If any property cannot be reclaimed, the person shall be indemnified appropriately.
   第五十三条 被撤销死亡宣告的人有权请求依照继承法取得其财产的民事主体返还财产。无法返还的,应当给予适当补偿。
Where an interested party conceals facts, causing another person to be declared dead, and thus obtains any property of the person, the interested party shall, in addition to returning the property, assume compensatory liability for any loss so caused. 利害关系人隐瞒真实情况,致使他人被宣告死亡取得其财产的,除应当返还财产外,还应当对由此造成的损失承担赔偿责任。
Section 4 Individual Industrial and Commercial Households and Rural Usufructuary Households 

第四节 个体工商户和农村承包经营户

Article 54 A natural person conducting industrial and commercial operations upon registration in accordance with the law is an individual industrial and commercial household. An individual industrial and commercial household may have a trade name.   第五十四条 自然人从事工商业经营,经依法登记,为个体工商户。个体工商户可以起字号。
Article 55 A member of a rural collective economic organization who has obtained a usufruct on rural land in accordance with the law for farm operations of the household is a rural usufructuary household.   第五十五条 农村集体经济组织的成员,依法取得农村土地承包经营权,从事家庭承包经营的,为农村承包经营户。
Article 56 Where the business of an individual industrial and commercial household is operated by an individual, the debts of the individual industrial and commercial household shall be assumed by the individual with his or her own property; where that is operated by a family, the debts of the individual industrial and commercial household shall be assumed by the family with family property; or where if it is impossible to ascertain whether that is operated by an individual or a family, the debts of the individual industrial and commercial household shall be assumed by the family with family property.   第五十六条 个体工商户的债务,个人经营的,以个人财产承担;家庭经营的,以家庭财产承担;无法区分的,以家庭财产承担。
The debts of a rural usufructuary household shall be assumed by the rural household which operates on the rural land subject to the usufruct with family property or be assumed by some family members with their property who actually operate on the rural land subject to the usufruct. 农村承包经营户的债务,以从事农村土地承包经营的农户财产承担;事实上由农户部分成员经营的,以该部分成员的财产承担。
Chapter III Legal Persons 

第三章 法 人

Section 1 General Rules 

第一节 一般规定

Article 57 A legal person is an organization with capacity for civil rights and capacity for civil conduct which independently enjoys civil rights and assumes civil obligations in accordance with the law.   第五十七条 法人是具有民事权利能力和民事行为能力,依法独立享有民事权利和承担民事义务的组织。
Article 58 A legal person shall be formed in accordance with the law.   第五十八条 法人应当依法成立。
A legal person shall have its own name, organs, domicile, and property or funding. The specific conditions and procedures for formation of a legal person shall be governed by laws and administrative regulations. 法人应当有自己的名称、组织机构、住所、财产或者经费。法人成立的具体条件和程序,依照法律、行政法规的规定。
Where the formation of a legal person is subject to the approval of the relevant authority in accordance with any law or administrative regulation, such a law or administrative regulation shall apply. 设立法人,法律、行政法规规定须经有关机关批准的,依照其规定。
Article 59 A legal person's capacity for civil rights and capacity for civil conduct arise when the legal person is formed and cease to exist when the legal person is terminated.   第五十九条 法人的民事权利能力和民事行为能力,从法人成立时产生,到法人终止时消灭。
Article 60 A legal person shall assume civil liabilities independently with all of its property.   第六十条 法人以其全部财产独立承担民事责任。
Article 61 In accordance with the provisions of laws or the bylaws of a legal person, the person in charge who conducts civil activities on behalf of the legal person shall be the legal representative of the legal person. 聊五分钱的天吗  第六十一条 依照法律或者法人章程的规定,代表法人从事民事活动的负责人,为法人的法定代表人。
The legal consequences of civil activities conducted by the legal representative in the name of the legal person shall be assumed by the legal person. 法定代表人以法人名义从事的民事活动,其法律后果由法人承受。
Any restriction on the legal representative's right of representation imposed by the bylaws or the supreme organ of the legal person shall not be set up against bona fide opposite parties. 法人章程或者法人权力机构对法定代表人代表权的限制,不得对抗善意相对人。
Article 62 Where the legal representative of a legal person causes damage to any other person in the performance of duties, the legal person shall assume civil liability for such damage.   第六十二条 法定代表人因执行职务造成他人损害的,由法人承担民事责任。
The legal person may, after assuming such civil liability, claim reimbursement from the legal representative at fault in accordance with the laws or its bylaws. 法人承担民事责任后,依照法律或者法人章程的规定,可以向有过错的法定代表人追偿。
Article 63 A legal person's domicile shall be the place of its principal office. If a legal person needs to be registered in accordance with the law, it shall register the place of its principal office as its domicile.   第六十三条 法人以其主要办事机构所在地为住所。依法需要办理法人登记的,应当将主要办事机构所在地登记为住所。
Article 64 Where any registered information on a legal person changes during its existence, the legal person shall apply for modification registration to the registration authority in accordance with the law.   第六十四条 法人存续期间登记事项发生变化的,应当依法向登记机关申请变更登记。
Article 65 The inconsistency between the actual circumstances of a legal person and the registered information on the legal person shall not be set up against bona fide opposite parties.   第六十五条 法人的实际情况与登记的事项不一致的,不得对抗善意相对人。
Article 66 The registration authority shall, in accordance with the law, publish the relevant registration information on a legal person in a timely manner.   第六十六条 登记机关应当依法及时公示法人登记的有关信息。
Article 67 In case of combination of a legal person, the surviving legal person shall enjoy the rights and assume the obligations of the legal person.   第六十七条 法人合并的,其权利和义务由合并后的法人享有和承担。
In case of division of a legal person, the surviving legal persons shall jointly and severally enjoy the rights and assume the obligations of the legal person, unless the creditor and the debtor have agreed otherwise. 法人分立的,其权利和义务由分立后的法人享有连带债权,承担连带债务,但是债权人和债务人另有约定的除外。
Article 68 A legal person is terminated upon completion of liquidation and deregistration in accordance with the law for any of the following reasons:   第六十八条 有下列原因之一并依法完成清算、注销登记的,法人终止:
(1) The legal person is dissolved. (一)法人解散;
(2) The legal person is declared bankrupt. (二)法人被宣告破产;
(3) Any other reason specified by laws. (三)法律规定的其他原因。
Where the termination of a legal person is subject to the approval of the relevant authority in accordance with any law or administrative regulation, such a law or administrative regulation shall apply. 法人终止,法律、行政法规规定须经有关机关批准的,依照其规定。
Article 69 A legal person shall be dissolved under any of the following circumstances:   第六十九条 有下列情形之一的,法人解散:
(1) The duration stated in the legal person's bylaws expires, or any other cause of dissolution stated in the legal person's bylaws arises. (一)法人章程规定的存续期间届满或者法人章程规定的其他解散事由出现;
(2) The legal person's supreme organ makes a resolution for dissolution. (二)法人的权力机构决议解散;
(3) The legal person is dissolved as required by business combination or division. (三)因法人合并或者分立需要解散;
(4) The legal person's business license or registration certificate is revoked in accordance with the law, or the legal person is ordered to close down or is abolished. (四)法人依法被吊销营业执照、登记证书,被责令关闭或者被撤销;
(5) Any other circumstances specified by laws. (五)法律规定的其他情形。
Article 70 Where a legal person is dissolved, except for business combination or division, the liquidation obligors shall form a liquidation group to conduct liquidation in a timely manner.   第七十条 法人解散的,除合并或者分立的情形外,清算义务人应当及时组成清算组进行清算。
The members of a legal person's executive organ or decision-making organ, such as directors or council members, are liquidation obligors, except as otherwise provided for by any law or administrative regulation. 法人的董事、理事等执行机构或者决策机构的成员为清算义务人。法律、行政法规另有规定的,依照其规定。
Where the liquidation obligors fail to fulfill their liquidation obligation in a timely manner, causing any damage, they shall assume civil liability; and the competent authority or an interested party may apply to a people's court for designating relevant persons to form a liquidation group to conduct liquidation. 清算义务人未及时履行清算义务,造成损害的,应当承担民事责任;主管机关或者利害关系人可以申请人民法院指定有关人员组成清算组进行清算。
Article 71 The liquidation procedures and the powers of the liquidation group of a legal person shall be governed by the provisions of relevant laws; and if there are no such provisions, the relevant provisions of the Company Law shall apply mutatis mutandis.   第七十一条 法人的清算程序和清算组职权,依照有关法律的规定;没有规定的,参照适用公司法的有关规定。
Article 72 In the course of liquidation, a legal person continues to exist, but shall not conduct any activity irrelevant to liquidation.   第七十二条 清算期间法人存续,但是不得从事与清算无关的活动。
The residual property after the legal person is liquidated shall be dealt with in accordance with the provisions of the legal person's bylaws or the resolution of the legal person's supreme organ, except as otherwise provided for by any law. 法人清算后的剩余财产,根据法人章程的规定或者法人权力机构的决议处理。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
The legal person is terminated upon completion of liquidation and deregistration of the legal person; or if the law does not require the legal person to be registered, it is terminated upon completion of liquidation. 清算结束并完成法人注销登记时,法人终止;依法不需要办理法人登记的,清算结束时,法人终止。
Article 73 Where a legal person is declared bankrupt, it is terminated upon completion of bankruptcy liquidation and deregistration of the legal person in accordance with the law.   第七十三条 法人被宣告破产的,依法进行破产清算并完成法人注销登记时,法人终止。
Article 74 A legal person may form branch offices in accordance with the law. If any law or administrative regulation requires the branch offices to be registered, such a law or administrative regulation shall apply.   第七十四条 法人可以依法设立分支机构。法律、行政法规规定分支机构应当登记的,依照其规定。
Where a branch office conducts civil activities in its own name, any civil liability arising therefrom shall be assumed by the legal person; but such civil liability may be assumed first with the property managed by the branch office and then by the legal person for any deficit. 分支机构以自己的名义从事民事活动,产生的民事责任由法人承担;也可以先以该分支机构管理的财产承担,不足以承担的,由法人承担。
Article 75 The legal consequences of civil activities conducted by a promoter or promoters for the formation of a legal person shall be assumed by the legal person; but if the legal person fails to be formed, shall be assumed by the promoter or promoters, and in latter case, the two or more promoters shall jointly and severally enjoy rights and assume debts.   第七十五条 设立人为设立法人从事的民事活动,其法律后果由法人承受;法人未成立的,其法律后果由设立人承受,设立人为二人以上的,享有连带债权,承担连带债务。
Where a promoter conducts civil activities in the name of the promoter for the formation of a legal person, a third party shall have the right to require the legal person or the promoter to assume civil liability arising therefrom. 设立人为设立法人以自己的名义从事民事活动产生的民事责任,第三人有权选择请求法人或者设立人承担。
Section 2 For-Profit Legal Persons 

第二节 营利法人

Article 76 A legal person formed for the purpose of making profits and distributing profits to its shareholders or other investors is a for-profit legal person.   第七十六条 以取得利润并分配给股东等出资人为目的成立的法人,为营利法人。
For-profit legal persons include limited liability companies, joint stock limited companies, and other enterprise legal persons. 营利法人包括有限责任公司、股份有限公司和其他企业法人等。
Article 77 A for-profit legal person is formed upon registration in accordance with the law.   第七十七条 营利法人经依法登记成立。
Article 78 The registration authority shall issue a for-profit legal person business license to a for-profit legal person legally formed. The issue date of the business license shall be the date of formation of the for-profit legal person.   第七十八条 依法设立的营利法人,由登记机关发给营利法人营业执照。营业执照签发日期为营利法人的成立日期。
Article 79 For the formation of a for-profit legal person, the bylaws of the legal person shall be developed in accordance with the law.   第七十九条 设立营利法人应当依法制定法人章程。
Article 80 A for-profit legal person shall have a supreme organ.   第八十条 营利法人应当设权力机构。
The supreme organ exercises the powers of amending the bylaws of the legal person and electing or replacing members of the executive organ and supervisory organ and other powers stated in the bylaws of the legal person. 权力机构行使修改法人章程,选举或者更换执行机构、监督机构成员,以及法人章程规定的其他职权。
Article 81 A for-profit legal person shall have an executive organ.   第八十一条 营利法人应当设执行机构。
The executive organ exercises the powers of convening the meetings of the supreme organ, deciding the legal person's business plans and investment proposals, and deciding the internal management structure of the legal person and other powers stated in the bylaws of the legal person. 执行机构行使召集权力机构会议,决定法人的经营计划和投资方案,决定法人内部管理机构的设置,以及法人章程规定的其他职权。
Where the executive organ is a board of directors or is an executive director, the chairman of the board of directors, the executive director, or a manager shall serve as the legal representative in accordance with the provisions of the bylaws of the legal person; or where the legal person has no board of directors or executive director, the primary person in charge stated in the bylaws of the legal person shall be the executive organ and legal representative of the legal person. 执行机构为董事会或者执行董事的,董事长、执行董事或者经理按照法人章程的规定担任法定代表人;未设董事会或者执行董事的,法人章程规定的主要负责人为其执行机构和法定代表人。
Article 82 Where a for-profit legal person has a supervisory organ such as the board of supervisors or a supervisor, the supervisory organ shall, in accordance with the law, exercise the powers of inspecting the legal person's financial affairs and overseeing the performance of duties by the members of the executive organ and the senior executives of the legal person and the powers stated in the bylaws of the legal person.   第八十二条 营利法人设监事会或者监事等监督机构的,监督机构依法行使检查法人财务,监督执行机构成员、高级管理人员执行法人职务的行为,以及法人章程规定的其他职权。
Article 83 An investor of a for-profit legal person shall not damage the interests of the legal person or any other investor by abusing the rights of an investor. If the investor abuses the rights of an investor, causing any loss to the legal person or any other investor, the investor shall assume civil liability in accordance with the law.   第八十三条 营利法人的出资人不得滥用出资人权利损害法人或者其他出资人的利益。滥用出资人权利给法人或者其他出资人造成损失的,应当依法承担民事责任。
An investor of a for-profit legal person shall not damage the interests of a creditor of the legal person by abusing the independent status of the legal person and the limited liability of the investor. If the investor abuses the legal person's independent status or the investor's limited liability to evade debts, causing serious damage to the interests of a creditor of the legal person, the investor shall be jointly and severally liable for the legal person's debts. 营利法人的出资人不得滥用法人独立地位和出资人有限责任损害法人的债权人利益。滥用法人独立地位和出资人有限责任,逃避债务,严重损害法人的债权人利益的,应当对法人债务承担连带责任。
Article 84 The controlling investor, actual controller, directors, supervisors, and senior executives of a for-profit legal person shall not damage the interests of the legal person through affiliations. One that causes damage to the legal person through affiliations shall assume compensatory liability.   第八十四条 营利法人的控股出资人、实际控制人、董事、监事、高级管理人员不得利用其关联关系损害法人的利益。利用关联关系给法人造成损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。
Article 85 Where a for-profit legal person's supreme organ or executive organ adopts a resolution under a convening procedure or in a voting mode that violates any law or administrative regulation or the bylaws of the legal person or any content of the resolution violates the bylaws of the legal person, an investor of the for-profit legal person may request a people's court to revoke the resolution, without prejudice to the civil legal relations formed between the for-profit legal person and bona fide opposite parties based on such a resolution.   第八十五条 营利法人的权力机构、执行机构作出决议的会议召集程序、表决方式违反法律、行政法规、法人章程,或者决议内容违反法人章程的,营利法人的出资人可以请求人民法院撤销该决议,但是营利法人依据该决议与善意相对人形成的民事法律关系不受影响。
Article 86 In business activities, a for-profit legal person shall comply with business ethics, maintain the safety of transactions, receive government supervision and public scrutiny, and assume social responsibilities.   第八十六条 营利法人从事经营活动,应当遵守商业道德,维护交易安全,接受政府和社会的监督,承担社会责任。
Section 3 Non-profit Legal Persons 

第三节 非营利法人

Article 87 A non-profit legal person is a legal person formed for public welfare or any other non-profit purpose without distribution of profits to its investors, promoters, or members.   第八十七条 为公益目的或者其他非营利目的成立,不向出资人、设立人或者会员分配所取得利润的法人,为非营利法人。
Non-profit legal persons include but are not limited to public institutions, social groups, foundations, and social service organizations. 非营利法人包括事业单位、社会团体、基金会、社会服务机构等。
Article 88 A public institution satisfying the conditions for a legal person and to be formed for meeting the needs of economic and social development and providing public welfare services obtains the status of a public institution legal person upon formation through registration in accordance with the law; or if the law does not require it to undergo legal person registration, obtains the status of a public institution legal person from the date of formation.   第八十八条 具备法人条件,为适应经济社会发展需要,提供公益服务设立的事业单位,经依法登记成立,取得事业单位法人资格;依法不需要办理法人登记的,从成立之日起,具有事业单位法人资格。
Article 89 Where a public institution legal person has a council, the council shall be its decision-making organ, except as otherwise provided for by any law. The legal representative of a public institution legal person shall be determined in accordance with laws, administrative regulations, or its bylaws.   第八十九条 事业单位法人设理事会的,除法律另有规定外,理事会为其决策机构。事业单位法人的法定代表人依照法律、行政法规或者法人章程的规定产生。
Article 90 A social group satisfying the conditions for a legal person and to be formed based on the common will of its members for public welfare, common interests of its members, or any other non-profit purpose obtains the status of a social group legal person upon formation through registration in accordance with the law; or if the law does not require it to undergo legal person registration, obtains the status of a social group legal person from the date of formation.   第九十条 具备法人条件,基于会员共同意愿,为公益目的或者会员共同利益等非营利目的设立的社会团体,经依法登记成立,取得社会团体法人资格;依法不需要办理法人登记的,从成立之日起,具有社会团体法人资格。
Article 91 For the formation of a social group legal person, the bylaws of the legal person shall be developed in accordance with the law.   第九十一条 设立社会团体法人应当依法制定法人章程。
A social group legal person shall have a supreme organ such as the congress of members or the congress of representatives of members. 社会团体法人应当设会员大会或者会员代表大会等权力机构。
A social group legal person shall have an executive organ such as a council. The person in charge of the council, such as the chairman or president, shall serve as the legal representative in accordance with the bylaws of the legal person. 社会团体法人应当设理事会等执行机构。理事长或者会长等负责人按照法人章程的规定担任法定代表人。
Article 92 A foundation or a social service organization, among others, satisfying the conditions for a legal person and to be formed with donated property for public welfare purposes obtains the status of a donation-based legal person upon formation through registration in accordance with the law.   第九十二条 具备法人条件,为公益目的以捐助财产设立的基金会、社会服务机构等,经依法登记成立,取得捐助法人资格。
A venue for holding religious activities formed in accordance with the law and satisfying the conditions for a legal person may apply for legal person registration and obtain the status of a donation-based legal person, subject to any provisions of laws and administrative regulations relating to the venues for holding religious activities. 依法设立的宗教活动场所,具备法人条件的,可以申请法人登记,取得捐助法人资格。法律、行政法规对宗教活动场所有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 93 For the formation of a donation-based legal person, the bylaws of the legal person shall be developed in accordance with the law.   第九十三条 设立捐助法人应当依法制定法人章程。
The donation-based legal person shall have a decision-making organ, such as a council or a democratic governing body, and an executive organ. The person in charge of the decision-making organ such as the chairman shall serve as the legal representative in accordance with the bylaws of the legal person. 捐助法人应当设理事会、民主管理组织等决策机构,并设执行机构。理事长等负责人按照法人章程的规定担任法定代表人。
The donation-based legal person shall have a supervisory organ such as a board of supervisors. 捐助法人应当设监事会等监督机构。
Article 94 Donors shall be entitled to ask the donation-based legal person about the use and management of donated property and give their opinions and recommendations, and the donation-based legal person shall give honest replies in a timely manner.   第九十四条 捐助人有权向捐助法人查询捐助财产的使用、管理情况,并提出意见和建议,捐助法人应当及时、如实答复。
Where a donation-based legal person's decision-making organ, executive organ, or legal representative makes a decision under a procedure that violates any law or administrative regulation or the bylaws of the legal person or the content of the decision violates the bylaws of the legal person, a donor or any other interested party or the competent authority may request the people's court to revoke the decision, without prejudice to the civil legal relationship formed between the donor-based legal person and bona fide opposite parties based on the decision. 捐助法人的决策机构、执行机构或者法定代表人作出决定的程序违反法律、行政法规、法人章程,或者决定内容违反法人章程的,捐助人等利害关系人或者主管机关可以请求人民法院撤销该决定,但是捐助法人依据该决定与善意相对人形成的民事法律关系不受影响。
Article 95 When a non-profit legal person formed for public welfare purposes is terminated, it shall not distribute any residual property to its investors, promoters, or members. The residual property shall be used for public welfare purposes in accordance with the provisions of its bylaws or a resolution of its supreme organ; or if the residual property cannot be dealt with in accordance with the provisions of its bylaws or the resolution of its supreme organ, the competent authority shall cause the transfer of such residual property to other legal persons with the same or a similar vision, and announce it to the public.   第九十五条 为公益目的成立的非营利法人终止时,不得向出资人、设立人或者会员分配剩余财产。剩余财产应当按照法人章程的规定或者权力机构的决议用于公益目的;无法按照法人章程的规定或者权力机构的决议处理的,由主管机关主持转给宗旨相同或者相近的法人,并向社会公告。
Section 4 Special Legal Persons 

第四节 特别法人

Article 96 The state organ legal persons, rural collective economic organization legal persons, urban and rural cooperative economic organization legal persons, and basic self-governing mass organization legal persons as provided for in this section are special legal persons.   第九十六条 本节规定的机关法人、农村集体经济组织法人、城镇农村的合作经济组织法人、基层群众性自治组织法人,为特别法人。
Article 97 An independently funded state organ or a statutory institution assuming administrative functions shall have the status of a state organ legal person from the date of formation of it, and may conduct civil activities necessary for performing its functions.   第九十七条 有独立经费的机关和承担行政职能的法定机构从成立之日起,具有机关法人资格,可以从事为履行职能所需要的民事活动。
Article 98 Where a state organ legal person is abolished, the legal person is terminated, and its civil rights shall be enjoyed and its obligations shall be assumed by the state organ legal person as its successor; or if there is no such a successor, its rights shall be enjoyed and its obligations shall be assumed by the state organ legal person making the abolition decision.   第九十八条 机关法人被撤销的,法人终止,其民事权利和义务由继任的机关法人享有和承担;没有继任的机关法人的,由作出撤销决定的机关法人享有和承担。
Article 99 A rural collective economic organization shall obtain the status of a legal person in accordance with the law.   第九十九条 农村集体经济组织依法取得法人资格。
Where any laws and administrative regulations provide for rural collective economic organizations, such laws and administrative regulations shall apply. 法律、行政法规对农村集体经济组织有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 100 An urban or rural cooperative economic organization shall obtain the status of a legal person in accordance with the law.   第一百条 城镇农村的合作经济组织依法取得法人资格。
Where any laws and administrative regulations provide for urban or rural cooperative economic organizations, such laws and administrative regulations shall apply. 法律、行政法规对城镇农村的合作经济组织有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 101 An urban residents' committee or a villagers' committee has the status of a basic self-governing mass organization legal person, and may conduct civil activities necessary for performing its functions.   第一百零一条 居民委员会、村民委员会具有基层群众性自治组织法人资格,可以从事为履行职能所需要的民事活动。
Where no village collective economic organization is formed, a villagers' committee may instead perform the functions of a villager collective economic organization in accordance with the law. 未设立村集体经济组织的,村民委员会可以依法代行村集体经济组织的职能。
Chapter IV Unincorporated Organizations 

第四章 非法人组织

Article 102 An unincorporated organization is an organization without the status of a legal person but able to conduct civil activities in its own name in accordance with the law.   第一百零二条 非法人组织是不具有法人资格,但是能够依法以自己的名义从事民事活动的组织。
Unincorporated organizations include but are not limited to sole proprietorships, partnerships, and professional service organizations without the status of a legal person. 非法人组织包括个人独资企业、合伙企业、不具有法人资格的专业服务机构等。
Article 103 An unincorporated organization shall be registered as required by laws.   第一百零三条 非法人组织应当依照法律的规定登记。
Where the formation of an unincorporated organization shall be subject to the approval of the relevant authority in accordance with any law or administrative regulation, such law or administrative regulation shall apply. 设立非法人组织,法律、行政法规规定须经有关机关批准的,依照其规定。
Article 104 Where the property of an unincorporated organization is insufficient for paying its debts, its investors or promoters shall assume unlimited liability for such debts, except as otherwise provided for by any law.   第一百零四条 非法人组织的财产不足以清偿债务的,其出资人或者设立人承担无限责任。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 105 An unincorporated organization may choose one or more persons to conduct civil activities on its behalf.   第一百零五条 非法人组织可以确定一人或者数人代表该组织从事民事活动。
Article 106 An unincorporated organization shall be dissolved under any of the following circumstances:   第一百零六条 有下列情形之一的,非法人组织解散:
(1) The duration stated in the bylaws expires, or any other cause of dissolution stated in the bylaws arises. (一)章程规定的存续期间届满或者章程规定的其他解散事由出现;
(2) Its investors or promoters decide to dissolve it. (二)出资人或者设立人决定解散;
(3) Any other circumstances specified by laws. (三)法律规定的其他情形。
Article 107 Where an unincorporated organization is dissolved, its liquidation shall be conducted in accordance with the law.   第一百零七条 非法人组织解散的,应当依法进行清算。
Article 108 In addition to the provisions of this Chapter, the relevant provisions of Section 1 of Chapter III of this Law shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to unincorporated organizations.   第一百零八条 非法人组织除适用本章规定外,参照适用本法第三章第一节的有关规定。
Chapter V Civil Rights 

第五章 民事权利

Article 109 The personal freedom and human dignity of a natural person shall be protected by law.   第一百零九条 自然人的人身自由、人格尊严受法律保护。
Article 110 A natural person enjoys the rights of life, inviolability and integrity of person, health, name, likeness, reputation, honor, privacy, and marital autonomy, among others.   第一百一十条 自然人享有生命权、身体权、健康权、姓名权、肖像权、名誉权、荣誉权、隐私权、婚姻自主权等权利。
A legal person or an unincorporated organization enjoys the rights of name, reputation, and honor, among others. 法人、非法人组织享有名称权、名誉权、荣誉权等权利。
Article 111 The personal information of a natural person shall be protected by law. Any organization or individual needing to obtain the personal information of other persons shall legally obtain and ensure the security of such information, and shall not illegally collect, use, process, or transmit the personal information of other persons, nor illegally buy, sell, provide, or publish the personal information of other persons.   第一百一十一条 自然人的个人信息受法律保护。任何组织和个人需要获取他人个人信息的,应当依法取得并确保信息安全,不得非法收集、使用、加工、传输他人个人信息,不得非法买卖、提供或者公开他人个人信息。
Article 112 The personal rights of a natural person arising from marriage or family relations, among others, shall be protected by law.   第一百一十二条 自然人因婚姻、家庭关系等产生的人身权利受法律保护。
Article 113 The property rights of the parties to civil legal relations shall be equally protected by law.   第一百一十三条 民事主体的财产权利受法律平等保护。
Article 114 The parties to civil legal relations enjoy real rights in accordance with the law.   第一百一十四条 民事主体依法享有物权。
A real right is the right holder's exclusive right to directly dominate a specific thing in accordance with the law, including ownership, usufruct, and security interest. 物权是权利人依法对特定的物享有直接支配和排他的权利,包括所有权、用益物权和担保物权。
Article 115 Things include immovables and movables. If rights are the objects of any real rights in accordance with any laws, such laws shall apply.   第一百一十五条 物包括不动产和动产。法律规定权利作为物权客体的,依照其规定。
Article 116 The types and contents of real rights shall be prescribed by laws.   第一百一十六条 物权的种类和内容,由法律规定。
Article 117 Fair and reasonable indemnification shall be made if any immovable or movable is expropriated or requisitioned for public interest according to the authority and procedures prescribed by laws.   第一百一十七条 为了公共利益的需要,依照法律规定的权限和程序征收、征用不动产或者动产的,应当给予公平、合理的补偿。
Article 118 The parties to civil legal relations enjoy a creditor's rights in accordance with the law.   第一百一十八条 民事主体依法享有债权。
A creditor's right is the right holder's right to request that a specific obligor perform or not perform certain conduct, arising from contracts, torts, management of the business of another under no obligation, unjust enrichment, and other provisions of laws. 债权是因合同、侵权行为、无因管理、不当得利以及法律的其他规定,权利人请求特定义务人为或者不为一定行为的权利。
Article 119 A contract entered into in accordance with the law shall be legally binding upon the parties to the contract.   第一百一十九条 依法成立的合同,对当事人具有法律约束力。
Article 120 In case of infringement upon civil rights and interests, the victim shall have the right to request that the tortfeasor assume tort liability.   第一百二十条 民事权益受到侵害的,被侵权人有权请求侵权人承担侵权责任。
Article 121 A person who, under no statutory or contractual obligation, manages the business of another to prevent damage to the interest of another shall have the right to request that the beneficiary of such management reimburse the manager for necessary expenses incurred.   第一百二十一条 没有法定的或者约定的义务,为避免他人利益受损失而进行管理的人,有权请求受益人偿还由此支出的必要费用。
Article 122 Where a person is unjustly enriched without any legal basis, the person who so suffers a loss shall have the right to request that the person unjustly enriched return the amount to the extent of the unjust enrichment.   第一百二十二条 因他人没有法律根据,取得不当利益,受损失的人有权请求其返还不当利益。
Article 123 The parties to civil legal relations enjoy intellectual property rights in accordance with the law.   第一百二十三条 民事主体依法享有知识产权。
Intellectual property rights are the proprietary rights enjoyed by right holders in accordance with the law in respect of the following objects: 知识产权是权利人依法就下列客体享有的专有的权利:
(1) Works. (一)作品;
(2) Inventions, utility models, and designs. (二)发明、实用新型、外观设计;
(3) Trademarks. (三)商标;
(4) Geographic indications. (四)地理标志;
(5) Trade secrets. (五)商业秘密;
(6) Layout designs of integrated circuits. (六)集成电路布图设计;
(7) New varieties of plants. (七)植物新品种;
(8) Other objects specified by laws. (八)法律规定的其他客体。
Article 124 Natural persons enjoy the right of succession in accordance with the law.   第一百二十四条光宗耀祖支撑着我去教室 自然人依法享有继承权。
The lawful private property of natural persons may be inherited in accordance with the law. 自然人合法的私有财产,可以依法继承。
Article 125 The parties to civil legal relations enjoy stock rights and other investment rights in accordance with the law.   第一百二十五条 民事主体依法享有股权和其他投资性权利。
Article 126 The parties to civil legal relations enjoy other civil rights and interests prescribed by laws.   第一百二十六条 民事主体享有法律规定的其他民事权利和利益。
Article 127 Where any laws provide for the protection of data and network virtual property, such laws shall apply.   第一百二十七条 法律对数据、网络虚拟财产的保护有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 128 Where any laws have special provisions on the protection of civil rights of the minors, the elderly, the disabled, women, and consumers, among others, such special provisions shall apply.   第一百二十八条 法律对未成年人、老年人、残疾人、妇女、消费者等的民事权利保护有特别规定的,依照其规定。
Article 129 Civil rights may be obtained by juridical acts, factual behaviors, events prescribed by laws, or other means prescribed by laws.   第一百二十九条 民事权利可以依据民事法律行为、事实行为、法律规定的事件或者法律规定的其他方式取得。
Article 130 The parties to civil legal relations shall, based on their free will, exercise civil rights in accordance with the law without any interference.   第一百三十条 民事主体按照自己的意愿依法行使民事权利,不受干涉。
Article 131 The parties to civil legal relations shall perform the obligations imposed by laws and obligations agreed upon by the parties while exercising their rights.   第一百三十一条 民事主体行使权利时,应当履行法律规定的和当事人约定的义务。
Article 132 The parties to civil legal relations shall not abuse civil rights to damage the national interest, public interest, or the lawful rights and interests of any other person.   第一百三十二条 民事主体不得滥用民事权利损害国家利益、社会公共利益或者他人合法权益。
Chapter VI Juridical Acts 

第六章 民事法律行为

Section 1 General Rules 

第一节 一般规定

Article 133 Juridical acts are acts of the parties to civil legal relations to create, modify, or terminate civil legal relationships through a declaration of will.   第一百三十三条 民事法律行为是民事主体通过意思表示设立、变更、终止民事法律关系的行为。
Article 134 Juridical acts may be formed based on the unanimous declaration of will by two or more parties or based on the declaration of will by a single party.   第一百三十四条 民事法律行为可以基于双方或者多方的意思表示一致成立,也可以基于单方的意思表示成立。
Where a legal person or an unincorporated organization makes a resolution according to the mode of deliberation and voting procedures prescribed by laws or its bylaws, the act of resolution is formed. 法人、非法人组织依照法律或者章程规定的议事方式和表决程序作出决议的,该决议行为成立。
Article 135 Juridical acts may be made in written, verbal, or other forms; but if any law or administrative regulation requires or the parties agree upon a particular form, such a particular form shall be adopted.   第一百三十五条 民事法律行为可以采用书面形式、口头形式或者其他形式;法律、行政法规规定或者当事人约定采用特定形式的,应当采用特定形式。
Article 136 A juridical act shall become valid upon its formation, except as otherwise provided for by any law or agreed upon by the parties.   第一百三十六条 民事法律行为自成立时生效,但是法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。
The actor shall not modify or rescind the juridical act at will, except in accordance with any law or as permitted by the other party. 行为人非依法律规定或者未经对方同意,不得擅自变更或者解除民事法律行为。
Section 2 Declaration of Will 

第二节 意思表示

Article 137 A declaration of will made by dialog shall become valid at the time when the opposite party knows the content of will.   第一百三十七条 以对话方式作出的意思表示,相对人知道其内容时生效。
A declaration of will not made by dialog shall become valid at the time when it reaches the opposite party. If a declaration of will not made by dialog is in the form of data message, and the opposite party has designated a specific system to receive the data message, the declaration of will shall become valid at the time when the data message enters the specific system designated; or in the absence of such designation, the declaration of will shall become valid at the time when the opposite party knows or should have known that the data message has entered its system. If the parties have otherwise agreed upon the time when a declaration of will made in the form of data message becomes valid, such an agreement shall apply. 以非对话方式作出的意思表示,到达相对人时生效。以非对话方式作出的采用数据电文形式的意思表示,相对人指定特定系统接收数据电文的,该数据电文进入该特定系统时生效;未指定特定系统的,相对人知道或者应当知道该数据电文进入其系统时生效。当事人对采用数据电文形式的意思表示的生效时间另有约定的,按照其约定。
Article 138 A declaration of will made without any opposite party shall become valid upon completion of declaration, except as otherwise provided for by any law.   第一百三十八条 无相对人的意思表示,表示完成时生效。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 139 A declaration of will made in the form of publishing an announcement shall become valid at the time when the announcement is published.   第一百三十九条 以公告方式作出的意思表示,公告发布时生效。
Article 140 An actor may expressly or tacitly declare his or her will.   第一百四十条 行为人可以明示或者默示作出意思表示。
Will may be deemed tacitly declared only when it is in accordance with any law, is agreed upon by the parties, or conforms to the trading practices between the parties. 沉默只有在有法律规定、当事人约定或者符合当事人之间的交易习惯时,才可以视为意思表示。
Article 141 An actor may withdraw his or her declaration of will. The notice of withdrawing his or her declaration of will shall reach the opposite party before his or her declaration of will reaches the opposite party or at the same time when his or her declaration of will reaches the opposite party.   第一百四十一条 行为人可以撤回意思表示。撤回意思表示的通知应当在意思表示到达相对人前或者与意思表示同时到达相对人。
Article 142 The meaning of a declaration of will made to an opposite party shall be interpreted according to the words used as well as considering the relevant clauses, nature and purpose of the act, customs, and the principle of good faith.   第一百四十二条 有相对人的意思表示的解释,应当按照所使用的词句,结合相关条款、行为的性质和目的、习惯以及诚信原则,确定意思表示的含义。
In the interpretation of a declaration of will made without an opposite party, the true will of the actor shall be determined by considering the relevant clauses, nature and purpose of the act, customs, and the principle of good faith, rather than a total confinement to the words used. 无相对人的意思表示的解释,不能完全拘泥于所使用的词句,而应当结合相关条款、行为的性质和目的、习惯以及诚信原则,确定行为人的真实意思。
Section 3 Validity of Juridical Acts 

第三节 民事法律行为的效力

Article 143 A juridical act satisfying all of the following conditions shall be valid:   第一百四十三条 具备下列条件的民事法律行为有效:
(1) The actor has corresponding capacity for civil conduct. (一)行为人具有相应的民事行为能力;
(2) The will expressed is true. (二)意思表示真实;
(3) It neither violates the imperative provisions of laws and administrative regulations, nor is contrary to public order and good morals. (三)不违反法律、行政法规的强制性规定,不违背公序良俗。
Article 144 A juridical act performed by a person without capacity for civil conduct shall be void.   第一百四十四条 无民事行为能力人实施的民事法律行为无效。
Article 145 A juridical act performed by a person with limited capacity for civil conduct shall be valid if the act purely benefits the person or is commensurate with his or her age, intelligence, and mental health; and any other juridical acts performed by the person may become valid after they are consented to or ratified by his or her statutory agent.   第一百四十五条 限制民事行为能力人实施的纯获利益的民事法律行为或者与其年龄、智力、精神健康状况相适应的民事法律行为有效;实施的其他民事法律行为经法定代理人同意或者追认后有效。
The opposite party may, by a notice, prompt the statutory agent to ratify within one month of receipt of the notice. If the statutory agent fails to respond, ratification shall be deemed denied. Before the ratification of a juridical act, a bona fide opposite party shall be entitled to revoke the act. The revocation shall be made by a notice. 相对人可以催告法定代理人自收到通知之日起一个月内予以追认。法定代理人未作表示的,视为拒绝追认。民事法律行为被追认前,善意相对人有撤销的权利。撤销应当以通知的方式作出。
Article 146 A juridical act performed by an actor and the opposite party based on false declaration of will shall be void.   第一百四十六条 行为人与相对人以虚假的意思表示实施的民事法律行为无效。
The validity of a juridical act hidden behind a false declaration of will shall be dealt with in accordance with the relevant provisions of laws. 以虚假的意思表示隐藏的民事法律行为的效力,依照有关法律规定处理。
Article 147 The actor shall be entitled to request a people's court or an arbitral institution to revoke a juridical act performed based on gross misunderstanding.   第一百四十七条 基于重大误解实施的民事法律行为,行为人有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。
Article 148 Where a juridical act is performed by a party against his or her true will as a result of fraud by the other party, the defrauded party shall have the right to request a people's court or an arbitral institution to revoke the act.   第一百四十八条 一方以欺诈手段,使对方在违背真实意思的情况下实施的民事法律行为,受欺诈方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。
Article 149 Where a juridical act is performed by a party against his or her true will as a result of fraud by a third party, the defrauded party shall have the right to request a people's court or an arbitral institution to revoke the act if the other party knows or should have known the fraud.   第一百四十九条 第三人实施欺诈行为,使一方在违背真实意思的情况下实施的民事法律行为,对方知道或者应当知道该欺诈行为的,受欺诈方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。
Article 150 Where a juridical act is performed by a party against his or her true will as a result of coercion by the other party or a third party, the coerced party shall have the right to request a people's court or an arbitral institution to revoke the act.   第一百五十条 一方或者第三人以胁迫手段,使对方在违背真实意思的情况下实施的民事法律行为,受胁迫方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。
Article 151 Where a juridical act is evidently unfair when it is formed as a result of one party taking advantage of the other party's distress or lack of judgment, among others, the aggrieved party shall have the right to request a people's court or an arbitral institution to revoke the act.   第一百五十一条 一方利用对方处于危困状态、缺乏判断能力等情形,致使民事法律行为成立时显失公平的,受损害方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。
Article 152 Under any of the following circumstances, the right of revocation shall be extinguished:   第一百五十二条 有下列情形之一的,撤销权消灭:
(1) A party fails to exercise its right of revocation within one year from the day when the party knows or should have known the cause of revocation, or a party with gross misunderstanding fails to exercise its right of revocation within three months from the day when the party knows or should have known the cause of revocation. (一)当事人自知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起一年内、重大误解的当事人自知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起三个月内没有行使撤销权;
(2) A coerced party fails to exercise its right of revocation within one year from the day when coercion terminates. (二)当事人受胁迫,自胁迫行为终止之日起一年内没有行使撤销权;
(3) A party renounces its right of revocation, expressly or by its conduct, after knowing the cause of revocation. (三)当事人知道撤销事由后明确表示或者以自己的行为表明放弃撤销权。
Where a party fails to exercise its right of revocation within five years from the day when the juridical act occurs, the right of revocation shall be extinguished. 当事人自民事法律行为发生之日起五年内没有行使撤销权的,撤销权消灭。
Article 153 A juridical act violating the imperative provisions of any law or administrative regulation shall be void, unless the compulsory provisions do not result in the nullity of the juridical act.   第一百五十三条 违反法律、行政法规的强制性规定的民事法律行为无效,但是该强制性规定不导致该民事法律行为无效的除外。
A juridical act contrary to public order and good morals shall be void. 违背公序良俗的民事法律行为无效。
Article 154 A juridical act by which an actor maliciously colludes with the opposite party to damage any other person's lawful rights and interests shall be void.   第一百五十四条 行为人与相对人恶意串通,损害他人合法权益的民事法律行为无效。
Article 155 A void or revoked juridical act is not legally binding from the outset.   第一百五十五条 无效的或者被撤销的民事法律行为自始没有法律约束力。
Article 156 Where the partial invalidity of a juridical act does not affect the validity of the other part, the other part shall remain valid.   第一百五十六条 民事法律行为部分无效,不影响其他部分效力的,其他部分仍然有效。
Article 157 After a juridical act is void, revoked, or determined as having no binding force, the property obtained by the actor as a result of the act shall be restituted; if restitution is impossible or unnecessary, indemnification shall be made at an estimated price. The party at fault shall compensate the other party for any loss suffered as a result of the act; or if both parties are at fault, they shall assume corresponding liabilities respectively, except as otherwise provided for by any law.   第一百五十七条 民事法律行为无效、被撤销或者确定不发生效力后,行为人因该行为取得的财产,应当予以返还;不能返还或者没有必要返还的,应当折价补偿。有过错的一方应当赔偿对方由此所受到的损失;各方都有过错的,应当各自承担相应的责任。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Section 4 Juridical Acts Subject to Conditions or Terms 

第四节 民事法律行为的附条件和附期限

Article 158 A juridical act may be subject to a condition, unless such a condition is not allowed according to the nature of the juridical act. A juridical act subject to a condition for becoming valid shall become valid when the condition is fulfilled. A juridical act subject to a condition for rescission shall cease to be valid when the condition is fulfilled.   第一百五十八条 民事法律行为可以附条件,但是按照其性质不得附条件的除外。附生效条件的民事法律行为,自条件成就时生效。附解除条件的民事法律行为,自条件成就时失效。
Article 159 For a juridical act subject to a condition, if a party prevents the fulfillment of the condition by improper means for its own benefits, the condition shall be deemed fulfilled; or if a party hastens the fulfillment of a condition by improper means, the condition shall not be deemed fulfilled.   第一百五十九条 附条件的民事法律行为,当事人为自己的利益不正当地阻止条件成就的,视为条件已成就;不正当地促成条件成就的,视为条件不成就。
Article 160 A juridical act may be subject to a term, unless such a term is not allowed according to the nature of the juridical act. A juridical act subject to a term for becoming valid shall become valid upon expiration of the term. A juridical act subject to a term for termination shall become invalid upon expiration of the term.   第一百六十条 民事法律行为可以附期限,但是按照其性质不得附期限的除外。附生效期限的民事法律行为,自期限届至时生效。附终止期限的民事法律行为,自期限届满时失效。
Chapter VII Agency 

第七章 代 理

Section 1 General Rules 

第一节 一般规定

Article 161 The parties to civil legal relations may conduct juridical acts through agents.   第一百六十一条 民事主体可以通过代理人实施民事法律行为。
A juridical act that shall be performed in person in accordance with the provisions of laws, an agreement between the parties, or the nature of the juridical act shall not be performed by an agent. 依照法律规定、当事人约定或者民事法律行为的性质,应当由本人亲自实施的民事法律行为,不得代理。
Article 162 A juridical act performed by an agent in the name of the principal within the power conferred on the agent shall be binding on the principal.   第一百六十二条 代理人在代理权限内,以被代理人名义实施的民事法律行为,对被代理人发生效力。
Article 163 Agency includes agency by mandate and statutory agency.   第一百六十三条 代理包括委托代理和法定代理。
An agent under a mandate shall exercise the power conferred by the principal. A statutory agent shall exercise the power conferred by laws. 委托代理人按照被代理人的委托行使代理权。法定代理人依照法律的规定行使代理权。
Article 164 Where an agent fails to perform or fully perform its duties, causing damage to the principal, the agent shall assume civil liability.   第一百六十四条 代理人不履行或者不完全履行职责,造成被代理人损害的,应当承担民事责任。
Where an agent and the opposite party in malicious collusion damages the principal's lawful rights and interests, the agent and the opposite party shall be jointly and severally liable. 代理人和相对人恶意串通,损害被代理人合法权益的,代理人和相对人应当承担连带责任。
Section 2 Agency by Mandate 

第二节 委托代理

Article 165 Where the power is conferred by a mandate in a written form, the power of attorney shall clearly state the agent's name and the object of, power conferred by, and duration of the mandate, to which the signature or seal of the principal shall be affixed.   第一百六十五条 委托代理授权采用书面形式的,授权委托书应当载明代理人的姓名或者名称、代理事项、权限和期间,并由被代理人签名或者盖章。
Article 166 Where the object of a mandate is to be performed by several agents, they shall jointly exercise the power conferred, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.   第一百六十六条 数人为同一代理事项的代理人的,应当共同行使代理权,但是当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 167 Where an agent knows or should have known that the object of the mandate is illegal but still performs it, or the principal knows or should have known that an agent's performance is illegal but fails to raise any objection, the principal and the agent shall be jointly and severally liable.   第一百六十七条 代理人知道或者应当知道代理事项违法仍然实施代理行为,或者被代理人知道或者应当知道代理人的代理行为违法未作反对表示的,被代理人和代理人应当承担连带责任。
Article 168 An agent shall not perform any juridical act with itself in the name of the principal, unless it is consented to or ratified by the principal.   第一百六十八条 代理人不得以被代理人的名义与自己实施民事法律行为,但是被代理人同意或者追认的除外。
An agent shall not perform any juridical act in the name of one principal with any other principal represented by it at the same time, unless it is consented to or ratified by both principals. 代理人不得以被代理人的名义与自己同时代理的其他人实施民事法律行为,但是被代理的双方同意或者追认的除外。
Article 169 Where an agent needs to appoint a third party to perform the object of the mandate in its place, the agent shall obtain the consent or ratification of the principal.   第一百六十九条 代理人需要转委托第三人代理的,应当取得被代理人的同意或者追认。
With the principal's consent to or ratification of the appointment, the principal may directly instruct the third party appointed by the agent regarding the object of the mandate, and the agent shall only be liable for the selection of the third party and its instructions to the third party. 转委托代理经被代理人同意或者追认的,被代理人可以就代理事务直接指示转委托的第三人,代理人仅就第三人的选任以及对第三人的指示承担责任。
Without the principal's consent to or ratification of the appointment, the agent shall be liable for the acts of the third party appointed by the agent, unless it is necessary for the agent to appoint the third party in case of emergency to safeguard the interests of the principal. 转委托代理未经被代理人同意或者追认的,代理人应当对转委托的第三人的行为承担责任,但是在紧急情况下代理人为了维护被代理人的利益需要转委托第三人代理的除外。
Article 170 Where a person who performs tasks for a legal person or an unincorporated organization conducts juridical acts related to matters within his or her scope of powers in the name of the legal person or the unincorporated organization, such acts shall have binding force on the legal person or unincorporated organization.   第一百七十条 执行法人或者非法人组织工作任务的人员,就其职权范围内的事项,以法人或者非法人组织的名义实施民事法律行为,对法人或者非法人组织发生效力。
Any restrictions imposed by a legal person or an unincorporated organization on the scope of powers of the person performing tasks for the legal person or unincorporated organization shall not be set up against bona fide opposite parties. 法人或者非法人组织对执行其工作任务的人员职权范围的限制,不得对抗善意相对人。
Article 171 Where an actor still performs an act of agency without a power of attorney, beyond his or her power of attorney, or after his or her power of attorney terminates, the act shall not be binding on the principal without the principal's ratification.   第一百七十一条 行为人没有代理权、超越代理权或者代理权终止后,仍然实施代理行为,未经被代理人追认的,对被代理人不发生效力。
The opposite may, by a notice, urge the principal to ratify within a month from the date of receipt of the notice. If the principal fails to respond, ratification shall be deemed denied. Before the ratification of the act, the bona fide opposite party shall be entitled to revoke the act. The revocation shall be made by a notice. 相对人可以催告被代理人自收到通知之日起一个月内予以追认。被代理人未作表示的,视为拒绝追认。行为人实施的行为被追认前,善意相对人有撤销的权利。撤销应当以通知的方式作出。
Where ratification of the act is denied, the bona fide opposite party shall be entitled to request that the actor perform obligations or compensate it for any injury suffered by it, but such compensation shall not exceed the interest that could have been obtained by the opposite party if the act were ratified by the principal. 行为人实施的行为未被追认的,善意相对人有权请求行为人履行债务或者就其受到的损害请求行为人赔偿,但是赔偿的范围不得超过被代理人追认时相对人所能获得的利益。
Where the opposite party knows or should have known that the actor has no power of attorney, the opposite party and the actor shall assume liability according to their respective faults. 相对人知道或者应当知道行为人无权代理的,相对人和行为人按照各自的过错承担责任。
Article 172 Where an actor still performs an act of agency without a power of agency, beyond his or her power of attorney, or after his or her power of attorney terminates, the act shall be valid if the opposite party has reason to believe that the actor has the power of attorney.   第一百七十二条 行为人没有代理权、超越代理权或者代理权终止后,仍然实施代理行为,相对人有理由相信行为人有代理权的,代理行为有效。
Section 3 Termination of Agency 

第三节 代理终止

Article 173 Agency by mandate shall terminate under any of the following circumstances:   第一百七十三条 有下列情形之一的,委托代理终止:
(1) The term of agency expires or the object of the mandate is fulfilled. (一)代理期间届满或者代理事务完成;
(2) The principal cancels the mandate or the agent surrenders the mandate. (二)被代理人取消委托或者代理人辞去委托;
(3) The agent loses capacity for civil conduct. (三)代理人丧失民事行为能力;
(4) The agent or the principal dies. (四)代理人或者被代理人死亡;
(5) The legal person or unincorporated organization as the agent or the principal is terminated. (五)作为代理人或者被代理人的法人、非法人组织终止。
Article 174 After the principal dies, the acts of agency performed by an agent under a mandate shall be valid under any of the following circumstances:   第一百七十四条 被代理人死亡后,有下列情形之一的,委托代理人实施的代理行为有效:
(1) The agent does not know and should not have known that the principal died. (一)代理人不知道并且不应当知道被代理人死亡;
(2) The successors of the principal recognize such acts. (二)被代理人的继承人予以承认;
(3) The power of attorney expressly states that the power of agency shall terminate upon fulfillment of the object of the mandate. (三)授权中明确代理权在代理事务完成时终止;
(4) Such acts have been conducted before the principal dies and continue for the benefits of the principal's successors. (四)被代理人死亡前已经实施,为了被代理人的继承人的利益继续代理。
The provision of the preceding paragraph shall apply, mutatis mutandis, where a legal person or an unincorporated organization as the principal is terminated. 作为被代理人的法人、非法人组织终止的,参照适用前款规定。
Article 175 Statutory agency shall terminate under any of the following circumstances:   第一百七十五条 有下列情形之一的,法定代理终止:
(1) The principal obtains or regains full capacity for civil conduct. (一)被代理人取得或者恢复完全民事行为能力;
(2) The agent loses capacity for civil conduct. (二)代理人丧失民事行为能力;
(3) The agent or the principal dies. (三)代理人或者被代理人死亡;
(4) Any other circumstance specified by laws. (四)法律规定的其他情形。
Chapter VIII Civil Liability 

第八章 民事责任

Article 176 The parties to civil legal relations shall perform their civil obligations and assume civil liabilities in accordance with the provisions of laws and the agreements of the parties.   第一百七十六条 民事主体依照法律规定和当事人约定,履行民事义务,承担民事责任。
Article 177 Where two or more persons share liability in accordance with the law, they shall assume corresponding liability respectively if their respective liabilities can be determined; or evenly assume liability if it is difficult to determine their respective liabilities.   第一百七十七条 二人以上依法承担按份责任,能够确定责任大小的,各自承担相应的责任;难以确定责任大小的,平均承担责任。
Article 178 Where two or more persons are jointly and severally liable in accordance with the law, the obligee is entitled to request assumption of liability by part or all of the persons jointly and severally liable.   第一百七十八条 二人以上依法承担连带责任的,权利人有权请求部分或者全部连带责任人承担责任。
The shares of liability of persons jointly and severally liable shall be determined based on the gravity of liability of each person; or the liability shall be evenly shared if it is difficult to determine the gravity of liability of each person. If the liability actually assumed by a person jointly and severally liable exceeds the person's share of liability, the person shall be entitled to claim indemnities from other persons jointly and severally liable. 连带责任人的责任份额根据各自责任大小确定;难以确定责任大小的,平均承担责任。实际承担责任超过自己责任份额的连带责任人,有权向其他连带责任人追偿。
The joint and several liability shall be governed by the provisions of laws or the agreements of the parties. 连带责任,由法律规定或者当事人约定。
Article 179 Civil liability shall be assumed primarily in the following manners:   第一百七十九条 承担民事责任的方式主要有:
(1) Cessation of infringement. (一)停止侵害;
(2) Removal of obstacles. (二)排除妨碍;
(3) Elimination of danger. (三)消除危险;
(4) Restitution of property. (四)返还财产;
(5) Restoration to the original condition. (五)恢复原状;
(6) Repair, reworking, or replacement. (六)修理、重作、更换;
(7) Continued performance. (七)继续履行;
(8) Compensation for loss. (八)赔偿损失;
(9) Payment of liquidated damages. (九)支付违约金;
(10) Elimination of adverse effects and rehabilitation of reputation. (十)消除影响、恢复名誉;
(11) Making an apology. (十一)赔礼道歉。
Where any law provides for punitive damages, such a law shall apply. 法律规定惩罚性赔偿的,依照其规定。
The manners of assuming civil liability as set forth in this article may be applied alone or by a combination. 本条规定的承担民事责任的方式,可以单独适用,也可以合并适用。
Article 180 Where the non-performance of civil obligations is caused by a force majeure, no civil liability shall arise therefrom, except as otherwise provided for by any law.   第一百八十条 因不可抗力不能履行民事义务的,不承担民事责任。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
A force majeure means any objective circumstance that is unforeseeable, inevitable, and insurmountable. 不可抗力是指不能预见、不能避免且不能克服的客观情况。
Article 181 Where any harm is caused by self-defense, no civil liability shall arise therefrom.   第一百八十一条 因正当防卫造成损害的,不承担民事责任。
Where self-defense exceeds the limit of necessity and causes undue harm, the person in self-defense shall assume appropriate civil liability. 正当防卫超过必要的限度,造成不应有的损害的,正当防卫人应当承担适当的民事责任。
Article 182 Where any damage is caused by necessity to avoid a danger in emergency, the person causing the danger shall assume civil liability.   第一百八十二条 因紧急避险造成损害的,由引起险情发生的人承担民事责任。
Where the danger arises from any natural cause, the person acting to avoid the danger shall not assume civil liability, but may make appropriate indemnification. 危险由自然原因引起的,紧急避险人不承担民事责任,可以给予适当补偿。
Where the act of avoiding a danger in emergency is inappropriate or exceeds the limit of necessity and causes undue harm, the person acting to avoid the danger shall assume appropriate civil liability. 紧急避险采取措施不当或者超过必要的限度,造成不应有的损害的,紧急避险人应当承担适当的民事责任。
Article 183 Where a person suffers any harm in order to protect any other person's civil rights and interests, the tortfeasor shall assume civil liability, and the beneficiary may make appropriate indemnification. If there is no tortfeasor or the tortfeasor has fled or is unable to assume civil liability, the beneficiary shall make appropriate indemnification if the victim claims indemnification.   第一百八十三条 因保护他人民事权益使自己受到损害的,由侵权人承担民事责任,受益人可以给予适当补偿。没有侵权人、侵权人逃逸或者无力承担民事责任,受害人请求补偿的,受益人应当给予适当补偿。
Article 184 A person who voluntarily provides emergency assistance and causes harm to the recipient of assistance shall not assume civil liability.   第一百八十四条 因自愿实施紧急救助行为造成受助人损害的,救助人不承担民事责任。
Article 185 A person who infringes upon the name, likeness, reputation, or honor of a hero or a martyr, among others, causing damage to the public interest, shall assume civil liability.   第一百八十五条 侵害英雄烈士等的姓名、肖像、名誉、荣誉,损害社会公共利益的,应当承担民事责任。
Article 186 Where a party breaches a contract, causing damage to the other party's personal or property rights and interests, the aggrieved party shall be entitled to request the party to assume liability for breach of contract or assume tort liability.   第一百八十六条 因当事人一方的违约行为,损害对方人身权益、财产权益的,受损害方有权选择请求其承担违约责任或者侵权责任。
Article 187 Where a party to civil legal relations shall be held civilly, administratively, and criminally liable for the same act, the assumption of administrative liability or criminal liability does not affect the assumption of civil liability; and if the party's property is insufficient for payment, the property shall be used first for assumption of civil liability.   第一百八十七条 民事主体因同一行为应当承担民事责任、行政责任和刑事责任的,承担行政责任或者刑事责任不影响承担民事责任;民事主体的财产不足以支付的,优先用于承担民事责任。
Chapter IX Extinctive Prescription 

第九章 诉讼时效

Article 188 An action instituted in a people's court for protection of civil rights is prescribed by three years, except as otherwise prescribed by any law.   第一百八十八条 向人民法院请求保护民事权利的诉讼时效期间为三年。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
The prescriptive period shall be calculated from the day when the obligee knows or should have known that his or her right has been infringed upon and who the obligor is, except as otherwise provided for by any law. The people's court shall not offer protection if 20 years have elapsed since the infringement; but under special circumstances, the people's court may decide to extend the prescriptive period upon application of the obligee. 诉讼时效期间自权利人知道或者应当知道权利受到损害以及义务人之日起计算。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。但是自权利受到损害之日起超过二十年的,人民法院不予保护;有特殊情况的,人民法院可以根据权利人的申请决定延长。
Article 189 Where the parties have agreed on the installment performance of a debt, the prescriptive period shall be calculated from the day when the time limit for the last installment expires.   第一百八十九条 当事人约定同一债务分期履行的,诉讼时效期间自最后一期履行期限届满之日起计算。
Article 190 The prescriptive period of a claim of a person without or with limited capacity for civil conduct against his or her statutory agent shall be calculated from the day when the agency by operation of law is terminated.   第一百九十条 无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人对其法定代理人的请求权的诉讼时效期间,自该法定代理终止之日起计算。
Article 191 The prescriptive period of a claim for damages of a minor who has suffered sexual assault shall be calculated from the day when the victim attains the age of eighteen.   第一百九十一条 未成年人遭受性侵害的损害赔偿请求权的诉讼时效期间,自受害人年满十八周岁之日起计算。
Article 192 When the prescriptive period expires, the obligor may use it as a defense for non-performance of obligations.   第一百九十二条 诉讼时效期间届满的,义务人可以提出不履行义务的抗辩。
Where the obligor agrees to perform after the prescriptive period expires, the obligor may not defend on the ground that the prescriptive period has expired; and if the obligor has voluntarily performed, no request for restitution may be made. 诉讼时效期间届满后,义务人同意履行的,不得以诉讼时效期间届满为由抗辩;义务人已自愿履行的,不得请求返还。
Article 193 A people's court shall not apply the provisions on extinctive prescription of its own motion.   第一百九十三条 人民法院不得主动适用诉讼时效的规定。
Article 194 The prescriptive period shall be suspended if during the last six months of the period, a claim cannot be filed for any of the following obstacles:   第一百九十四条 在诉讼时效期间的最后六个月内,因下列障碍,不能行使请求权的,诉讼时效中止:
(1) A force majeure. (一)不可抗力;
(2) The person without or with limited capacity for civil conduct has no statutory agent, or his or her statutory agent dies, loses capacity for civil conduct, or loses the power conferred by laws. (二)无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人没有法定代理人,或者法定代理人死亡、丧失民事行为能力、丧失代理权;
(3) The successor or legacy administrator has not been determined after the commencement of succession. (三)继承开始后未确定继承人或者遗产管理人;
(4) The obligee is controlled by the obligor or any other person. (四)权利人被义务人或者其他人控制;
(5) Any other obstacle resulting in the obligee's failure to file a claim. (五)其他导致权利人不能行使请求权的障碍。
The prescriptive period shall expire six months after the day when the obstacle causing the suspension is eliminated. 自中止时效的原因消除之日起满六个月,诉讼时效期间届满。
Article 195 The prescriptive period interrupted under any of the following circumstances shall be recalculated from the time of interruption or conclusion of the relevant procedure:   第一百九十五条 有下列情形之一的,诉讼时效中断,从中断、有关程序终结时起,诉讼时效期间重新计算:
(1) The obligee requests the obligor's performance. (一)权利人向义务人提出履行请求;
(2) The obligor agrees to perform. (二)义务人同意履行义务;
(3) The obligee institutes an action or applies for arbitration. (三)权利人提起诉讼或者申请仲裁;
(4) Any other circumstance with equal effects as instituting an action or applying for arbitration. (四)与提起诉讼或者申请仲裁具有同等效力的其他情形。
Article 196 The provisions on prescriptive period shall not apply to the following claims:   第一百九十六条 下列请求权不适用诉讼时效的规定:
(1) A claim for cessation of infringement, removal of obstacles, or elimination of danger. (一)请求停止侵害、排除妨碍、消除危险;
(2) The claim of a holder of a real right in an immovable or a registered real right in a movable for restitution of property. (二)不动产物权和登记的动产物权的权利人请求返还财产;
(3) A claim for payment of child support, support for elderly parents, or spousal support. (三)请求支付抚养费、赡养费或者扶养费;
(4) Any other claim to which the prescriptive period does not apply in accordance with the law. (四)依法不适用诉讼时效的其他请求权。
Article 197 The period, calculation method, and causes of suspension or interruption of extinctive prescription shall be provided for by laws, and any agreement between the parties in this respect shall be void.   第一百九十七条 诉讼时效的期间、计算方法以及中止、中断的事由由法律规定,当事人约定无效。
A party's prior renouncement of the benefit of prescription shall be void. 当事人对诉讼时效利益的预先放弃无效。
Article 198 Where any law prescribes arbitration, such a law shall apply; otherwise, the provisions on extinctive prescription for actions shall apply.   第一百九十八条 法律对仲裁时效有规定的,依照其规定;没有规定的,适用诉讼时效的规定。
Article 199 Except as otherwise provided for by any law, the duration of rights such as the right of revocation and the right of rescission as granted by laws or agreed upon by the parties shall be calculated from the day when a right holder knows or should have known that such a right has arisen, and the provisions on the suspension, interruption, and extension of extinctive prescription shall not apply to the above duration. The right of revocation, right of rescission, and other rights shall be extinguished upon expiration of such duration.   第一百九十九条 法律规定或者当事人约定的撤销权、解除权等权利的存续期间,除法律另有规定外,自权利人知道或者应当知道权利产生之日起计算,不适用有关诉讼时效中止、中断和延长的规定。存续期间届满,撤销权、解除权等权利消灭。
Chapter X Calculation of Time Periods 

第十章 期间计算

Article 200 For the purposes of the civil law, a time period shall be calculated according to the Gregorian calendar by year, month, day, and hour.   第二百条 民法所称的期间按照公历年、月、日、小时计算。
Article 201 Where a time period is calculated by year, month, and day, the first day of the period shall not be counted, and the period shall be counted from the next day.   第二百零一条 按照年、月、日计算期间的,开始的当日不计入,自下一日开始计算。
Where a time period is calculated by hour, the period shall be counted from the time specified by laws or agreed upon by the parties. 按照小时计算期间的,自法律规定或者当事人约定的时间开始计算。
Article 202 Where a time period is calculated by year and month, the corresponding date of the expiry month shall be the last day of the time period; or if there is no corresponding date, the last day of the expiry month shall be the last day of the time period.   第二百零二条 按照年、月计算期间的,到期月的对应日为期间的最后一日;没有对应日的,月末日为期间的最后一日。
Article 203 Where the last day of a time period falls on a legal holiday, the day after the legal holiday shall be the last day of the time period.   第二百零三条 期间的最后一日是法定休假日的,以法定休假日结束的次日为期间的最后一日。
The last day of a time period shall end at 24:00; or if business hours are applicable, the last day shall end at the closing hour. 期间的最后一日的截止时间为二十四时;有业务时间的,停止业务活动的时间为截止时间。
Article 204 Time periods shall be calculated in methods specified by this Law, except as otherwise provided for by any law or agreed upon by the parties.   第二百零四条 期间的计算方法依照本法的规定,但是法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。
Chapter XI Supplemental Provisions 

第十一章 附 则

Article 205 For the purposes of the civil law, “not less than,” “not more than,” “within,” and “expire” shall include the figure itself; “under,” “exceed,” and “beyond” shall not include the figure itself.   第二百零五条 民法所称的“以上”“以下”“以内”“届满”,包括本数;所称的“不满”“超过”“以外”,不包括本数。
Article 206 This Law shall come into force on October 1, 2017.   第二百零六条 本法自2017年10月1日起施行。
     
     
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