>>>welcome 河南大学, You have logged in.
Logout History Contact us  
Font Size:  A A A Search “Fabao” Window English 中文 = 简体  繁体
  Favorite   DownLoad   Print
 
Foreign Trade Law of the People's Republic of China [Revised]
中华人民共和国对外贸易法 [已被修订]
【法宝引证码】

Order of the President of the People's Republic of China

 

中华人民共和国主席令


(No. 22)

 
(第二十二号)


The Foreign Trade Law of the People's Republic of China, as adopted at the 7th Session of Standing Committee of the Eighth National People's Congress on May 12, 1994, is hereby issued and shall come into force as of July 1, 1994.

 
《中华人民共和国对外贸易法》已由中华人民共和国第八届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第七次会议于1994年5月12日通过,现予公布,自1994年7月1日起施行。

President of the People's Republic of China: Jiang Zemin

 

中华人民共和国主席 江泽民


May 12, 1994

 
1994年5月12日


FOREIGN TRADE LAW OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
 

中华人民共和国对外贸易法


(Adopted at the Seventh Session of the Standing Committee of the Eight
National People's Congress on May 12,1994)
 
(1994年5月12日第八届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第七次会议通过)

 

CHAPTER ONE GENERAL PROVISIONS 

第一章 总则


 
Article 1 The law has been formulated with a view to developing foreign   第一条 为了发展对外贸易,维护对外贸易秩序,促进社会主义市场经济的健康发展,制定本法。

trade, maintaining order in foreign trade activities and promoting a
 

healthy development of the socialist market economy.
   第二条 本法所称对外贸易,是指货物进出口、技术进出口和国际服务贸易。

 
Article 2 The term "foreign trade" used in this law refers to the import   第三条 国务院对外经济贸易主管部门依照本法主管全国对外贸易工作。

and export of goods and technologies and international service trade.
 

   第四条 国家实行统一的对外贸易制度,依法维护公平的、自由的对外贸易秩序。
Article 3 The department in charge of foreign economic cooperation and 
国家鼓励发展对外贸易,发挥地方的积极性,保障对外贸易经营者的经营自主权。

trade under the State Council takes charge of all foreign trade work in
 

the whole country according to this law.
   第五条 中华人民共和国根据平等互利的原则,促进和发展同其他国家和地区的贸易关系。

 
Article 4 The State adopts a unified foreign trade system and exercises   第六条 中华人民共和国在对外贸易方面根据所缔结或者参加的国际条约、协定,给予其他缔约方、参加方或者根据互惠、对等原则给予对方最惠国待遇、国民待遇。

a fair and free trade order.
 

The State shall encourage every effort in trade development, help to
   第七条 任何国家或者地区在贸易方面对中华人民共和国采取歧视性的禁止、限制或者其他类似措施的,中华人民共和国可以根据实际情况对该国家或者该地区采取相应的措施。

bring the initiative of the localities into play, and safeguard the
 

autonomy of trade operators in trade operation.
 

第二章 对外贸易经营者


 
Article 5 The People's Republic of China shall promote and develop   第八条 本法所称对外贸易经营者,是指依照本法规定从事对外贸易经营活动的法人和其他组织。

trading relations with all other countries and regions on the principle
 

of equality and mutual benefit.
   第九条 从事货物进出口与技术进出口的对外贸易经营,必须具备下列条件,经国务院对外经济贸易主管部门许可:

 
Article 6 The People's Republic of China shall, in accordance with (一)有自己的名称和组织机构;

international treaties or agreements that she has signed or entered
 

into, grant the counterparts which have signed or entered into such
 (二)有明确的对外贸易经营范围;

treaties or agreements the most favour nation or national treatment of
 

China.
 (三)具有其经营的对外贸易业务所必需的场所、资金和专业人员;

 
Article 7 The People's Republic of China shall have the right to adopt, (四)委托他人办理进出口业务达到规定的实绩或者具有必需的进出口货源;

in accordance with the actual circumstances, corresponding measures
 

against any country or region to counter their discriminatory banning,
 (五)法律、行政法规规定的其他条件。

restrict or other acts on Chinese goods.
 
前款规定的实施办法由国务院规定。

 
外商投资企业依照有关外商投资企业的法律、行政法规的规定,进口企业自用的非生产物品,进口企业生产所需的设备、原材料和其他物资,出口其生产的产品,免予办理第一款规定的许可。
CHAPTER TWO FOREIGN TRADE OPERATOR 

   第十条 国际服务贸易企业和组织的设立及其经营活动,应当遵守本法和其他有关法律、行政法规的规定。
Article 8 The term "foreign trade operator" used in this law refers to a 

legal person or organization engaging in foreign trade activities in
   第十一条 对外贸易经营者依法自主经营、自负盈亏。

compliance with the provisions of this law.
 

   第十二条 对外贸易经营者从事对外贸易经营活动,应当信守合同,保证商品质量,完善售后服务。
Article 9 A foreign trade operator engaging in the import and export of 

goods or technologies shall meet the following requirements and get the
   第十三条 没有对外贸易经营许可的组织或者个人,可以在国内委托对外贸易经营者在其经营范围内代为办理其对外贸易业务。

license from the department in charge of foreign economic cooperation
 
接受委托的对外贸易经营者应当向委托方如实提供市场行情、商品价格、客户情况等有关的经营信息。委托方与被委托方应当签订委托合同,双方的权利义务由合同约定。

and trade under the State Council:
 

   第十四条 对外贸易经营者应当按照国务院对外经济贸易主管部门的规定,向有关部门提交与其对外贸易经营活动有关的文件及资料。有关部门应当为提供者保守商业秘密。
1. It shall have its own name and organizational setup; 

 

第三章 货物进出口与技术进出口

2. It shall have a clearly defined scope of foreign trade operations; 

   第十五条 国家准许货物与技术的自由进出口。但是,法律、行政法规另有规定的除外。
3. It shall have the site, funds and professional personnel necessary 

for carrying out foreign trade activities;
   第十六条 属于下列情形之一的货物、技术,国家可以限制进口或者出口:

 
4. The import and export operations handled by its agencies have reached (一)为维护国家安全或者社会公共利益,需要限制进口或者出口的;

the prescribed merit or it shall have the necessary sources of goods for
 

import or export; and
 (二)国内供应短缺或者为有效保护可能用竭的国内资源,需要限制出口的;

 
5. It shall have other conditions as required by other laws or (三)输往国家或者地区的市场容量有限,需要限制出口的;

administrative decrees.
 

The detailed rules for the implementation of the preceding provisions
 (四)为建立或者加快建立国内特定产业,需要限制进口的;

shall be formulated by the State Council.
 

Foreign-funded enterprises (FEEs) shall be exempted from licenses
 (五)对任何形式的农业、牧业、渔业产品有必要限制进口的;

referred to above when importing non-productive goods for their own use
 

or equipment, raw and other materials needed in their own production and
 (六)为保障国家国际金融地位和国际收支平衡,需要限制进口的;

in exporting their products according to the provisions of the laws
 

governing FEE and relevant administrative decrees.
 (七)根据中华人民共和国所缔结或者参加的国际条约、协定的规定,需要限制进口或者出口的。

 
Article 10 The start-up and business operations of enterprises and   第十七条 属于下列情形之一的货物、技术,国家禁止进口或者出口:

organizations engaging in international service trade shall follow the
 

provisions of this and other relevant laws and administrative decrees.
 (一)危害国家安全或者社会公共利益的;

 
Article 11 Foreign trade operators shall operate independently according (二)为保护人的生命或者健康,必须禁止进口或者出口的;

to law and be responsible for their own profits or losses.
 

 (三)破坏生态环境的;
Article 12 In carrying out foreign trade activities, the operators shall 

abide by contracts, ensure the quality of commodities and improve
 (四)根据中华人民共和国所缔结或者参加的国际条约、协定的规定,需要禁止进口或者出口的。

after-sale services.
 

   第十八条 国务院对外经济贸易主管部门应当会同国务院有关部门,依照本法第十六条、第十七条的规定,制定、调整并公布限制或者禁止进出口的货物、技术目录。
Article 13 An organization or an individual that does not acquire a 
国务院对外经济贸易主管部门或者由其会同国务院有关部门,经国务院批准,可以在本法第十六条、第十七条规定的范围内,临时决定限制或者禁止前款规定目录以外的特定货物、技术的进口或者出口。

license for carrying out foreign trade activities may entrust a foreign
 

trade operator as agent to handle the ad hoc trade operations within the
   第十九条 对限制进口或者出口的货物,实行配额或者许可证管理;对限制进口或者出口的技术,实行许可证管理。

ad hoc scope of business.
 
实行配额或者许可证管理的货物、技术,必须依照国务院规定经国务院对外经济贸易主管部门或者由其会同国务院有关部门许可,方可进口或者出口。

A foreign trade operator acting as an agent shall provide appropriate
 

information to the trustor such as market prices and conditions of
   第二十条 进出口货物配额,由国务院对外经济贸易主管部门或者国务院有关部门在各自的职责范围内,根据申请者的进出口实绩、能力等条件,按照效益、公证、公开和公平竞争的原则进行分配。

clients. The trustor and the trustee shall sign a contract, which shall
 
配额的分配方式和办法由国务院规定。

stipulate the rights and obligations of both sides.
 

   第二十一条 对文物、野生动植物及其产品等货物、物品,其他法律、行政法规有禁止进出口或者限制进出口规定的,依照有关法律、行政法规的规定办理。
Article 14 A foreign trade operator shall provide documents and 

materials related to its foreign trade activities to departments
 

第四章 国际服务贸易


concerned according to the provisions promulgated by the department in
 

charge of foreign economic cooperation and trade under the State Council
   第二十二条 国家促进国际服务贸易的逐步发展。

and the department concerned shall undertake to protect the commercial
 

secrets of the foreign trade operator.
   第二十三条 中华人民共和国在国际服务贸易方面根据所缔结或者参加的国际条约、协定中所作的承诺,给予其他缔约方、参加方市场准入和国民待遇。

 
CHAPTER THREE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF GOODS AND TECHNOLOGIES   第二十四条 国家基于下列原因之一,可以限制国际服务贸易:

 
Article 15 The State shall allow the free import and export of goods and (一)为维护国家安全或者社会公共利益;

technologies, except otherwise provided for by other laws and
 

administrative decrees.
 (二)为保护生态环境;

 
Article 16 The State may restrict the import or export of the goods or (三)为建立或者加快建立国内特定的服务行业;

technologies that are of:
 

 (四)为保障国家外汇收支平衡;
1. being necessary of restriction in import and export because of 

involving national security and public interest;
 (五)法律、行政法规规定的其他限制。

 
2. being necessary of restriction of export because of a short of supply   第二十五条 属于下列情形之一的国际服务贸易,国家予以禁止:

at home or being important domestic resources that are of danger of
 

being exhausted;
 (一)危害国家安全或者社会公共利益的;

 
3. under restriction of import by import countries or regions due to a (二)违反中华人民共和国承担的国际义务的;

limited market;
 

 (三)法律、行政法规规定禁止的。
4. necessary of restriction of import by the State to protect the smooth 

or accelerated development of certain industries at home;
   第二十六条 国务院对外经济贸易主管部门和国务院有关部门,依照本法和其他有关法律、行政法规,对国际服务贸易进行管理。

 
5. agricultural, animal husbandry and fishery products in any form that 

第五章 对外贸易秩序


are necessary to be restricted of importing by the State;
 

   第二十七条 对外贸易经营者在对外贸易经营活动中,应当依法经营,公平竞争,不得有下列行为:
6. being necessary of restriction of import by the State in view to 

maintain a certain financial position of the nation in the world or to
 (一)伪造、变造或者买卖进出口原产地证明、进出口许可证;

ensure a balance of international payments of the country; and
 

 (二)侵害中华人民共和国法律保护的知识产权;
7. subject to restriction of import and export by international treaties 

or agreements to which the People's Republic of China is a signatory or
 (三)以不正当竞争手段排挤竞争对手;

has entered.
 

 (四)骗取国家的出口退税;
Article 17 The State shall ban the import or export of goods or 

technologies that are of:
 (五)违反法律、行政法规规定的其他行为。

 
1. jeopardy to national security or public interest;   第二十八条 对外贸易经营者在对外贸易经营活动中,应当依照国家有关规定结汇、用汇。

 
2. necessary to ban their import in view to protect the life or health   第二十九条 因进口产品数量增加,使国内相同产品或者与其直接竞争的产品的生产者受到严重损害或者严重损害的威胁时,国家可以采取必要的保障措施,消除或者减轻这种损害或者损害的威胁。

of the people;
 

   第三十条 产品以低于正常价值的方式进口,并由此对国内已建立的相关产业造成实质损害或者产生实质损害的威胁,或者对国内建立相关产业造成实质阻碍时,国家可以采取必要措施,消除或者减轻这种损害或者损害的威胁或者阻碍。
3. danger to ecological environment; and 

   第三十一条 进口的产品直接或者间接地接受出口国给予的任何形式的补贴,并由此对国内已建立的相关产业造成实质损害或者产生实质损害的威胁,或者对国内建立相关产业造成实质阻碍时,国家可以采取必要措施,消除或者减轻这种损害或者损害的威胁或者阻碍。
4. banning import by the provisions of international treaties or 

agreements to which the People's Republic of China is a signatory or has
   第三十二条 发生第二十九条、第三十条、第三十一条规定的情况时,国务院规定的部门或者机构应当依照法律、行政法规的规定进行调查,作出处理。

entered.
 

 

第六章 对外贸易促进我我我什么都没做

Article 18 The department in charge of foreign economic cooperation and 

trade under the State Council shall, together with other relevant
   第三十三条 国家根据对外贸易发展的需要,建立和完善为对外贸易服务的金融机构,设立对外贸易发展基金、风险基金。

departments under the State Council, draw up, revise and publish the
 

catalogues of goods and technologies whose import or export are
   第三十四条 国家采取进出口信贷、出口退税及其他对外贸易促进措施,发展对外贸易。

restricted or banned in accordance with the provisions of Articles 16
 

and 17 of this law.
   第三十五条 对外贸易经营者可以依法成立和参加进出口商会。

The department in charge of foreign economic cooperation and trade under
 
进出口商会应当遵守法律、行政法规,依照章程对其会员的对外贸易经营活动进行协调指导,提供咨询服务,向政府有关部门反映会员有关对外贸易促进方面的建议,并积极开展对外贸易促进活动。

the State Council may, independently or together with other relevant
 

departments under the State Council, take prompt decisions to restrict
   第三十六条 中国国际贸易促进组织依照章程开展对外联系,举办展览,提供信息、咨询服务和其他对外贸易促进活动。

or ban the import or export of special goods or technologies not listed
 

in the catalogue mentioned in the Articles 16 and 17 of this law.
   第三十七条 国家扶持和促进民族自治地方和经济不发达地区发展对外贸易。

 

第七章 法律责任

Article 19 Goods whose import or export is restricted shall be subject 

to quota or license management; technologies whose import or export is
   第三十八条 走私禁止进出口或者限制进出口的货物,构成犯罪的,依照惩治走私罪的补充规定追究刑事责任;不构成犯罪的,依照海关法的规定处罚。国务院对外经济贸易主管部门并可以撤销其对外贸易经营许可。

restricted shall be subject to license management.
 

Goods and technologies subject to quota or license management can be
   第三十九条 伪造、变造进出口原产地证明、进出口许可证,依照刑法一百六十七条的规定追究刑事责任;买卖进出口原产地证明、进出口许可证或者买卖伪造、变造的进出口原产地证明、进出口许可证,比照刑法一百六十七条的规定追究刑事责任。

imported or exported only when it has been approved by the department in
 
单位犯前款罪的,判处罚金,并对单位直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员依照或者比照刑法一百六十七条的规定追究刑事责任。国务院对外经济贸易主管部门并可以撤销其对外贸易经营许可。

charge of foreign economic cooperation and trade independently or
 
明知是伪造、变造的进出口许可证而用以进口或者出口货物,依照本法第三十八条的规定处罚。

jointly with other relevant departments under the State Council
 

according to the provisions promulgated by the State Council.
   第四十条 违反本法规定,进口或者出口禁止进出口或者限制进出口的技术,构成犯罪的,比照惩治走私罪的补充规定追究刑事责任。

 
Article 20 The import and export quotas shall be allocated by the   第四十一条 国家对外贸易工作人员玩忽职守、徇私舞弊或者滥用职权,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任;不构成犯罪的,给予行政处分。

department in charge of foreign economic cooperation and trade under the
 
国家对外贸易工作人员利用职务上的便利,索取他人财物,或者非法收受他人财物为他人谋取利益,构成犯罪的,依照惩治贪污罪贿赂罪的补充规定追究刑事责任;不构成犯罪的,给予行政处分。

State Council or by relevant departments under the State Council within
 

their terms of reference in line with the import and export performances
 

第八章 附则


and capabilities of applicants and on the basis of the principles of
 

efficiency, fairness, openness and fair competition.
   第四十二条 国家对边境城镇与接壤国家边境城镇之间的贸易以及边民互市贸易,采取灵活措施,给予优惠和便利。具体办法由国务院规定。

The specific methods of quota allocation shall be worked out by the
 

State Council.
   第四十三条 中华人民共和国的单独关税区不适用本法。

 
Article 21 For goods and article, including culture relics, wild animals   第四十四条 本法自1994年7月1目起施行。

and plants and their products whose import or export is banned or
 
附:

restricted according to other laws and administrative decrees, the
 

  刑法有关条款


provisions of other laws and administrative decrees shall apply.
 

   第一百六十七条 伪造、变造或者盗窃、抢夺、毁灭国家机关、企业、事业单位、人民团体的公文、证件、印章的,处三年以下有期徒刑、拘役、管制或者剥夺政治权利;情节严重的,处三年以上十年以下有期徒刑。
CHAPTER FOUR INTERNATIONAL SERVICE TRADE 

 
Article 22 The State shall encourage the development of international 

service trade on steps.
 

 
Article 23 In context of international service trade, the People's 

Republic of China shall grant market access and national treatment of
 

other parties which have signed or entered into the international
 

treaties and agreements to which China is a signatory or a
 

participant with regard to international service trade.
 

 
Article 24 Some restrictions might be imposed on the international 

service trade by the State on following reasons:
 

 
1. For safeguarding national security or public interests; 

 
2. For protecting the ecological environment; 

 
3. For safeguarding the smooth or accelerated development of given 

service trade at home;
 

 
4. For guaranteeing the country's balance of international payments;and 

 
5. For other reasons as prescribed by other laws or administrative 

decrees.
 

 
Article 25 The State shall ban the international service trade which 

would:
 

 
1. jeopardize the national security or public interests; 

 
2. result in a violation to the international obligations undertaken by 

the People's Republic of China; and
 

 
3. be banned by the provisions of other laws or administrative decrees. 

 
Article 26 The Department in charge of foreign economic cooperation and 

trade and other relevant departments under the State Council shall give
 

due management to the international service trade in accordance with the
 

provisions of this and other laws and administrative decrees.
 

 
CHAPTER FIVE FOREIGN TRADE ORDER 

 
Article 27 Foreign trade shall be undertaken in compliance with law and 

under the principle of fair competition with the following acts being
 

strictly prohibited:
 

 
1. Forge, modify or trade in certificates of place of origin and import 

and export licenses;
 

 
2. Infringe upon the intellectual property rights protected by the law 

of the People's Republic of China;
 

 
3. Expel competitors by resorting to unjustifiable means of competition; 

 
4. Get export refund from the State by deception; and 

 
5. Commit acts that violate the provisions of other laws and 

administrative decrees.
 

 
Article 28 In undertakings of foreign trade, foreign exchange should be 

appropriately cleared and used according to the relevant provisions of
 

the State.
 

 
Article 29 Should the normal production of some of the domestic goods be 

in great harm or under great threat of such harm due to the increasing
 

import of same kinds of goods or similar goods that are in severe
 

competition with the domestic ones, the State may take any
 

countermeasures to expel or mitigate such harm or threat.
 

 
Article 30 Should a well established or fledgling industry at home be in 

substantial harm or under threat of such harm due to the import of
 

relative goods in under normal value, the State may take any
 

countermeasures to expel or mitigate such harm or threat.
 

 
Article 31 Should a well-established or fledgling industry at home be 

in substantial harm or under threat of such harm due to the import of
 

goods that are exported under some kinds of subsidies of the exporting
 

country or region, the State may take any countermeasures to expel or
 

mitigate such harm of threat.
 

 
Article 32 If cases prescribed in Article 29, Article 30 and Article 31 

occur, the departments or organizations designated by the State Council
 

shall investigate into and handle them properly according to the
 

provisions of the laws and administrative decrees.
 

 
CHAPTER SIX PROMOTION OF FOREIGN TRADE 

 
Article 33 For developing foreign trade, the State shall make effort to 

set up and improve special financial institutions that are to serve
 

foreign trade as well as establish development and risk funds for the
 

trade.
 

 
Article 34 The State shall adopt various promotion measures to develop 

foreign trade including issuing of import and export credits and setting
 

up of export refunds etc.
 

 
Article 35 Foreign trade operators may establish or enter in any import 

and export chambers of commerce according to law.
 

Import and export chambers of commerce shall abide by the laws and
 

administrative decrees to coordinate the efforts of their members,
 

provide them with guidance and consultancy services, convey to the
 

government departments in charge proposals on promoting foreign trade,
 

and actively carry out foreign trade promotion activities.
 

 
Article 36 Chinese organizations for the promotion of international 

trade shall, according to their articles of association, develop
 

contacts with overseas businesses, hold exhibitions, provide information
 

and consultancy services and engage in other foreign trade promotion
 

activities.
 

 
Article 37 The State shall make special effort to promote foreign trade 

ethnic autonomous regions and economically less developed areas.
 

 
CHAPTER SEVEN LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES 

 
Article 38 Smuggling of goods that are restricted or banned for import 

or export shall be punished accordingly. If the case is serious enough
 

to constitute a crime, criminal responsibility shall be affixed in
 

accordance with supplementary provisions on punishing smuggling. If the
 

case is not serious enough to constitute a crime, it shall be handled
 

in accordance with the corresponding provisions of the customs. In such
 

cases, related foreign trade licenses shall be revoked at the same time
 

by the department in charge of foreign cooperation and trade.
 

 
Article 39 Criminal responsibilities shall be affixed according to the 

provisions of Article 167 of the criminal law on any forge or
 

modification of certificates of place of origin or import and export
 

licenses. Criminal responsibilities shall be affixed in reference to the
 

provisions of Article 167 of the criminal law on trade-in of
 

certificates of place of origin for imports and exports, import and
 

export licenses or trade-in of forged or modified certificates of place
 

of origin or import and export licenses.
 

For a unit that has committed the crimes mentioned in the preceding
 

paragraph, pecuniary penalty shall be given and additionally criminal
 

responsibilities shall be affixed according to or in reference to the
 

provisions of Article 167 of the criminal law on the responsible people
 

or other people directly in charge. The department in charge of foreign
 

economic cooperation and trade under the State Council may,
 

concurrently, revoke its foreign trade license.
 

Those who knowingly use forged or modified licenses for import or export
 

shall be punished according to the provisions of Article 38 of this law.
 

 
Article 40 For illegally importing or exporting technologies whose 

import or export is banned or restricted against this law, if the case
 

is serious enough to constitute a crime, criminal responsibilities shall
 

be affixed in reference to the supplementary provisions on punishing smuggling crimes.
 

 
Article 41 If a foreign trade worker is found committed dereliction of 

duty, resorted to deception for personal gains or abused their powers,
 

criminal responsibilities shall be affixed if the case is serious enough
 

to constitute a crime and administrative punishments shall be meted out
 

if the case is not serious enough to constitute a crime.
 

If a foreign trade worker is found taking advantage of his/her position
 

to extort effects from others or seek interests for others after
 

accepting effects, criminal responsibilities shall be affixed according
 

to the supplementary provisions for punishing corruption and bribery if
 

the case is serious enough to constitute a crime and administrative
 

punishments shall be meted out if the case is not serious enough to
 

constitute a crime.
 

 
CHAPTER EIGHT SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS 

 
Article 42 The State shall adopt flexible measures and grant 

preferential treatment and conveniences to promote trade between border
 

towns of China and neighboring countries and trading among border
 

residents at fairs within each other's territories. Specific procedures
 

shall be formulated by the State Council.
 

 
Article 43 The law shall not apply to exclusive tariff aeas of the 

People's Republic of China.
 

 
Article 44 The law shall be implemented as of July 1, 1994. 
     
     
Scan QR Code and Read on Mobile
【法宝引证码】        北大法宝en.pkulaw.cn
Message: Please kindly comment on the present translation.
 
Confirmation Code:
Click image to reset code
 
  Translations are by lawinfochina.com, and we retain exclusive copyright over content found on our website except for content we publish as authorized by respective copyright owners or content that is publicly available from government sources.

Due to differences in language, legal systems, and culture, English translations of Chinese law are for reference purposes only. Please use the official Chinese-language versions as the final authority. Lawinfochina.com and its staff will not be directly or indirectly liable for use of materials found on this website.

We welcome your comments and suggestions, which assist us in continuing to improve the quality of our materials as we dynamically expand content.
 
Home | About us | Disclaimer | Chinese