>>>welcome visitor, haven't logged in. Login
Subscribe Now Contact us  
Font Size:  A A A Search “Fabao” Window English 中文 = 简体  繁体
  Favorite   DownLoad   Print
 
Mianyang Hongri Industry Co., Ltd. and Jiang Yang v. Mianyang High-Tech Zone Kechuang Industry Co., Ltd. (disputes over the validity of a resolution of the shareholders' meeting and capital increase)
绵阳市红日实业有限公司、蒋洋诉绵阳高新区科创实业有限公司股东会决议效力及公司增资纠纷案
【法宝引证码】

Mianyang Hongri Industry Co., Ltd. and Jiang Yang v. Mianyang High-Tech Zone Kechuang Industry Co., Ltd.

 

绵阳市红日实业有限公司、蒋洋诉绵阳高新区科创实业有限公司股东会决议效力及公司增资纠纷案

(Disputes over the validity of a resolution of the shareholders' meeting and capital increase) [裁判摘要]
[Summary] 
1. In civil and commercial legal relations, a company as the actor may act through two phases. The first is the formation of intention within the company as usually embodied in resolutions of the board of shareholders or the board of directors; the other is the expression of intention by the company externally as usually embodied in contracts signed externally by the company. Out of the consideration to protect bona fide third parties and maintain transaction safety, a company should be bound by its expression of intention as long as its expression of intention is not invalid, even if the formation of intention within the company is flawed. 一、在民商事法律关系中,公司作为行为主体实施法律行为的过程可以划分为两个层次,一是公司内部的意思形成阶段,通常表现为股东会或董事会决议;二是公司对外作出意思表示的阶段,通常表现为公司对外签订的合同。出于保护善意第三人和维护交易安全的考虑,在公司内部意思形成过程存在瑕疵的情况下,只要对外的表示行为不存在无效的情形,公司就应受其表示行为的制约。
2. According to Article 35 of the Company Law of the People's Republic of China, the shareholders of a company have the preemptive right to subscribe for any capital increase of the company in proportion to the company's paid-in capital. In nature, a shareholder's preemptive right to subscribe for the increase should be a right to cause unilateral changes in legal relations. None of the existing laws clearly provides for a period for exercising the right. However, for the sake of transaction safety and stable economic order, a people's court should decide a reasonable period for exercising the right and reject a claim for exercising the right beyond the reasonable period after taking into account the rules and characteristics of commercial acts. 二、根据《中华人民共和国公司法》第三十五条的规定,公司新增资本时,股东有权优先按照实缴的出资比例认缴出资。从权利性质上来看,股东对于新增资本的优先认缴权应属形成权。现行法律并未明确规定该项权利的行使期限,但从维护交易安全和稳定经济秩序的角度出发,结合商事行为的规则和特点,人民法院在处理相关案件时应限定该项权利行使的合理期间,对于超出合理期间行使优先认缴权的主张不予支持。
Supreme People's Court 最高人民法院
Civil judgment 民事判决书
No. 48 [2010], Civil, Direct Retrial (2010)民提字第48号
BASIC FACTS 
Retrial petitioner (defendant and appellee): Mianyang High-Tech Zone Kechuang Industry Co., Ltd., at: Tower A, Torch Plaza, High-Tech Zone, Mianyang City, Sichuan Province 申请再审人(一审被告、二审被上诉人):绵阳高新区科创实业有限公司。
Legal representative: Chen Mugao, board chairman 法定代表人:陈木高,董事长。
Attorney: Hua Ping, lawyer of Beijing Zhong Lun Law Firm 委托代理人:华萍,北京市中伦律师事务所律师。
Attorney: Xia Huimin, lawyer of Beijing Zhong Lun Law Firm 委托代理人:夏惠民,北京市中伦律师事务所律师。
Retrial petitioner (third party and appellee): Fujian Gusheng Investment Co., Ltd., at: Suites A-5 ad 6, 14F, International Plaza, Wusi Road, Gulou District, Fuzhou City, Fujian Province 申请再审人(一审第三人、二审被上诉人):福建省固生投资有限公司。
Legal representative: Chen Mugao, board chairman 法定代表人:陈木高,董事长。
Attorney: Hua Ping, lawyer of Beijing Zhong Lun Law Firm 委托代理人:华萍,北京市中伦律师事务所律师。
Attorney: Xia Huimin, lawyer of Beijing Zhong Lun Law Firm 委托代理人:夏惠民,北京市中伦律师事务所律师。
Retrial petitioner (third party and appellee): Chen Mugao, male, Han Chinese, born on July 16, 1947, living at Suite 405, Tower 1, Zuo Hai Ming Shi, 96 Meifeng Branch Road, Gulou District, Fuzhou City, Fujian Province, ID No.: 352102194707160410 申请再审人(一审第三人、二审被上诉人):陈木高。
Attorney: Hua Ping, lawyer of Beijing Zhong Lun Law Firm 委托代理人:华萍,北京市中伦律师事务所律师。
Attorney: Xia Huimin, lawyer of Beijing Zhong Lun Law Firm 委托代理人:夏惠民,北京市中伦律师事务所律师。
Respondent (plaintiff and appellant): Mianyang Hongri Industry Co., Ltd., at: Tower B, 12F, Unit 1, Jinyang Apartment, 133 Changhong Avenue, Fucheng District, Mianyang City, Sichuan Province 被申请人(一审原告、二审上诉人):绵阳市红日实业有限公司。
Legal representative: Jiang Yang, board chairman and general manager 法定代表人:蒋洋,董事长兼总经理。
Attorney: Yao Huijuan, lawyer of Beijing Dongyuan Law Firm 委托代理人:姚惠娟,北京市东元律师事务所律师。
Attorney: Wu Hongshun, lawyer of Beijing Dongyuan Law Firm 委托代理人:吴宏顺,北京市东元律师事务所律师。
Respondent (plaintiff and appellant): Jiang Yang, male, Han Chinese, born on March 21, 1962, living at Suite 2-4-1, Building C, Du Shi Gang Wan, 11 Changhong Avenue, Fucheng District, Mianyang City, Sichuan Province, ID No. 510702196203210218 被申请人(一审原告、二审上诉人):蒋洋。
Attorney: Yao Huijuan, lawyer of Beijing Dongyuan Law Firm 委托代理人:姚惠娟,北京市东元律师事务所律师。
Attorney: Wu Hongshun, lawyer of Beijing Dongyuan Law Firm 委托代理人:吴宏顺,北京市东元律师事务所律师。
Mianyang High-Tech Kechuang Industry Co., Ltd., Fujian Gusheng Investment Co., Ltd. and Chen Mugao filed a retrial petition with this Court against a civil judgment (No. 515 [2006], Civil, Final, Sichuan) of the Higher People's Court of Sichuan Province for disputes over the validity of a resolution of the shareholders' meeting and the capital increase of Mianyang Hongri Industry Co., Ltd. This Court issued a civil ruling (No. 1457 [2008], Civil Retrial) on November 16, 2009 to directly retry this case. This Court legally formed a collegial panel comprising presiding judge Zhang Yongjian, judge Lei Jiping, and acting judge Liu Chongli to retry this case. Court clerk Bai Xue kept a record of the trial. The retrial of this case is now concluded. 申请再审人绵阳高新区科创实业有限公司、福建省固生投资有限公司、陈木高为与被申请人绵阳市红日实业有限公司股东会决议效力及公司增资纠纷一案,不服四川省高级人民法院(2006)川民终字第515号民事判决,向本院申请再审。本院于 2009年11月16日以(2008)民申字第 1457号民事裁定,提审本案。本院依法组成由审判员张勇健担任审判长,审判员雷继平、代理审判员刘崇理参加的合议庭进行了审理,书记员白雪担任记录。本案现已审理终结。
The Intermediate People's Court of Mianyang City, Sichuan Province, as the court of first instance, found that: Mianyang High-Tech Zone Kechuang Industry Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as “Kechuang Company”) was founded in July 2001. Before its increase of share capital in December 2003, Kechuang Company's registered capital was 4,753,700 yuan, of which Jiangyang contributed 676,000 yuan or 14.22% as the largest shareholder and Mianyang Hongri Industry Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as “Hongri Company”) contributed 276,000 yuan or 5.81%. Jiang Yang served as the first board chairman of Kechuang Company. On March 31, 2003, Kechuang Company as Party A, Lin Daye and Chen Mugao together as Party B, and Mianyang High-Tech Development Zone Management Committee (hereinafter referred to as “High-Tech Zone Management Committee”) as Party C entered into an Agreement for Cooperative Development and Construction of Mianyang Jinjiang City Garden (Shiqiaopu Project). On July 2, 2003, the shareholders' meeting of Kechuang Company unanimously adopted a resolution to elect Li Hong as the board chairman for a term of office of two years. Jiang Yang since served as a director of Kechuang Company. On December 5, 2003, Kechuang Company issued a notice to convene a meeting of shareholder representatives, mainly including the time, venue, participants, observers, and proposals of the meeting. The meeting was scheduled for 4:00 p.m. on December 16, 2003, and the proposals included: (1) a prospective shareholder, Chen Mugao; (2) equity transfer inside the company; and (3) nomination of new shareholder representatives, supervisors and accountants of the new Kechuang Company. On the afternoon of December 16, 2003, Jiang Yang and Chang Yi, a proxy of Hongri Company, attended the shareholders' meeting. The votes cast at the meeting of shareholder representatives showed that: Jiang Yang voted for the second proposal and against the first and third proposals; and Chang Yi, on behalf of Hongri Company, voted for the second proposal and the nomination of new accountants and against all other proposals and noted in the comment field that: “A specific framework plan for capital increase should be first prepared under Article 39.2 of the Company Law and discussed and adopted according to the proportion of original shareholders of the company and the increase's proportion to the total capital after the increase before future contributions are decided. The original shareholders' right of investment (contribution) in the Company Law should be respected.” Liang Zhouping kept a record of the shareholders' meeting and organized the meeting minutes. Except Jiang Yang, Hongri Company and four other shareholders who cast abstention votes, all shareholders signed the meeting minutes, which stated that: 23 shareholder representatives should be present, and 22 were present at the meeting; resolutions should be made by voting with open ballots; the agreement on share subscription by Chen Mugao was discussed, and it was agreed that Chen Mugao would be a new shareholder (75.49% affirmative votes, 20.03% negative votes and 4.48% abstention votes); and the equity transfer inside Kechuang Company was approved (100% affirmative votes). The meeting minutes also included six proposals on the manners of cooperation with Chen Mugao, the voting results regarding the nominated new shareholder representatives, supervisors and accountants of the new Kechuang Company, and the recommendation of certain shareholder representatives that the major shareholder of the company should serve as a director of the company. Jiang Yang since served as a supervisor of Kechuang Company. 四川省绵阳市中级人民法院一审查明:绵阳高新区科创实业有限公司(以下简称科创公司)于2001年7月成立。在2003年12月科创公司增资扩股前,公司的注册资金475.37万元。其中蒋洋出资额67.6万元,出资比例14.22%,为公司最大股东;绵阳市红日实业有限公司(以下简称红日公司)出资额27.6万元,出资比例5.81%。科创公司第一届董事长由蒋洋担任。2003年 3月31日,科创公司作为甲方,林大业、陈木高作为乙方,绵阳高新技术产业开发区管理委员会(以下简称高新区管委会)作为丙方,签订了合作开发建设绵阳锦江城市花园的合作协议书(石桥铺项目)。2003年 7月2日,全体股东大会通过选举李红为公司董事长,任期两年的决议。此后蒋洋在科创公司的身份为董事。2003年12月5日,科创公司发出召开股东代表大会的通知,该通知主要记载了开会时间、开会地点、参会人员、列席人员及议题。开会时间定于2003年12月16日下午4:00,议题是:1.关于吸纳陈木高为新股东的问题;2.关于公司内部股权转让问题;3.新科创公司的新股东代表、监事、会计提名等。2003年12月16日下午,蒋洋、红日公司的委托代表常毅出席了股东会。该次股东代表会表决票反映,蒋洋对上述三项议题的第2项投了赞成票,对第1项和第3项投了反对票;红日公司的委托代表常毅对第2项和新会计的提名投了赞成票,其余内容投了反对票,并在意见栏中注明:“应当按照公司法39条第二款规定先就增加资本拿出具体框架方案,按公司原股东所占比重、所增资本所占增资扩股后所占比重先进行讨论通过,再决定将来出资,要考虑原股东享有公司法规定的投资(出资)权利”。该次股东会担任记录的梁周平整理了会议纪要,除蒋洋、红日公司和投弃权票的四名股东未在会议纪要上签名外,其余股东在会议纪要上签名。该纪要中记载:应到股东代表23人,实到22人,以记名方式投票表决形成决议;讨论了陈木高的入股协议,同意吸纳陈木高为新股东(经表决75.49%同意,20.03%反对,4.48%弃权);同意科创公司内部股份转让(经表决100%同意)。纪要还记载了与陈木高合作方式的六点建议和关于新科创公司的新股东代表、监事、会计提名的表决情况及有股东代表建议应由大股东作为公司董事的意见等。此后蒋洋在科创公司的身份为监事。
On December 18, 2003, Kechuang Company as Party A and Chen Mugao as Party B entered into a Share Subscription Agreement, which stated that: Party B agreed to the Share Capital Increase Plan adopted at the shareholders' meeting of Party A, i.e. Party A's original share capital of 4,753,700 shares would increase to 10,907,500 shares. Thus, the 4,753,700 shares held by the original shareholders of Party A would account for 43.6% of the total share capital of 10,907,500 shares; Party B would contribute 8 million yuan to purchase 6,153,800 shares at 1.3 yuan per share, accounting for 56.4% of the total share capital of 10,907,500 shares; the registered capital of Kechuang Company would be changed to 10,907,500 yuan, and the surplus of 1,846,200 over the registered capital would be included in capital reserve; such capital reserve should not be used to cover the operating losses of the previous year, and if such capital reserve is used for share split, the share split would not apply to Party B; within seven days after execution of this agreement, Party B should remit 8 million yuan to the account number specified by Party A; and with seven working days after arrival of the amount, Party A should start to handle business registration procedures for the modification of shareholders, directors, legal representative, and company bylaws, and the modification registration procedures with the taxation and other relevant authorities should be completed within one month. Both parties agreed that the 8 million yuan contributed by Party B should be exclusively used to pay part of the acquisition price of the 376.65 mu residential land parcel located at Shiqiaopu of Mianyang High-Tech Zone acquired through the quotation procedures of the government; after becoming a shareholder, Party B would make an initial investment of 30 million yuan in developing the 376.65 mu residential land project located at Shiqiaopu of Mianyang High-Tech Zone; the cooperation agreement signed by Party A, Party B and the High-Tech Zone Management Committee on March 31, 2003 should remain in force and have the same legal effect as this Agreement; this Agreement should be made in quadruplicate, two copies for Party A and Party B each, and should take effect after being signed by both parties and the payment of 8 million yuan. This Agreement also provided for the composition of the board of directors, collateral, accounting management, profit distribution, and profit/loss sharing. On December 22, 2003, Chen Mugao remitted 8 million yuan as payment for shares to the account specified by Kechuang Company. 2003年12月18日,科创公司为甲方,陈木高为乙方签订了《入股协议书》,该协议主要记载:乙方同意甲方股东大会讨论通过的增资扩股方案,即同意甲方在原股本475.37万股的基础上,将总股本扩大至1090.75万股,由此,甲方原股东所持股本475.37万股占总股本1090.75万股的 43.6%;乙方出资800万元人民币以每股 1.3元认购615.38万股,占总股本1090.75万股的56.4%;科创公司的注册资金相应变更为1090.75万元,超出注册资本的 184.62万元列为资本公积金;该项资本公积金不用于弥补上一年的经营亏损,今后如用于向股东转增股本时,乙方所拥有的股份不享有该权利;本协议签字7天内,乙方应将800万元人民币汇入甲方指定账号,款到7个工作日之内,甲方负责开始办理股东、董事及法定代表人和公司章程等变更的工商登记手续,税务等其他有关部门的变更登记手续于一个月办妥;双方同意乙方投资的800万元人民币专项用于支付甲方通过政府挂牌出让程序已购得的绵阳高新区石桥铺376.65亩住宅用地的部分地价款;乙方入股后预计先期投入3000万元人民币开发绵阳高新区石桥铺376.65亩住宅用地项目;甲乙双方与高新区管委会于2003年3月31日签订的合作协议书继续有效,与本协议具有同等法律效力;本协议一式四份,甲乙双方各执两份,经双方签字且800万元人民币到账后生效,该协议还就董事会组成、抵押担保、财务管理、利润分配和盈亏分担等内容作了约定。 2003年12月22日,陈木高将800万元股金汇入科创公司的指定账户。
...... 2003年12月22日,红日公司向科创公司递交了《关于要求作为科创公司增资扩股增资认缴人的报告》,该报告的主要内容为:主张蒋洋和红日公司享有优先认缴出资的权利,愿意在增资扩股方案的同等条件下,由红日公司与蒋洋共同或由其中一家向科创公司认缴新增资本800万元人民币的出资。2003年12月25日,工商部门签发的科创公司的企业法人营业执照上记载:法定代表人陈木高、注册资本壹仟零玖拾万柒仟伍佰元、营业期限自2003年 12月25日至2007年12月24日。2003年 12月25日科创公司变更后的章程记载:陈木高出资额615.38万元,出资比例 56.42%,蒋洋出资额67.6万元,出资比例 6.20%,红日公司出资额27.6万元,出资比例2.53%。2003年12月26日,红日公司向绵阳高新区工商局递交了《请就绵阳高新区科创实业有限公司新增资本、增加新股东作不予变更登记的报告》。此后,陈木高以科创公司董事长的身份对公司进行经营管理。2005年3月30日,科创公司向工商部门申请办理公司变更登记,提交了关于章程修正案登记备案的报告、公司章程修正案、股份转让协议书、陈木高出具的将 614.38万股股份转让给福建省固生投资有限公司(以下简称固生公司)的股份增减变更证明、收据等材料。章程修正案中记载的股东名称、出资额、出资比例是:固生公司出资额615.38万元、出资比例56.42%;陈木高出资额116.24万元, 出资比例 10.66%;蒋洋出资额67.6万元,出资比例 6.20%;红日公司出资额27.6万元,出资比例2.53%。
 2005年12月12日,蒋洋和红日公司向一审法院提起诉讼,请求确认科创公司 2003年12月16日股东会通过的吸纳陈木高为新股东的决议无效,确认科创公司和陈木高2003年12月18日签订的《入股协议书》无效,确认其对800万元新增资本优先认购,科创公司承担其相应损失。
 
 四川省绵阳市中级人民法院一审认为:关于科创公司2003年12月16日股东会通过的吸纳陈木高为新股东的决议的效力问题,红日公司和蒋洋主张无效的理由是,科创公司只提前11日通知各股东召开股东会,违反了《中华人民共和国公司法》 (1999年修订,以下简称99公司法)第四十四条第一款“召开股东会议,应当于会议召开十五日以前通知全体股东”的规定,且在增资扩股的问题上通知书也不明确。从本案查明的事实反映,蒋洋在本案中具有多重身份,既是原告红日公司的法定代表人,又在2003年7月2日以前是科创公司的最大股东和董事长,此后至12月16日期间,是科创公司的最大股东和董事。蒋洋在任科创公司董事长期间,科创公司签订了与陈木高等就石桥铺项目进行合作的合作协议,而且参加了2003年12月16日的股东会并对会议议题行使了表决权,对其中“吸纳陈木高先生为新股东”的议题投了反对票。根据99公司法三十九条第二款关于“股东会对公司增加或者减少注册资本、分立、合并、解散或者变更公司形式作出决议,必须经代表三分之二以上表决权的股东通过”的规定,股东会决议的效力不取决于股东会议通知的时间及内容,而决定于股东认可并是否达到公司法的要求。查明的事实反映,2003年12月16日“吸纳陈木高先生为新股东”的决议中涉及科创公司增资扩股800万元和该800万元增资由陈木高认缴的内容已在股东会上经科创公司75.49%表决权的股东通过。因此“吸纳陈木高先生为新股东”的决议符合上述规定,该决议有效。红日公司和蒋洋以通知的时间不符合法律规定,内容讨论不符合议事程序主张“吸纳陈木高先生为新股东”决议无效的理由不成立。
 关于科创公司与陈木高于2003年12月18日签订的《入股协议书》的效力问题。红日公司和蒋洋主张该协议是科创公司与陈木高恶意串通损害其股东利益而签订的,但根据一审法院查明的事实,其并未提供证据证明该事实存在。庭审中红日公司和蒋洋提出科创公司于2005年12月25日在工商局办理的科创公司变更登记不真实的主张,这涉及工商部门的具体行政行为是否合法的问题,是另一层法律关系,不属本案审理范围。经审查,该《入股协议书》的主体适格,意思表示真实,不违反法律或者社会公共利益,应为有效协议。故红日公司和蒋洋关于《入股协议书》无效的主张不成立。
 关于红日公司和蒋洋能否优先认缴科创公司2003年12月16日股东会通过新增的800万元资本,并由科创公司承担相应损失的问题。按照99公司法三十三条关于“股东按照出资比例分红。公司新增资本时,股东可以优先认缴出资”的规定,蒋洋、红日公司作为科创公司的股东,对公司新增资本享有优先认缴权利。但99公司法对股东优先认缴权的期间未作规定。2006年5月9日起施行的最高人民法院《关于适用<中华人民共和国公司法>若干问题的规定(一)》第二条规定:“因公司法实施前有关民事行为或者事件发生纠纷起诉到人民法院的,如当时的法律法规和司法解释没有明确规定时,可以参照适用公司法的有关规定”。2005年修订后的《中华人民共和国公司法》(以下简称新公司法)也未对股东优先认缴权行使期间作规定,但新公司法七十五条第一款规定“有下列情形之一的,对股东会该项决议投反对票的股东可以请求公司按照合理的价格收购其股权”、第二款规定“自股东会会议决议通过之日起六十日内,股东与公司不能达成收购协议的,股东可以自股东会会议决议通过之日起九十日内向人民法院提起诉讼”。该条虽然针对的是异议股东的股权回购请求权,但按照民法精神从对等的关系即公司向股东回购股份与股东向公司优先认缴出资看,后者也应当有一个合理的行使期间,以保障交易的安全和公平。从本案查明的事实看,红日公司和蒋洋在2003年12月22日就向科创公司主张优先认缴新增资本800万元,于2005年12月12日才提起诉讼,这期间,陈木高又将占出资比例 56.42%股份转让给固生公司,其个人又陆续与其他股东签订了股权转让协议,全部办理了变更登记,从2003年12月25日起至今担任了科创公司董事长,科创公司的石桥铺项目前景也已明朗。因此红日公司和蒋洋在2005年12月12日才提起诉讼不合理。2003年12月16日的股东会决议、《入股协议书》合法有效,红日公司和蒋洋主张优先认缴权的合理期间已过,故其请求对800万元资本优先认缴权并赔偿其损失的请求不予支持。
 综上所述,2003年12月16日股东会决议和《入股协议书》合法有效。红日公司和蒋洋在2003年12月22日向科创公司主张优先权时,上述两协议已经生效并已在履行过程中,但红日公司和蒋洋没有及时采取进一步的法律措施实现其优先权。本案起诉前,围绕科创公司和公司股权又发生了一系列新的民事、行政关系,形成了一系列新的交易关系,为保障交易安全,红日公司和蒋洋在本案中的主张不能成立。据此四川省绵阳市中级人民法院以(2006)绵民初字第2号民事判决书判决:驳回红日公司、蒋洋的诉讼请求。第一审案件受理费50 010元,其他诉讼费25 005元,合计 75 015元,由红日公司和蒋洋共同负担。
 红日公司和蒋洋不服一审判决,向四川省高级人民法院提起上诉称:科创公司只提前11天通知召开股东会违反了公司法规定提前15天通知的强制性法定义务,且通知内容没有公司增资扩股的具体方案和《入股协议书》草案,股东会中突袭表决,议事程序违法。股东会上红日公司和蒋洋投了反对票,提出同意增资800万元,但不放弃优先出资权。股东会决议中公司增资 800万元有效,但吸纳陈木高为新股东的决议和《入股协议书》因侵犯其优先认缴出资权而无效。公司法对股东行使优先认缴出资权的诉讼时效没有规定,应适用民法通则规定的两年诉讼时效。红日公司和蒋洋知道权利被侵害的时间是2003年12月 22日,诉讼时效从此时起算直至2005年 12月22日才届满,本案于2005年12月 12日提起诉讼,未超过诉讼时效期间。一审判决参照适用公司法对公司回购股东股份所规定的90日,是适用法律错误。陈木高是固生公司法定代表人,固生公司取得股份并非善意,其股东身份也不合法,因此不存在保护交易安全的问题。请求二审法院撤销原判,依法改判。
 ......

Dear visitor, you are attempting to view a subscription-based section of lawinfochina.com. If you are already a subscriber, please login to enjoy access to our databases. If you are not a subscriber, you can pay for a document through Online Pay and read it immediately after payment.
An entity user can apply for a trial account or contact us for your purchase.
Tel: +86 (10) 82689699, +86 (10) 82668266 ext. 153
Mobile: +86 13311570712
Fax: +86 (10) 82668268
E-mail: database@chinalawinfo.com

 
您好:您现在要进入的是北大法律英文网会员专区。
如您是我们英文用户可直接 登录,进入会员专区查询您所需要的信息;如您还不是我们 的英文用户;您可通过网上支付进行单篇购买,支付成功后即可立即查看本篇内容;
单位用户可申请试用或者来电咨询购买。
Tel: +86 (10) 82689699, +86 (10) 82668266 ext. 153
Mobile: +86 13311570712
Fax: +86 (10) 82668268
E-mail:database@chinalawinfo.com
     
     
【法宝引证码】        北大法宝en.pkulaw.cn
Message: Please kindly comment on the present translation.
 
Confirmation Code:
Click image to reset code
 
  Translations are by lawinfochina.com, and we retain exclusive copyright over content found on our website except for content we publish as authorized by respective copyright owners or content that is publicly available from government sources.

Due to differences in language, legal systems, and culture, English translations of Chinese law are for reference purposes only. Please use the official Chinese-language versions as the final authority. Lawinfochina.com and its staff will not be directly or indirectly liable for use of materials found on this website.

We welcome your comments and suggestions, which assist us in continuing to improve the quality of our materials as we dynamically expand content.
 
Home | About us | Disclaimer | Chinese