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Provisions of the Supreme People's Court on Several Issues Concerning the Trial of Cases by Internet Courts [Effective]
最高人民法院关于互联网法院审理案件若干问题的规定 [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】

Announcement of the Supreme People's Court 

最高人民法院公告

The Provisions of the Supreme People's Court on Several Issues Concerning the Trial of Cases by Internet Courts, as adopted at the 1747th session of the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court on September 3, 2018, are hereby issued, and shall come into force on September 7, 2018. 《最高人民法院关于互联网法院审理案件若干问题的规定》已于2018年9月3日由最高人民法院审判委员会第1747次会议通过,现予公布,自2018年9月7日起施行。
Supreme People's Court 最高人民法院
September 6, 2018 2018年9月6日
Provisions of the Supreme People's Court on Several Issues Concerning the Trial of Cases by Internet Courts 最高人民法院关于互联网法院审理案件若干问题的规定
(Adopted at the 1747th session of the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court on September 3, 2018, and coming into force on September 7, 2018, Interpretation No. 16 [2018] of the Supreme People's Court) (2018年9月3日最高人民法院审判委员会第1747次会议通过,自2018年9月7日起施行 法释〔2018〕16号)
For the purposes of regulating the litigation activities of Internet courts, protecting the legitimate rights and interests of the parties and other litigation participants, and ensuring the fair and efficient trial of cases, in accordance with the Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China, the Administrative Litigation Law of the People's Republic of China and other laws, and in light of the actual trials by people's courts, the relevant issues concerning the trial of cases by Internet courts are hereby provided for as follows. 为规范互联网法院诉讼活动,保护当事人及其他诉讼参与人合法权益,确保公正高效审理案件,根据《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》《中华人民共和国行政诉讼法》等法律,结合人民法院审判工作实际,就互联网法院审理案件相关问题规定如下。
Article 1 An Internet court shall try cases online, and the acceptance, service, mediation, evidence exchange, pretrial preparation, court trial, judgment pronouncement and other litigation links concerning a case shall generally be completed online.   第一条 互联网法院采取在线方式审理案件,案件的受理、送达、调解、证据交换、庭前准备、庭审、宣判等诉讼环节一般应当在线上完成。
According to the application of a party or as needed for the trial of a case, an Internet court may decide to complete part of the litigation links offline. 根据当事人申请或者案件审理需要,互联网法院可以决定在线下完成部分诉讼环节。
Article 2 The Internet courts in Beijing, Guangzhou and Hangzhou shall have centralized jurisdiction over the following cases that shall be accepted by the basic people's courts within the jurisdictions in their respective cities as courts of first instance:   第二条 北京、广州、杭州互联网法院集中管辖所在市的辖区内应当由基层人民法院受理的下列第一审案件:
(1) Disputes arising from the signing or performance of online shopping contracts through e-commerce platforms. (一)通过电子商务平台签订或者履行网络购物合同而产生的纠纷;
(2) Disputes over the network service contracts which are both signed and performed on the Internet. (二)签订、履行行为均在互联网上完成的网络服务合同纠纷;
(3) Disputes over the financial loan contracts or small loan contracts which are both signed and performed on the Internet. (三) 签订、履行行为均在互联网上完成的金融借款合同纠纷、小额借款合同纠纷;
(4) Disputes over the ownership of the copyrights or neighboring rights of the works published on the Internet for the first time. (四)在互联网上首次发表作品的著作权或者邻接权权属纠纷;
(5) Disputes arising from infringements upon the copyrights or neighboring rights of the works published or disseminated online through the Internet. (五)在互联网上侵害在线发表或者传播作品的著作权或者邻接权而产生的纠纷;
(6) Disputes over Internet domain name ownership, infringements and contracts. (六)互联网域名权属、侵权及合同纠纷;
(7) Disputes arising from infringements upon others' personal rights, property rights and other civil rights and interests on the Internet. (七)在互联网上侵害他人人身权、财产权等民事权益而产生的纠纷;
(8) Product liability disputes arising from the infringements upon others' personal and property rights and interests by the products purchased through e-commerce platforms due to product defects. (八)通过电子商务平台购买的产品,因存在产品缺陷,侵害他人人身、财产权益而产生的产品责任纠纷;
(9) Internet public interest litigation cases filed by procuratorial organs. (九)检察机关提起的互联网公益诉讼案件;
(10) Administrative disputes arising from the administrative actions taken by administrative organs, such as Internet information service management, Internet commodity trading, and related service management. (十)因行政机关作出互联网信息服务管理、互联网商品交易及有关服务管理等行政行为而产生的行政纠纷;
(11) Other Internet civil and administrative cases the jurisdiction over which is designated by the people's courts at higher levels. (十一)上级人民法院指定管辖的其他互联网民事、行政案件。
Article 3 The parties may, within the scope of the disputes over contracts and other property rights and interests determined in Article 2 of these Provisions, legally agree upon in an agreement the jurisdiction of an Internet court at the place which is actually connected with a dispute.   第三条 当事人可以在本规定第二条确定的合同及其他财产权益纠纷范围内,依法协议约定与争议有实际联系地点的互联网法院管辖。
Where an e-commerce operator or network service provider, among others, concludes a jurisdiction agreement with a user in the form of standard clauses, it shall comply with the provisions of laws and judicial interpretations regarding standard clauses. 电子商务经营者、网络服务提供商等采取格式条款形式与用户订立管辖协议的,应当符合法律及司法解释关于格式条款的规定。
Article 4 An appeal case filed by a party against a judgment or ruling rendered by the Beijing Internet Court shall be tried by the No. 4 Intermediate People's Court of Beijing Municipality, but an appeal case concerning a dispute over the ownership of or infringement upon any Internet copyright, or a dispute over any Internet domain name shall be tried by Beijing Intellectual Property Court.   第四条 当事人对北京互联网法院作出的判决、裁定提起上诉的案件,由北京市第四中级人民法院审理,但互联网著作权权属纠纷和侵权纠纷、互联网域名纠纷的上诉案件,由北京知识产权法院审理。
An appeal case filed by a party against a judgment or ruling rendered by Guangzhou Internet Court shall be tried by the Intermediate People's Court of Guangzhou City, but an appeal case concerning a dispute over the ownership of or infringement upon any Internet copyright, or a dispute over any Internet domain name shall be tried by the Guangzhou Intellectual Property Court. 当事人对广州互联网法院作出的判决、裁定提起上诉的案件,由广州市中级人民法院审理,但互联网著作权权属纠纷和侵权纠纷、互联网域名纠纷的上诉案件,由广州知识产权法院审理。
An appeal case filed by a party against a judgment or ruling rendered by the Hangzhou Internet Court shall be tried by the Intermediate People's Court of Hangzhou City. 当事人对杭州互联网法院作出的判决、裁定提起上诉的案件,由杭州市中级人民法院审理。
Article 5 An Internet court shall establish an Internet litigation platform (hereinafter referred to as a “litigation platform”) as the special platform for the court to handle cases and for the parties and other litigation participants to take litigation actions. Any litigation action taken through a litigation platform shall have legal force.   第五条 互联网法院应当建设互联网诉讼平台(以下简称诉讼平台),作为法院办理案件和当事人及其他诉讼参与人实施诉讼行为的专用平台。通过诉讼平台作出的诉讼行为,具有法律效力。
The case-related data required by the trial of cases by an Internet court shall be provided by e-commerce platform operators, network service providers, and relevant state organs, and be accessed to the litigation platform in an orderly manner, and be subject to the online verification, real-time fixation and safety management by the Internet court. The storage and use of case-related data by the litigation platform shall comply with the provisions of the Cybersecurity Law of the People's Republic of China and other laws and regulations. 互联网法院审理案件所需涉案数据,电子商务平台经营者、网络服务提供商、相关国家机关应当提供,并有序接入诉讼平台,由互联网法院在线核实、实时固定、安全管理。诉讼平台对涉案数据的存储和使用,应当符合《中华人民共和国网络安全法》等法律法规的规定。
Article 6 Where the parties and other litigation participants take litigation actions through litigation platforms, they shall complete the identity authentication by online means such as certificate and license comparison, biometric identification or certification on the unified identity authentication platform of the state, and obtain special accounts for logging into the litigation platforms.   第六条 当事人及其他诉讼参与人使用诉讼平台实施诉讼行为的,应当通过证件证照比对、生物特征识别或者国家统一身份认证平台认证等在线方式完成身份认证,并取得登录诉讼平台的专用账号。
The acts conducted on the litigation platforms logged into with special accounts shall be deemed as the acts conducted by the authenticated persons themselves, except that system errors arise for some technical reasons of the litigation platforms, or the authenticated persons can prove that their accounts on the litigation platforms have been stolen. 使用专用账号登录诉讼平台所作出的行为,视为被认证人本人行为,但因诉讼平台技术原因导致系统错误,或者被认证人能够证明诉讼平台账号被盗用的除外。
Article 7 An Internet court shall receive online the complaint materials submitted by a plaintiff, and, within seven days after receiving the materials, handle the complaint online according to the following circumstances:   第七条 互联网法院在线接收原告提交的起诉材料,并于收到材料后七日内,在线作出以下处理:
(1) If the conditions for filing a complaint are satisfied, the complaint shall be docketed, and the notice on the acceptance of the case, the notice on the payment of litigation fees, the notice to provide evidence and other litigation documents shall be served. (一)符合起诉条件的,登记立案并送达案件受理通知书、诉讼费交纳通知书、举证通知书等诉讼文书。
(2) If the submitted materials do not meet the requirements, a notice on making supplements and corrections shall be issued in a timely manner, and the acceptance time shall be recalculated from the next day after the receipt of the supplemented and corrected materials; and if the plaintiff fails to make supplements and corrections as required during the specified period, the complaint materials shall be returned. (二)提交材料不符合要求的,及时发出补正通知,并于收到补正材料后次日重新起算受理时间;原告未在指定期限内按要求补正的,起诉材料作退回处理。
(3) If the conditions for filing a complaint are not satisfied, and the plaintiff raises no objection after the interpretation is made, the complaint materials shall be returned; and if the plaintiff insists on continuing the filing of the compliant, a ruling on non-acceptance shall be rendered according to the law. (三)不符合起诉条件的,经释明后,原告无异议的,起诉材料作退回处理;原告坚持继续起诉的,依法作出不予受理裁定。
Article 8 After accepting a case, an Internet court may, through the mobile phone numbers, fax numbers, e-mail addresses, and instant messaging accounts, among others, provided by the plaintiff, notify the defendant and the third party to conduct case association and identity authentication through the litigation platform.   第八条 互联网法院受理案件后,可以通过原告提供的手机号码、传真、电子邮箱、即时通讯账号等,通知被告、第三人通过诉讼平台进行案件关联和身份验证。
The defendant and the third party shall get case information, receive and submit litigation materials, and take litigation actions through the litigation platform. 被告、第三人应当通过诉讼平台了解案件信息,接收和提交诉讼材料,实施诉讼行为。
Article 9 Where an Internet court organizes online evidence exchange, the parties shall upload to and import into the litigation platform the online electronic data, or electronically process the offline evidence by scanning, re-shooting, duplicating or other means and then upload it to the litigation platform for providing evidence, and may also prove their claims by using the electronic data that has been imported into the litigation platform.   第九条 互联网法院组织在线证据交换的,当事人应当将在线电子数据上传、导入诉讼平台,或者将线下证据通过扫描、翻拍、转录等方式进行电子化处理后上传至诉讼平台进行举证,也可以运用已经导入诉讼平台的电子数据证明自己的主张。
Article 10 The identity certificates, duplicates of business licenses, letters of authorization, identity certificates of legal representatives and other litigation materials, as well as documentary evidence, identification opinions, inquisition and inspection records and other evidentiary materials which are electronically processed by technological means and then submitted by the parties and other litigation participants shall, after passing the examination of Internet courts, be deemed to have met the requirements for original forms. If an opposing party raises any objection to the authenticity of the aforesaid materials and has reasonable grounds, the Internet court shall require the party to provide the originals thereof.   第十条 当事人及其他诉讼参与人通过技术手段将身份证明、营业执照副本、授权委托书、法定代表人身份证明等诉讼材料,以及书证、鉴定意见、勘验笔录等证据材料进行电子化处理后提交的,经互联网法院审核通过后,视为符合原件形式要求。对方当事人对上述材料真实性提出异议且有合理理由的,互联网法院应当要求当事人提供原件。
Article 11 If a party raises any objection to the authenticity of electronic data, an Internet court shall, in light of the cross-examination information, examine and judge the authenticity of the generation, collection, storage and transmission process of the electronic data, with the focus of examination put on the following:   第十一条 当事人对电子数据真实性提出异议的,互联网法院应当结合质证情况,审查判断电子数据生成、收集、存储、传输过程的真实性,并着重审查以下内容:
(1) Whether the hardware and software environments such as the computer system based on which electronic data is generated, collected, stored and transmitted are safe and reliable. (一)电子数据生成、收集、存储、传输所依赖的计算机系统等硬件、软件环境是否安全、可靠;
(2) Whether electronic data originator and generation time are specified, and whether the contents shown are clear, objective and accurate. (二)电子数据的生成主体和时间是否明确,表现内容是否清晰、客观、准确;
(3) Whether the storage and safekeeping media of electronic data are definite, and whether the safekeeping methods and means are appropriate. (三)电子数据的存储、保管介质是否明确,保管方式和手段是否妥当;
(4) Whether electronic data extractor and fixer, and electronic data extraction and fixation tools and methods are reliable, and whether the extraction process can be reproduced. (四)电子数据提取和固定的主体、工具和方式是否可靠,提取过程是否可以重现;
(5) Whether the contents of electronic data are added, deleted, modified or incomplete, or fall under any other circumstance. (五)电子数据的内容是否存在增加、删除、修改及不完整等情形;
(6) Whether electronic data can be verified in specific methods. (六)电子数据是否可以通过特定形式得到验证。
Where the authenticity of the electronic data submitted by a party can be proven through electronic signature, trusted time stamp, hash value check, blockchain or any other evidence collection, fixation or tamper-proofing technological means, or through the certification on an electronic evidence collection and preservation platform, the Internet court shall make a confirmation. 当事人提交的电子数据,通过电子签名、可信时间戳、哈希值校验、区块链等证据收集、固定和防篡改的技术手段或者通过电子取证存证平台认证,能够证明其真实性的,互联网法院应当确认。
The party may apply to a person with expertise for offering opinions on technical issues concerning electronic data. The Internet court may, upon application by the party or ex officio, entrust the identification of the authenticity of the electronic data, or obtain other relevant evidence for verification. 当事人可以申请具有专门知识的人就电子数据技术问题提出意见。互联网法院可以根据当事人申请或者依职权,委托鉴定电子数据的真实性或者调取其他相关证据进行核对。
Article 12 An Internet court shall hold a court session through online video. Where it is truly necessary to ascertain identities, verify originals or check physical objects in court, or under any other special circumstance, the Internet court may decide to hold a court session offline, but other litigation links shall still be completed online.   第十二条 互联网法院采取在线视频方式开庭。存在确需当庭查明身份、核对原件、查验实物等特殊情形的,互联网法院可以决定在线下开庭,但其他诉讼环节仍应当在线完成。
Article 13 An Internet court may, in light of actual circumstances, decide to simplify the court trial procedures in the following methods:   第十三条 互联网法院可以视情决定采取下列方式简化庭审程序:
(1) If the verification of the identities of the parties, the notification of rights and obligations, or the taking of oaths to observe the disciplines for court trial has been completed online before a court session is held, it is not required to be conducted again in open court. (一)开庭前已经在线完成当事人身份核实、权利义务告知、庭审纪律宣示的,开庭时可以不再重复进行;
(2) If the parties have completed evidence exchange online, the evidence over which the parties have no dispute may no longer be presented or cross-examined after the judge has made statements in the court hearing. (二)当事人已经在线完成证据交换的,对于无争议的证据,法官在庭审中说明后,可以不再举证、质证;
(3) With the consent of the parties, statement of the parties, court investigation, court debate and other court trial links may be combined. For a simple civil case, the court trial may be conducted directly around the claims of the parties or the elements of the case. (三)经征得当事人同意,可以将当事人陈述、法庭调查、法庭辩论等庭审环节合并进行。对于简单民事案件,庭审可以直接围绕诉讼请求或者案件要素进行。
Article 14 An Internet court shall, according to the characteristics of online court trials, apply the relevant provisions of the Court Rules of the People's Courts of the People's Republic of China. A party shall be deemed to have “refused to appear in court” if he or she failed to participate in an online court session on time, or be deemed to have “left the courtroom during a court session” if he or she left the court during a court session without permission, except that the court finds that the party did so truly due to network failure, equipment damage, power interruption or force majeure or for any other reason, and such circumstances shall be handled respectively according to the provisions of the Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China, the Administrative Litigation Law of the People's Republic of China and relevant judicial interpretations.   第十四条 互联网法院根据在线庭审特点,适用《中华人民共和国人民法院法庭规则》的有关规定。除经查明确属网络故障、设备损坏、电力中断或者不可抗力等原因外,当事人不按时参加在线庭审的,视为“拒不到庭”,庭审中擅自退出的,视为“中途退庭”,分别按照《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》《中华人民共和国行政诉讼法》及相关司法解释的规定处理。
Article 15 With the consent of the parties, an Internet court shall serve the litigation documents and the evidentiary materials submitted by the parties, among others, through China Judicial Process Information Online, litigation platforms, SMS, fax, e-mail, instant messaging accounts or other electronic modes.   第十五条 经当事人同意,互联网法院应当通过中国审判流程信息公开网、诉讼平台、手机短信、传真、电子邮件、即时通讯账号等电子方式送达诉讼文书及当事人提交的证据材料等。
Where it has been agreed that electronic service is applied to litigation in the event of a dispute, thoughthere is no explicit consent from the parties, or where the electronic service that has been completed is accepted by replying to acknowledge the receipt of the contents served or taking corresponding litigation actions, among others, and the parties do not explicitly disagree with the electronic service, electronic service shall be deemed accepted. 当事人未明确表示同意,但已经约定发生纠纷时在诉讼中适用电子送达的,或者通过回复收悉、作出相应诉讼行为等方式接受已经完成的电子送达,并且未明确表示不同意电子送达的,可以视为同意电子送达。
After informing the parties of their rights and obligations and obtaining their consent, an Internet court may electronically serve the judgments. Paper judgments, if required by the parties, shall be provided by the Internet court. 经告知当事人权利义务,并征得其同意,互联网法院可以电子送达裁判文书。当事人提出需要纸质版裁判文书的,互联网法院应当提供。
Article 16 Where an Internet court adopts the electronic service method, it shall confirm the specific methods and addresses of electronic service with the parties, and inform the parties of the scope of application and the validity of electronic service, the manners of change of service addresses, and other service matters that need to be informed.   第十六条 互联网法院进行电子送达,应当向当事人确认电子送达的具体方式和地址,并告知电子送达的适用范围、效力、送达地址变更方式以及其他需告知的送达事项。
If a recipient fails to provide an effective electronic service address, an Internet court may use the mobile phone number, e-mail address, instant messaging account or any other frequently-used electronic address which can be confirmed belonging to the recipient himself or herself and has been in daily active use in the past three months as the prior service address. 受送达人未提供有效电子送达地址的,互联网法院可以将能够确认为受送达人本人的近三个月内处于日常活跃状态的手机号码、电子邮箱、即时通讯账号等常用电子地址作为优先送达地址。
Article 17 If an Internet Court serves relevant information to the electronic address voluntarily provided or confirmed by the recipient, service shall be deemed completed when the information served arrives at the specific system of the recipient.   第十七条 互联网法院向受送达人主动提供或者确认的电子地址进行送达的,送达信息到达受送达人特定系统时,即为送达。
Where an Internet Court serves relevant information to the electronic address usually used by the recipient or any other electronic address accessible, whether the service is completed shall be determined according to the following circumstances: 互联网法院向受送达人常用电子地址或者能够获取的其他电子地址进行送达的,根据下列情形确定是否完成送达:
(1) If the recipient replies to acknowledge the receipt of the materials served, or takes corresponding litigation action according to the contents served, it shall be deemed that effective service has been completed. (一)受送达人回复已收到送达材料,或者根据送达内容作出相应诉讼行为的,视为完成有效送达。
(2) Where the media system of the recipient replies that the recipient has read the materials served, or there is any other evidence proving the receipt of the said materials by the recipient, it can be presumed that effective service has been completed, except that the recipient can prove that there is any media system error, the service address is not owned or used by the recipient himself or herself, or the materials served are not read by the recipient himself or herself, or under any other circumstance that the contents served are not received. (二)受送达人的媒介系统反馈受送达人已阅知,或者有其他证据可以证明受送达人已经收悉的,推定完成有效送达,但受送达人能够证明存在媒介系统错误、送达地址非本人所有或者使用、非本人阅知等未收悉送达内容的情形除外。
If effective service is completed, an Internet court shall make an electronic service certificate. The electronic service certificate shall have the legal force of a service acknowledgment. 完成有效送达的,互联网法院应当制作电子送达凭证。电子送达凭证具有送达回证效力。
Article 18 An Internet court may apply summary procedures to the trial of a case with clear facts and explicit relationship of rights and obligations, for which service by public announcement is required.   第十八条 对需要进行公告送达的事实清楚、权利义务关系明确的简单民事案件,互联网法院可以适用简易程序审理。
Article 19 As for the cases tried by Internet courts online, the confirmation of mediation agreements, transcripts, electronic service certificates, and other litigation materials by judges, assistant judges, court clerks, parties and other litigation participants, among others, through online confirmation, electronic signatures or other online methods shall be deemed in line with the requirements of the Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China for “signatures.”   第十九条 互联网法院在线审理的案件,审判人员、法官助理、书记员、当事人及其他诉讼参与人等通过在线确认、电子签章等在线方式对调解协议、笔录、电子送达凭证及其他诉讼材料予以确认的,视为符合《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》有关“签名”的要求。
Article 20 As for cases tried by Internet courts online, electronic transcripts may be generated synchronously through speech recognition technologies in mediation, evidence exchange, court trial, collegiatebenchmeeting and other litigation links. Electronic transcripts shall, after being verified and confirmed online, have the same legal force as written transcripts.   第二十条 互联网法院在线审理的案件,可以在调解、证据交换、庭审、合议等诉讼环节运用语音识别技术同步生成电子笔录。电子笔录以在线方式核对确认后,与书面笔录具有同等法律效力。
Article 21 Internet courts shall generate electronic dossiers in synchrony with the cases through litigation platforms, and form electronic files. Where all paper case files have been converted into electronic files, electronic files may replace paper files for purposes of transfer of appeal cases and case file archiving.   第二十一条 互联网法院应当利用诉讼平台随案同步生成电子卷宗,形成电子档案。案件纸质档案已经全部转化为电子档案的,可以以电子档案代替纸质档案进行上诉移送和案卷归档。
Article 22 Where a party appeals in a case tried by an Internet court, the court of second instance shall, in principle, try the appeal case online. These Provisions shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to the rules on the online trial of cases by a court of second instance.   第二十二条 当事人对互联网法院审理的案件提起上诉的,第二审法院原则上采取在线方式审理。第二审法院在线审理规则参照适用本规定。
Article 23 These Provisions shall come into force on September 7, 2018. In case of any discrepancy between the judicial interpretations issued previously by the Supreme People's Court and these Provisions, these Provisions shall prevail.   第二十三条 本规定自2018年9月7日起施行。最高人民法院之前发布的司法解释与本规定不一致的,以本规定为准。
     
     
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