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The Administrative Litigation Law of the People's Republic of China (2017 Revision) [Effective]
中华人民共和国行政诉讼法(2017修正) [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】

The Administrative Litigation Law of the People's Republic of China 

中华人民共和国行政诉讼法

(Adopted at the 2nd session of the Seventh National People's Congress on April 4, 1989; and amended for the first time in accordance with the Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on Amending the Administrative Litigation Law of the People's Republic of China adopted at the 11th session of the Standing Committee of the Twelfth National People's Congress on November 1, 2014; and amended for the second time in accordance with the Decision on Amending the Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China and the Administrative Litigation Law of the People's Republic of China as adopted at the 28th Session of the Standing Committee of the Twelfth National People's Congress on June 27, 2017) (1989年4月4日第七届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过 根据2014年11月1日第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十一次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国行政诉讼法〉的决定》第一次修正 根据2017年6月27日第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十八次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国民事诉讼法〉和〈中华人民共和国行政诉讼法〉的决定》第二次修正)
Table of Contents 目录
Chapter I General Provisions 第一章 总 则
Chapter II Scope of Cases Accepted 第二章 受案范围
Chapter III Jurisdiction 第三章 管 辖
Chapter IV Primary Litigation Participants 第四章 诉讼参加人
Chapter V Evidence 第五章 证 据
Chapter VI Filing a Complaint and Accepting a Case 第六章 起诉和受理
Chapter VII Trial and Judgment 第七章 审理和判决
Section 1 General Rules 第一节 一般规定
Section 2 Formal Procedure at First Instance 第二节 第一审普通程序
Section 3 Summary Procedure 第三节 简易程序
Section 4 Procedures at Second Instance 第四节 第二审程序
Section 5 Trial Supervision Procedure 第五节 审判监督程序
Chapter VIII Enforcement 第八章 执 行
Chapter IX Foreign-Related Administrative Litigation 第九章 涉外行政诉讼
Chapter X Supplementary Provisions 第十章 附 则
Chapter I General Provisions 

第一章 总 则

Article 1 To ensure the impartial and timely trial of administrative cases by the people's courts, settle administrative disputes, protect the lawful rights and interests of citizens, legal persons, and other organizations, and oversee administrative agencies' exercise of power according to the law, this Law is developed in accordance with the Constitution.   第一条 为保证人民法院公正、及时审理行政案件,解决行政争议,保护公民、法人和其他组织的合法权益,监督行政机关依法行使职权,根据宪法,制定本法。
Article 2 A citizen, a legal person, or any other organization which deems that an administrative action taken by an administrative agency or any employee thereof infringes upon the lawful rights and interests of the citizen, legal person, or other organization shall have the right to file a complaint with a people's court in accordance with this Law.   第二条 公民、法人或者其他组织认为行政机关和行政机关工作人员的行政行为侵犯其合法权益,有权依照本法向人民法院提起诉讼。
The term “administrative action” as mentioned in the preceding paragraph includes administrative actions taken by an organization empowered by a law, regulation, or rule. 前款所称行政行为,包括法律、法规、规章授权的组织作出的行政行为。
Article 3 The people's courts shall protect the right of a citizen, a legal person, or any other organization to file a complaint, and accept, according to the law, administrative cases that shall be accepted.   第三条 人民法院应当保障公民、法人和其他组织的起诉权利,对应当受理的行政案件依法受理。
Administrative agencies and the employees thereof may not interfere with or impede the acceptance of administrative cases by the people's courts. 行政机关及其工作人员不得干预、阻碍人民法院受理行政案件。
The person in charge of an administrative agency against which a complaint is filed shall appear in court to respond to the complaint, or, if he or she is unable to appear in court, authorize a relevant employee of the administrative agency to appear in court. 被诉行政机关负责人应当出庭应诉。不能出庭的,应当委托行政机关相应的工作人员出庭。
Article 4 The people's courts shall independently exercise judicial power over administrative cases, without any interference by any administrative agency, social group, or individual.   第四条 人民法院依法对行政案件独立行使审判权,不受行政机关、社会团体和个人的干涉。
The people's courts shall establish administrative divisions for the trial of administrative cases. 人民法院设行政审判庭,审理行政案件。
Article 5 The people's courts shall try administrative cases based on facts according to the law.   第五条 人民法院审理行政案件,以事实为根据,以法律为准绳。
Article 6 In the trial of administrative cases, the people's courts shall examine the legality of administrative actions.   第六条 人民法院审理行政案件,对行政行为是否合法进行审查。
Article 7 In the trial of administrative cases, the people's courts shall apply the collegial bench, disqualification, open trial, and “final after two levels of trial” rules according to the law.   第七条 人民法院审理行政案件,依法实行合议、回避、公开审判和两审终审制度。
Article 8 In administrative litigation, the parties shall have equal legal status.   第八条 当事人在行政诉讼中的法律地位平等。
Article 9 Citizens of all ethnicities shall have the right to use the spoken and written languages of their respective ethnicities in administrative litigation.   第九条 各民族公民都有用本民族语言、文字进行行政诉讼的权利。
In an area where an ethnic minority is concentrated or several ethnicities cohabit, the people's courts shall conduct trial and publish legal instruments in the spoken and written languages commonly used by the local ethnicity or ethnicities. 在少数民族聚居或者多民族共同居住的地区,人民法院应当用当地民族通用的语言、文字进行审理和发布法律文书。
The people's courts shall provide interpretation for litigation participants who are not familiar with the spoken and written languages commonly used by the local ethnicity or ethnicities. 人民法院应当对不通晓当地民族通用的语言、文字的诉讼参与人提供翻译。
Article 10 In administrative litigation, the parties shall have the right to debate.   第十条 当事人在行政诉讼中有权进行辩论。
Article 11 The people's procuratorates shall have the authority to exercise legal supervision over administrative litigation.   第十一条 人民检察院有权对行政诉讼实行法律监督。
Chapter II Scope of Cases Accepted 

第二章 受案范围

Article 12 The people's courts shall accept the following complaints filed by citizens, legal persons, or other organizations:   第十二条 人民法院受理公民、法人或者其他组织提起的下列诉讼:
(1) A complaint against any administrative punishment, such as administrative detention, suspension or revocation of a license or permit, ordered suspension of production or business, confiscation of illegal income, confiscation of illegal property, a fine, or a warning. (一)对行政拘留、暂扣或者吊销许可证和执照、责令停产停业、没收违法所得、没收非法财物、罚款、警告等行政处罚不服的;
(2) A complaint against any administrative compulsory measure, such as restriction of personal freedom or seizure, impoundment, or freezing of property, or administrative enforcement. (二)对限制人身自由或者对财产的查封、扣押、冻结等行政强制措施和行政强制执行不服的;
(3) A complaint against an administrative agency's denial of, or failure to respond within the statutory period to, an application for administrative licensing or any other administrative licensing decision made by the administrative agency. (三)申请行政许可,行政机关拒绝或者在法定期限内不予答复,或者对行政机关作出的有关行政许可的其他决定不服的;
(4) A complaint against an administrative agency's decision to confirm the ownership or the right to use any natural resource, such as land, mineral resources, water, forest, hill, grassland, wasteland, tidal flat, or sea area. (四)对行政机关作出的关于确认土地、矿藏、水流、森林、山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂、海域等自然资源的所有权或者使用权的决定不服的;
(5) A complaint against a decision on expropriation or requisition or a decision on compensation for expropriation or requisition. (五)对征收、征用决定及其补偿决定不服的;
(6) A complaint against an administrative agency's refusal to perform, or failure to respond to an application for the administrative agency to perform, its statutory duties and responsibilities in respect of protecting personal rights, property rights, and other lawful rights and interests. (六)申请行政机关履行保护人身权、财产权等合法权益的法定职责,行政机关拒绝履行或者不予答复的;
(7) A complaint claiming that an administrative agency has infringed upon the plaintiff's autonomy in business management, right in the contractual operations on rural land, or right in operations on rural land. (七)认为行政机关侵犯其经营自主权或者农村土地承包经营权、农村土地经营权的;
(8) A complaint claiming that an administrative agency has abused its administrative power to preclude or restrict competition. (八)认为行政机关滥用行政权力排除或者限制竞争的;
(9) A complaint claiming that an administrative agency has illegally raised funds or apportioned expenses or illegally required performance of other obligations. (九)认为行政机关违法集资、摊派费用或者违法要求履行其他义务的;
(10) A complaint claiming that an administrative agency has failed to pay consolation money, minimum subsistence, or social insurance benefits according to the law. (十)认为行政机关没有依法支付抚恤金、最低生活保障待遇或者社会保险待遇的;
(11) A complaint claiming that an administrative agency has failed to perform according to the law or as agreed upon, or illegally modified or rescinded, an agreement, such as a government concession agreement or a land and building expropriation compensation agreement. (十一)认为行政机关不依法履行、未按照约定履行或者违法变更、解除政府特许经营协议、土地房屋征收补偿协议等协议的;
(12) A complaint claiming that an administrative agency has otherwise infringed upon personal rights, property rights, or other lawful rights and interests. (十二)认为行政机关侵犯其他人身权、财产权等合法权益的。
In addition to those as set out in the preceding paragraph, the people's courts shall accept administrative cases which may be filed as prescribed by laws and regulations. 除前款规定外,人民法院受理法律、法规规定可以提起诉讼的其他行政案件。
Article 13 The people's courts shall not accept complaints filed by citizens, legal persons, or other organizations against the following:   第十三条 人民法院不受理公民、法人或者其他组织对下列事项提起的诉讼:
(1) Actions taken by the state in national defense and foreign affairs, among others. (一)国防、外交等国家行为;
(2) Administrative regulations and rules or decisions and orders with general binding force developed and issued by administrative agencies. (二)行政法规、规章或者行政机关制定、发布的具有普遍约束力的决定、命令;
(3) Decisions of administrative agencies on the rewards or punishments for their employees or the appointment or removal from office of their employees. (三)行政机关对行政机关工作人员的奖惩、任免等决定;
(4) Administrative action taken by an administrative agency as a final adjudication according to the law. (四)法律规定由行政机关最终裁决的行政行为。
Chapter III Jurisdiction 

第三章 管 辖

Article 14 The basic people's courts shall have jurisdiction over administrative cases as courts of first instance.   第十四条 基层人民法院管辖第一审行政案件。
Article 15 An Intermediate People's Court shall have jurisdiction over the following administrative cases as a court of first instance:   第十五条 中级人民法院管辖下列第一审行政案件:
(1) A case filed against an administrative action taken by a department of the State Council or by a people's government at or above the county level. (一)对国务院部门或者县级以上地方人民政府所作的行政行为提起诉讼的案件;
(2) A case handled by the Customs. (二)海关处理的案件;
(3) A major or complicated case within its territorial jurisdiction. (三)本辖区内重大、复杂的案件;
(4) Other cases under the jurisdiction of an Intermediate People's Court as prescribed by the law. (四)其他法律规定由中级人民法院管辖的案件。
Article 16 A Higher People's Court shall have jurisdiction as a court of first instance over major and complicated administrative cases within its territorial jurisdiction.   第十六条 高级人民法院管辖本辖区内重大、复杂的第一审行政案件。
Article 17 The Supreme People's Court shall have jurisdiction as a court of first instance over major and complicated administrative cases nationwide.   第十七条 最高人民法院管辖全国范围内重大、复杂的第一审行政案件。
Article 18 An administrative case shall be under the jurisdiction of the people's court at the place where the administrative agency taking the original administrative action is located. A case that has undergone reconsideration may also be under the jurisdiction of the people's court at the place where the reconsideration agency is located.   第十八条 行政案件由最初作出行政行为的行政机关所在地人民法院管辖。经复议的案件,也可以由复议机关所在地人民法院管辖。
With the approval of the Supreme People's Court, a Higher People's Court may determine several people's courts that have jurisdiction over administrative cases across administrative regions. 经最高人民法院批准,高级人民法院可以根据审判工作的实际情况,确定若干人民法院跨行政区域管辖行政案件。
Article 19 A complaint against an administrative compulsory measure that restricts personal freedom shall be under the jurisdiction of the people's court at the place where the defendant or the plaintiff is located.   第十九条 对限制人身自由的行政强制措施不服提起的诉讼,由被告所在地或者原告所在地人民法院管辖。
Article 20 Administrative litigation involving real property shall be under the jurisdiction of the people's court at the place where the real property is located.   第二十条 因不动产提起的行政诉讼,由不动产所在地人民法院管辖。
Article 21 Where two or more people's courts have jurisdiction over the same case, the plaintiff may file a complaint in one of these people's courts. If the plaintiff has filed a complaint in two or more people's courts that have jurisdiction over the case, the people's court that first dockets the case shall have jurisdiction.   第二十一条 两个以上人民法院都有管辖权的案件,原告可以选择其中一个人民法院提起诉讼。原告向两个以上有管辖权的人民法院提起诉讼的,由最先立案的人民法院管辖。
Article 22 Where a people's court finds that a case accepted is not under its jurisdiction, it shall transfer the case to the people's court that has jurisdiction over the case, and the people's court to which the case is transferred shall accept the case. If the people's court to which the case is transferred deems that the case is not under its jurisdiction either according to the relevant provisions, it shall report to the people's court at a higher level for designated jurisdiction, and may not transfer the case to another people's court on its own initiative.   第二十二条 人民法院发现受理的案件不属于本院管辖的,应当移送有管辖权的人民法院,受移送的人民法院应当受理。受移送的人民法院认为受移送的案件按照规定不属于本院管辖的,应当报请上级人民法院指定管辖,不得再自行移送。
Article 23 Where a people's court which has jurisdiction over a case is unable to exercise its jurisdiction for any special reasons, the people's court at a higher level shall designate another court to exercise jurisdiction over the case.   第二十三条 有管辖权的人民法院由于特殊原因不能行使管辖权的,由上级人民法院指定管辖。
Where any dispute over jurisdiction arises between the people's courts, the dispute shall be resolved by such people's courts through consultation. If such consultation fails, the dispute shall be reported to the common people's court at a higher level of them for the designation of jurisdiction. 人民法院对管辖权发生争议,由争议双方协商解决。协商不成的,报它们的共同上级人民法院指定管辖。
Article 24 A people's court at a higher level shall have the power to try administrative cases over which a people's court at a lower level has jurisdiction as a court of first instance.   第二十四条 上级人民法院有权审理下级人民法院管辖的第一审行政案件。
Where a people's court at a lower level deems that it is necessary for a people's court at a higher level to try an administrative case over which the people's court at a lower level has jurisdiction as a court of first instance or to designate jurisdiction over the case, it may report the case to the people's court at a higher level for decision. 下级人民法院对其管辖的第一审行政案件,认为需要由上级人民法院审理或者指定管辖的,可以报请上级人民法院决定。
Chapter IV Primary Litigation Participants 

第四章 诉讼参加人

Article 25 A person subjected to an administrative action or any other person which is a citizen, a legal person, or any other organization with an interest in the administrative action shall have the right to file a complaint against the administrative action.   第二十五条 行政行为的相对人以及其他与行政行为有利害关系的公民、法人或者其他组织,有权提起诉讼。
If a citizen who has the right to file a complaint is deceased, his or her close relatives may file the complaint. 有权提起诉讼的公民死亡,其近亲属可以提起诉讼。
If a legal person or any other organization which has the right to file a complaint is terminated, the legal person or other organization which succeeds to its rights may file the complaint. 有权提起诉讼的法人或者其他组织终止,承受其权利的法人或者其他组织可以提起诉讼。
Where the people's procuratorate finds in the performance of functions that any administrative authority assuming supervision and administration functions in such fields as the protection of the ecological environment and resources, food and drug safety, protection of state-owned property, and the assignment of the right to use state-owned land exercises functions in violation of any law or conducts nonfeasance, which infringes upon national interest or public interest, it shall offer procuratorial recommendations to the administrative authority, and urge it to perform functions in accordance with the law. If the administrative authority fails to perform functions in accordance with the law, the people's procuratorate shall file a lawsuit with the people's court in accordance with the law. 人民检察院在履行职责中发现生态环境和资源保护、食品药品安全、国有财产保护、国有土地使用权出让等领域负有监督管理职责的行政机关违法行使职权或者不作为,致使国家利益或者社会公共利益受到侵害的,应当向行政机关提出检察建议,督促其依法履行职责。行政机关不依法履行职责的,人民检察院依法向人民法院提起诉讼。
Article 26 Where a citizen, a legal person, or any other organization directly files a complaint with a people's court, the administrative agency taking the alleged administrative action shall be the defendant.   第二十六条 公民、法人或者其他组织直接向人民法院提起诉讼的,作出行政行为的行政机关是被告。
For a case that has undergone reconsideration, if the reconsideration agency's decision sustains the original administrative action, the administrative agency taking the original administrative action and the reconsideration agency shall be co-defendants; or, if the reconsideration agency's decision modifies the original administrative action, the reconsideration agency shall be the defendant. 经复议的案件,复议机关决定维持原行政行为的,作出原行政行为的行政机关和复议机关是共同被告;复议机关改变原行政行为的,复议机关是被告。
If the reconsideration agency fails to make a reconsideration decision during the statutory period, and a citizen, a legal person, or any other organization files a complaint against the original administrative action, the administrative agency taking the original administrative action shall be the defendant; or if a complaint is filed against the inaction of the reconsideration agency, the reconsideration agency shall be the defendant. 复议机关在法定期限内未作出复议决定,公民、法人或者其他组织起诉原行政行为的,作出原行政行为的行政机关是被告;起诉复议机关不作为的,复议机关是被告。
For an administrative action taken by two or more administrative agencies, the administrative agencies jointly taking the administrative action shall be co-defendants. 两个以上行政机关作出同一行政行为的,共同作出行政行为的行政机关是共同被告。
For an administrative action taken by an organization as authorized by an administrative agency, the authorizing administrative agency shall be the defendant. 行政机关委托的组织所作的行政行为,委托的行政机关是被告。
Where an administrative agency is abolished or its powers are modified, the administrative agency that succeeds to such powers shall be the defendant. 行政机关被撤销或者职权变更的,继续行使其职权的行政机关是被告。
Article 27 Where one side or both sides in an administrative case arising from the same administrative action consist of two or more parties, or, where the people's court deems that two or more administrative cases arising from the same type of administrative actions may be concurrently tried upon consent of the parties to such cases, such a procedure is a joinder of proceedings.   第二十七条 当事人一方或者双方为二人以上,因同一行政行为发生的行政案件,或者因同类行政行为发生的行政案件、人民法院认为可以合并审理并经当事人同意的,为共同诉讼。
Article 28 Where one side in a joinder of proceedings consists of a large number of parties, such parties may elect a representative or representatives from among them to proceed. The conduct of such a representative in the proceedings shall be binding upon all the parties represented; however, to modify or relinquish any claims or admit any claims of the opposing party, such a representative must obtain the consent of the parties represented   第二十八条 当事人一方人数众多的共同诉讼,可以由当事人推选代表人进行诉讼。代表人的诉讼行为对其所代表的当事人发生效力,但代表人变更、放弃诉讼请求或者承认对方当事人的诉讼请求,应当经被代表的当事人同意。
Article 29 Where a citizen, a legal person, or any other organization with an interest in the administrative action alleged in a complaint does not file a complaint against the administrative action, or where a citizen, a legal person, or any other organization has an interest in the outcome of the case, the citizen, legal person, or other organization may, as a third party, file a request for participating in the proceedings or participate in the proceedings as notified by the people's court.   第二十九条 公民、法人或者其他组织同被诉行政行为有利害关系但没有提起诉讼,或者同案件处理结果有利害关系的,可以作为第三人申请参加诉讼,或者由人民法院通知参加诉讼。
Where a people's court enters a judgment that imposes any obligation on a third party or impairs the rights and interests of the third party, the third party shall have the right to file an appeal according to the law. 人民法院判决第三人承担义务或者减损第三人权益的,第三人有权依法提起上诉。
Article 30 The legal representative of a citizen without the capacity to litigate shall litigate on behalf of the citizen. If the legal representatives of such a citizen try to shift their representative responsibilities onto each other, the people's court may designate one of them to litigate on behalf of the citizen.   第三十条 没有诉讼行为能力的公民,由其法定代理人代为诉讼。法定代理人互相推诿代理责任的,由人民法院指定其中一人代为诉讼。
Article 31 A party or a legal representative may retain one or two persons as litigation representatives.   第三十一条 当事人、法定代理人,可以委托一至二人作为诉讼代理人。
The following persons may serve as a litigation representative: 下列人员可以被委托为诉讼代理人:
(1) A lawyer, or a legal service worker at the basic level. (一)律师、基层法律服务工作者;
(2) A close relative or staff member of a party. (二)当事人的近亲属或者工作人员;
(3) A citizen recommended by a party's community or employer or by a relevant social group. (三)当事人所在社区、单位以及有关社会团体推荐的公民。
Article 32 Lawyers who represent the parties to a case shall have the right to consult and copy materials related to the case according to the relevant provisions and the right to investigate and collect evidence related to the case from relevant organizations and citizens. Materials which involve any state secret, trade secret, or individual privacy shall be kept confidential according to the law.   第三十二条 代理诉讼的律师,有权按照规定查阅、复制本案有关材料,有权向有关组织和公民调查,收集与本案有关的证据。对涉及国家秘密、商业秘密和个人隐私的材料,应当依照法律规定保密。
The parties and other litigation representatives shall have the right to consult and copy materials related to the court trial, except the portions involving any state secret, trade secret, or individual privacy. 当事人和其他诉讼代理人有权按照规定查阅、复制本案庭审材料,但涉及国家秘密、商业秘密和个人隐私的内容除外。
Chapter V Evidence 

第五章 证 据

Article 33 Evidence includes:   第三十三条 证据包括:
(1) documentary evidence; (一)书证;
(2) physical evidence; (二)物证;
(3) audio and video recordings; (三)视听资料;
(4) electronic data; (四)电子数据;
(5) witness testimony; (五)证人证言;
(6) statement of a party; (六)当事人的陈述;
(7) opinion of a forensic identification or evaluation expert; and (七)鉴定意见;
(8) survey transcripts and on-site disposition transcripts. (八)勘验笔录、现场笔录。
The aforesaid evidence must be verified in court before being used as a basis for finding the facts of a case. 以上证据经法庭审查属实,才能作为认定案件事实的根据。
Article 34 The defendant shall have the burden of proof for the administrative action taken, and provide evidence for taking the administrative action and regulatory documents based on which the administrative action was taken.   第三十四条 被告对作出的行政行为负有举证责任,应当提供作出该行政行为的证据和所依据的规范性文件。
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