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The Fight Against Terrorism and Extremism and Human Rights Protection in Xinjiang

The Fight Against Terrorism and Extremism and Human Rights Protection in Xinjiang



(March 2019) (2019年3月)
The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

Contents 目录
Foreword 前言
I. Xinjiang Has Long Been an Inseparable Part of Chinese Territory 一、新疆是中国领土不可分割的一部分
II. The Origin of Terrorism and Extremism in Xinjiang 二、恐怖主义、极端主义在新疆的由来
III. Violent Terrorism and Religious Extremism Are Grave Abuses  of Human Rights 三、暴力恐怖和宗教极端行为严重践踏人权
IV. Striking at Terrorism and Extremism in Accordance with the Law 四、依法严厉打击恐怖主义和极端主义
V. Giving Top Priority to a Preventive Counterterrorism Approach 五、坚持把预防性反恐放在第一位
VI. Finding Experience for Counterterrorism and De-radicalization 六、探索出反恐、去极端化的有益经验
VII. International Counterterrorism Exchanges and Cooperation 七、积极参与反恐国际交流与合作
Conclusion 结束语
Foreword 前言
Terrorism is the common enemy of humanity, and the target of joint action by the international community. Terrorist forces, by means of violence, sabotage and intimidation, pose a serious threat to world peace and security by scorning human rights, slaughtering innocent people, endangering public security, and creating fear and panic in society. The infiltration and spread of extremism is a hotbed for violence and terror, constituting a direct threat to human rights. The Chinese government stands firmly against all forms of terrorism and extremism, and is relentless in striking hard, in accordance with the law, at any conduct advocating terrorism and extremism and any action that involves organizing, planning and carrying out terrorist activities, or infringing upon citizens' human rights. 恐怖主义是人类社会的公敌,是国际社会共同打击的对象。恐怖势力通过暴力、破坏、恐吓等手段,肆意践踏人权、戕害无辜生命、危害公共安全、制造社会恐慌,严重威胁世界和平与安宁。极端主义思想的渗透与蔓延极易催生暴力恐怖行为,对人们享有各项人权直接构成威胁。中国政府反对一切形式的恐怖主义、极端主义,对任何宣扬恐怖主义、极端主义,组织策划实施恐怖活动,侵犯公民人权的行为,依法严厉打击。
For some time China's Xinjiang, under the combined influence of separatists, religious extremists and terrorists, has seen frequent incidents of terrorist attacks, which have been detrimental to the life and property of people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang and have trampled on people's dignity. In the face of these real threats, Xinjiang has taken resolute action to fight terrorism and extremism in accordance with the law, effectively curbing the frequent occurrences of terrorist activities and ensuring, to the maximum extent, the rights to life and development of people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang. 一段时间以来,中国新疆地区深受民族分裂势力、宗教极端势力、暴力恐怖势力(以下简称“三股势力”)的叠加影响,恐怖袭击事件频繁发生,对各族人民生命财产安全造成极大危害,严重践踏了人类尊严。面对恐怖主义、极端主义的现实威胁,新疆采取果断措施,依法开展反恐怖主义和去极端化斗争,有效遏制了恐怖活动多发频发势头,最大限度保障了各族人民群众的生存权、发展权等基本权利。
A country under the rule of law, China respects and protects human rights in accordance with the principles of its Constitution. China's fight against terrorism and extremism is an important part of the same battle being waged by the international community; it is in keeping with the purposes and principles of the United Nations to combat terrorism and safeguard basic human rights. 中国是社会主义法治国家,尊重和保障人权是中国的宪法原则。中国新疆的反恐怖主义和去极端化斗争,是国际社会反恐怖斗争的重要组成部分,完全符合联合国打击恐怖主义、维护基本人权的宗旨和原则。
I. Xinjiang Has Long Been an Inseparable Part of Chinese Territory   一、新疆是中国领土不可分割的一部分
Xinjiang is situated in northwest China and the hinterland of the Eurasian Continent, covering an area of 1.66 million sq km. It borders eight countries: Mongolia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. Since ancient times, Xinjiang has been home to various ethnic groups, and different cultures and religions coexist. It has also been an important channel for communication between civilizations of the East and the West, and was an important section of the famed Silk Road which linked ancient China with the rest of the world. In the long historical process, these ethnic groups have communicated and merged with each other, while living, studying, working and developing together in harmony. 新疆地处中国西北,位于亚欧大陆腹地,面积166万多平方公里,与蒙古国、俄罗斯、哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦、塔吉克斯坦、阿富汗、巴基斯坦、印度8个国家接壤。新疆自古就是多民族聚居、多文化交汇、多宗教并存的地区,是东西方文明交流的重要通道,著名的“丝绸之路”在此将古代中国与世界联系起来。在悠久的历史进程中,各民族交往、交流、交融,共居、共学、共事、共乐,和睦相处、和衷共济、和谐发展。
Xinjiang has long been an inseparable part of Chinese territory. The vast areas both north and south of the Tianshan Mountains, called the Western Regions in ancient times, were in close contact with the Central Plains as early as the pre-Qin period (c. 2100-221 BC). With the establishment of the unified feudal dynasties Qin (221-206 BC) and Han (206 BC-AD 220), multi-ethnic unification has been the norm in China's historical development, and therefore Xinjiang has always been part of a unitary multi-ethnic China. In 60 BC, government of the Western Han Dynasty established the Western Regions Frontier Command in Xinjiang, officially making Xinjiang a part of Chinese territory. In 123, during the Eastern Han Dynasty, the Western Regions Frontier Command was replaced by the Western Regions Garrison Command, which continued exercising administration over the Western Regions. The Kingdom of Wei (220-265) of the Three Kingdoms Period adopted the Han system, stationing a garrison commander to rule the Western Regions. The Western Jin Dynasty (265-316) stationed a garrison commander and a governor to exercise military and political administration over the Western Regions. The Sui Dynasty (581-618) ended the long-term division of the Central Plains, and expanded the areas in the Western Regions that adopted the system of prefectures and counties. In the Tang Dynasty (618-907), the central government strengthened its rule over the Western Regions by establishing the Grand Anxi Frontier Command and the Grand Beiting Frontier Command to administer the Western Regions. The ruling clan of the Kingdom of Yutian asserted it was related by blood to the Tang Dynasty and changed its surname to Li, the surname of the Tang ruling house. In the Song Dynasty (960-1279), local regimes of the Western Regions paid tribute to the central authorities. The king of one of the regimes, the Gaochang Uygur Kingdom, honored the imperial Song court as “Uncle” and called himself “Nephew in the Western Regions”; while the Karahan Kingdom sent envoys many times to pay tribute to the Song court. In the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368), the central government strengthened administration over the Western Regions by establishing the Beiting Command and the Pacification Commissioner's Office to manage military and political affairs. In the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), the central authorities set up the Hami Garrison Command to manage local affairs. In the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), the imperial court quelled a rebellion launched by the Junggar regime, defining the northwestern border of China. It then adopted more systematic policies for governing Xinjiang. In 1762, the Qing government established the post of Ili General and adopted a mechanism combining military and political administration; in 1884, it established a province in Xinjiang. In 1949, the People's Republic of China was founded, and Xinjiang was liberated peacefully. In 1955, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was established. Under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, Xinjiang has witnessed fundamental social and economic change, and it is in its best period of prosperity and development. Although there were some kingdoms and khanates in Xinjiang in the past, they were all local regimes within the territory of China and constituted part of the country; they were never independent countries. It is indisputable that Xinjiang is an inseparable part of Chinese territory. 新疆自古就是中国领土。包括新疆天山南北的广大地区古称西域,早在先秦时期就同中原地区保持着密切联系。随着秦、汉两个统一的封建王朝的建立,多民族大一统成为中国历史发展的主脉,新疆地区始终在中国统一多民族国家格局下发展。公元前60年,西汉在新疆地区设立西域都护府,标志着新疆地区正式纳入中国版图。公元123年,东汉改西域都护府为西域长史府,继续行使管理西域的职权。三国曹魏政权继承汉制,在西域设戊己校尉。西晋在西域设置西域长史和戊己校尉管理军政事务。隋代,结束了中原长期割据状态,扩大了郡县制在西域的范围。唐代,中央政权对西域的管理大为加强,先后设置安西大都护府和北庭大都护府统辖天山南北,于阗王国自称唐朝宗属,随唐朝国姓李。宋代,西域地方政权与宋朝保持着朝贡关系,高昌回鹘尊中朝(宋)为舅,自称西州外甥。喀喇汗王朝多次派使臣向宋朝朝贡。元代,设北庭都元帅府、宣慰司等管理军政事务,加强了对西域的管辖。明代,中央政权设立哈密卫作为管理西域事务的机构。清代,清政府平定准噶尔叛乱,中国西北边界得以确定。此后,对新疆地区实行了更加系统的治理政策。1762年设立伊犁将军,实行军政合一的军府体制;1884年在新疆地区建省。1949年中华人民共和国成立,新疆和平解放。1955年成立新疆维吾尔自治区。在中国共产党领导下,新疆经济社会面貌发生了翻天覆地的变化,进入历史上最好的繁荣发展时期。尽管新疆地区历史上曾出现过一些王朝、汗国,但它们都是中国疆域内的地方政权形式,都是中国的一部分,从来不是独立国家。新疆是中国领土不可分割的一部分不容置疑。
Xinjiang has been a multi-ethnic region since ancient times. Down the ages, many ethnic groups have lived here, frequently migrating and communicating with each other. The earliest explorers of Xinjiang included the Sai, Rouzhi, Wusun, Qiang, Qiuci, Yanqi, Yutian, Shule, Shache, Loulan and Cheshi in the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods (770-221 BC). Following them were peoples entering Xinjiang in large numbers in different periods: the Xiongnu (Hun), Han, and Qiang in the Qin and Han dynasties; the Xianbei, Rouran, Gaoche, Yeda, and Tuyuhun in the period of the Wei, Jin, and Northern and Southern Dynasties (220-589); the Turk, Tubo, and Ouigour peoples in the period of the Sui and Tang dynasties (581-907); the Khitans in the period of the Song, Liao, and Jin dynasties (916-1279); the Mongolian, Jurchen, Dangxiang (Tangut), Kazak, Kirgiz, Manchu, Xibe, Daur, Hui, Uzbek, and Tatar peoples in the period of the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties (1279-1911). By the end of the 19th century, 13 ethnic groups – the Uygur, Han, Kazak, Mongolian, Hui, Kirgiz, Manchu, Xibe, Tajik, Daur, Uzbek, Tatar, and Russian – had settled in Xinjiang, with the Uygurs having the largest population. The multi-ethnic region constitutes an integral part of the Chinese nation. 新疆地区历来是多民族聚居地区。从古至今,新疆地区一直生活着很多民族,各民族迁徙往来频繁。最早开发新疆的是春秋战国时期生活在天山南北的塞人、月氏人、乌孙人、羌人、龟兹人、焉耆人、于阗人、疏勒人、莎车人、楼兰人、车师人等。秦汉时期的匈奴人、汉人、羌人,魏晋南北朝时期的鲜卑、柔然、高车、嚈哒、吐谷浑,隋唐时期的突厥、吐蕃、回纥,宋辽金时期的契丹,元明清时期的蒙古、女真、党项、哈萨克、柯尔克孜、满、锡伯、达斡尔、回、乌孜别克、塔塔尔族等,每个历史时期都有不同民族的大量人口进出新疆地区,都是新疆的共同开拓者。至19世纪末,已有维吾尔、汉、哈萨克、蒙古、回、柯尔克孜、满、锡伯、塔吉克、达斡尔、乌孜别克、塔塔尔、俄罗斯共13个主要民族定居新疆,形成维吾尔族人口居多、多民族聚居分布的格局。新疆地区既是新疆各民族的家园,更是中华民族共同家园的组成部分。
The Uygur ethnic group came into being in the long process of migration and ethnic integration; they are not descendants of the Turks. The main ancestors of the Uygurs were the Ouigour people living on the Mongolian Plateau during the Sui and Tang dynasties. We find that many different names were used to refer to the Ouigour people in historical records. Historically, to resist oppression and slavery by the Turks, the Ouigour people united with some of the Tiele tribes to form the Ouigour tribal alliance. In 744, the Tang court conferred a title of nobility on Kutlug Bilge Kaghan, who united the Ouigour tribes. In 788, the then Ouigour ruler wrote to the Tang emperor, requesting to have their name changed to “Huihu” (Uygur). After the Uygur Khanate suffered a major defeat in war in 840, some of them moved inland to live with the Han people, the rest of the surviving Uygurs were divided into three sub-groups. One of the sub-groups moved to the Turpan Basin and the modern Jimsar region, where they founded the Gaochang Uygur Kingdom. Another moved to the Hexi Corridor, where they merged with local ethnic groups to become what was later known as the Yugu people. The third sub-group moved to the west of Pamir, scattered in areas from Central Asia to Kashgar, and joined the Karluk and Yagma peoples in founding the Karahan Kingdom. There they merged with the Han people in the Turpan Basin and the Yanqi, Qiuci, Yutian, Shule, and other peoples in the Tarim Basin to form the main body of the modern Uygur group. In the Yuan Dynasty, ancestors of the modern Uygur people were called the “畏兀儿” people in the Chinese language. In the Yuan and Ming dynasties, the various ethnic groups in Xinjiang further merged; Mongolians, especially those of the Chagatai Khanate, were fused with the Uygurs, adding fresh blood to the Uygur group. In 1934, Xinjiang issued a government order, stipulating that “维吾尔” would be the standard Chinese name for Uygurs, which for the first time expressed the accurate meaning of “Uygur”: to maintain unity among the people. 维吾尔族是经过长期迁徙、民族融合形成的,不是突厥人后裔。维吾尔族先民的主体是隋唐时期活动在蒙古高原的回纥人,曾经有乌护、乌纥、袁纥、韦纥、回纥等多种译名。当时,为了反抗突厥的压迫和奴役,回纥联合铁勒诸部中的仆固、同罗等部组成了回纥部落联盟。744年,统一了回纥各部的首领骨力裴罗受唐朝册封。788年,回纥统治者上书唐朝,自请改为“回鹘”。840年,回鹘汗国被攻破,回鹘人除一部分迁入内地同汉人融合外,其余分为三支:一支迁往吐鲁番盆地和今天的吉木萨尔地区,建立了高昌回鹘王国;一支迁往河西走廊,与当地诸族交往融合,形成裕固族;一支迁往帕米尔以西,分布在中亚至今喀什一带,与葛逻禄、样磨等部族一起建立了喀喇汗王朝,并相继融合了吐鲁番盆地的汉人、塔里木盆地的焉耆人、龟兹人、于阗人、疏勒人等,构成近代维吾尔族的主体。元代,维吾尔族先民在汉语中又称“畏兀儿”。元明时期,新疆地区各民族进一步融合,蒙古人尤其是察合台汗国的蒙古人基本和畏兀儿人融为一体,为畏兀儿补充了新鲜血液。1934年,新疆省发布政府令,决定统一使用“维吾尔”作为汉文规范称谓,意为维护你我团结,首次准确表达了“Uyghur”名称的本意。
Xinjiang ethnic cultures are an inseparable part of Chinese civilization. As early as the pre-Qin period, Xinjiang was in close contact with the Central Plains. Archaeological studies demonstrate that painted pottery-ware unearthed in Xinjiang shows the influence of the Yangshao Culture in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, while many articles made from Xinjiang's Hetian jade were unearthed from the Shang Dynasty (c.1600-c.1100 BC) Tomb of Fu Hao in Anyang, Henan in central China. After the Western Han (206 BC-AD 25) united Xinjiang, Chinese language became one of the official languages used in government documents of that region. Agricultural production techniques, the system of etiquette, books, and music and dances of the Central Plains spread widely in Xinjiang. Pipa (the four-stringed Chinese lute), the Qiang flute, and other musical instruments were introduced to the Central Plains from or via Xinjiang and exerted a great influence on local music. The treasure house of Chinese culture boasts elements of the Uygur Muqam, the Kazak Aytes art, the Kirgiz epic Manas, the Mongolian epic Jangar, and many other cultural gems of various ethnic groups. It is undeniable that Xinjiang was influenced by Islamic culture, but this did not halt the flow of local cultures into the Chinese civilization, nor did it alter the fact that they were part of Chinese culture. Having a stronger sense of identity with Chinese culture is essential to the prosperity and development of ethnic cultures in Xinjiang. Only by regarding Chinese culture as an emotional support and spiritual home, can we promote the prosperity and development of ethnic cultures in Xinjiang. 新疆地区各民族文化是中华文化不可分割的一部分。早在先秦时期,新疆地区就与中原地区展开了密切交流。考古证实,新疆地区出土的彩陶就受到中原地区仰韶文化的影响,在河南安阳的商代妇好墓中,陪葬了大量新疆和田玉制成的器物。西汉统一新疆地区后,汉语成为当地官府文书中的通用语之一,中原地区的农业生产技术、礼仪制度、书籍、音乐舞蹈等在新疆地区广泛传播。与此同时,琵琶、羌笛等乐器也由新疆地区或者通过新疆地区传入中原地区,对中原地区音乐产生重大影响。中华文化宝库中,就包括维吾尔族十二木卡姆艺术、哈萨克族阿依特斯艺术、柯尔克孜族史诗《玛纳斯》、蒙古族史诗《江格尔》等各民族的文化瑰宝。不可否认,新疆地区文化受到伊斯兰文化影响,但这既没有改变新疆地区文化属于中华文明的特质和走向,也没有改变新疆地区文化属于中华文化一部分的客观事实。增强中华文化认同是新疆各民族文化繁荣发展之魂,只有把中华文化作为情感依托、心灵归宿和精神家园,才能促进新疆各民族文化的繁荣发展。
Xinjiang has long been a multi-religious region. In primitive society, Xinjiang residents followed primitive religion from which Shamanism evolved. Before the fourth century BC primitive religion was practiced in Xinjiang. Later, a succession of religions popular in the East and the West were introduced into Xinjiang via the Silk Road, the first of which was Zoroastrianism. Around the first century BC Buddhism was introduced into Xinjiang and gradually became the major religion, coexisting with many other religions, and Yutian, Shule, Qiuci, Gaochang, and other renowned Buddhist centers were formed. From the fourth to the 10th century, Buddhism reached its peak, while in the same period Zoroastrianism proliferated throughout Xinjiang, particularly in the Turpan area. Around the fifth century, Taoism was introduced into Xinjiang, becoming prevalent mainly in Turpan and Hami. It spread to most parts of Xinjiang and experienced a revival during the Qing Dynasty. In the sixth century, Manichaeism and Nestorianism were introduced into Xinjiang. From the 10th to the 14th century, Nestorianism flourished as the Uygur and some other peoples converted to it in many parts of Xinjiang. In the late ninth and early 10th century, Islam was introduced into southern Xinjiang, changing the religious profile of Xinjiang again. After the Karahan Khanate accepted Islam, in the mid-10th century it launched a religious war against the Buddhist Kingdom of Yutian, and the war lasted for more than 40 years. In the early 11th century, the Karahan Khanate conquered Yutian and imposed Islam in that region. Thereafter, Islam dominated southern Xinjiang while Buddhism dominated northern Xinjiang. In the mid-14th century, the rulers of the Eastern Chagatai Khanate spread Islam to the northern edge of the Tarim Basin, the Turpan Basin and Hami by war and compulsion. By the early 16th century many religions coexisted in Xinjiang, with Islam predominant. Beginning in the 18th century, Protestantism, Catholicism, and the Eastern Orthodox Church were introduced into Xinjiang. Islam has ever since been the principal religion in Xinjiang, coexisting with a number of other religions. The history of Xinjiang shows that the coexistence of multiple religions with one or two predominant has always been a basic characteristic of the religious structure of Xinjiang, and blending and coexistence of different religions has been the norm there. Islam is neither an indigenous belief of the Uygurs and other ethnic groups, nor the sole one of the Uygur people. Today in Xinjiang, a fairly large number of people do not believe in religion or believe in religions other than Islam. 新疆地区历来是多种宗教并存的地区。在原始社会,新疆地区的居民就产生了原始宗教观念,并逐步形成了萨满教。公元前4世纪以前,新疆地区流行的是原始宗教。从公元前4世纪起,盛行于东西方的一些宗教沿着丝绸之路陆续传入新疆地区。最先传入的是祆教。大约在公元前1世纪,佛教传入新疆地区,逐渐成为占主导地位的宗教,形成以佛教为主、多种宗教并存格局,并先后形成了于阗、疏勒、龟兹、高昌等著名佛教中心。公元4世纪至10世纪,佛教进入鼎盛时期。同期,祆教流行于新疆各地,吐鲁番地区尤为盛行。5世纪前后,道教传入新疆,主要盛行于吐鲁番、哈密等地,至清代传播到新疆大部分地区并一度复兴。6世纪,摩尼教和景教(基督教聂斯脱利派)相继传入新疆。10世纪至14世纪,景教随着许多地方回鹘等民族改信而逐步兴盛。9世纪末10世纪初,伊斯兰教传入新疆南部,新疆原有宗教格局再次发生变化。喀喇汗王朝在接受伊斯兰教后,于10世纪中叶向信仰佛教的于阗王国发动了40余年的宗教战争,11世纪初攻灭于阗,将伊斯兰教强制推行到这一地区,形成了南疆以伊斯兰教为主、北疆以佛教为主,伊斯兰教与佛教并立的格局。14世纪中叶,东察合台汗国统治者以战争等强制手段,将伊斯兰教逐渐推行到塔里木盆地北缘、吐鲁番盆地和哈密一带。至16世纪初,新疆地区形成了以伊斯兰教为主、多种宗教并存的格局。18世纪开始,基督教、天主教、东正教相继传入新疆地区。以伊斯兰教为主、多种宗教并存的格局一直延续至今。由此可见,一教或两教为主、多教并存是新疆宗教格局的历史特点,交融共存是新疆宗教关系的主流。伊斯兰教既不是维吾尔族等民族天生信仰的宗教,也不是其唯一信仰的宗教。直到今天,仍有不少群众不信仰宗教或信仰其他宗教。
II. The Origin of Terrorism and Extremism in Xinjiang   二、恐怖主义、极端主义在新疆的由来
Separatism is the hotbed in which terrorism and extremism take root in Xinjiang. For a long time terrorist and extremist forces have been beating the drum for separatist activities by distorting, fabricating and falsifying the history of Xinjiang, exaggerating the cultural differences between ethnic groups, instigating isolation and hatred, and advocating religious extremism. 分裂主义是新疆恐怖主义、极端主义产生的温床。长期以来,恐怖势力与极端势力大肆歪曲、编造、篡改新疆历史,夸大民族间的文化差异,煽动民族隔阂和仇恨,鼓吹宗教极端,为实施分裂活动大造声势。
At the turn of the 20th century, separatists and religious extremists in and outside China, inheriting the so-called theories of “Pan-Turkism” and “Pan-Islamism” created by former colonialists, spread the word that Uygurs were the only “masters” of Xinjiang, that the ethnic cultures of Xinjiang were not Chinese culture, and that Islam was the only religion practiced by ethnic groups of Xinjiang. They incited all ethnic groups speaking Turki and believing in Islam to join in creating the theocratic state of so-called “East Turkistan”. They denied the history of China jointly built by all its ethnic groups, and clamored for “opposition to all ethnic groups other than Turks” and for the “annihilation of pagans”. 19世纪末20世纪初,境内外狂热的分裂分子与宗教极端分子,利用老殖民主义者炮制的一整套所谓的“泛突厥主义”“泛伊斯兰主义”理论,妄称维吾尔人是新疆唯一的“主人”,新疆各民族文化不是中华文化,伊斯兰教是新疆地区各民族唯一信仰的宗教等;鼓噪所有操突厥语和信奉伊斯兰教的民族联合起来,组成一个“政教合一”的国家,建立“东突厥斯坦”;否认中国各民族共同缔造伟大祖国的历史,叫嚣“要反对突厥民族以外的一切民族”,消灭“异教徒”。
From the early 20th century to the late 1940s, the “East Turkistan” forces, in an attempt to split and control Xinjiang and establish their state, promoted and spread the ideas of “Pan-Turkism”, “Pan-Islamism”, and violence and terrorism. They organized and planned a series of separatist activities. In 1915 separatist Maswud returned to Ili, opened a school and publicly preached separatism to the students. On November 12, 1933, Mohammad Imin founded the so-called “East Turkistan Islamic Republic”, but the farce ended in less than three months because of strong opposition from the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang. On November 12, 1944, separatists led by Elihan Torae founded the so-called “Republic of East Turkistan”, which soon collapsed a year later. Afterwards, a series of separatist organizations and individuals continued their subversive and separatist activities under the banner of “East Turkistan” in a vain attempt to establish their own state. 20世纪初至40年代末,“东突”势力为了达到分裂和控制新疆、建立所谓的“东突厥斯坦”国家的目的,大肆传播“泛突厥主义”“泛伊斯兰主义”,宣扬暴力恐怖主义,组织策划一系列分裂活动。1915年,分裂分子麦斯武德回到伊犁,开办学校,公开向学生传播分裂思想。1933年11月12日,以穆罕默德·伊敏等为首的“东突”分裂势力建立了所谓的“东突厥斯坦伊斯兰共和国”,遭到新疆各族人民的反对,不到三个月这场闹剧就草草收场。1944年11月12日,以艾力汗·吐烈为首的“东突”分裂势力建立了所谓的“东突厥斯坦共和国”,仅一年多即土崩瓦解。此后,形形色色的分裂组织和分裂分子打着“东突”旗号进行颠覆分裂活动,妄图建立所谓的“东突厥斯坦”国家。
Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang have, under the leadership of the CPC, worked together to build a better Xinjiang; they have maintained social stability, achieved economic growth, and improved lives for the people. The “East Turkistan” forces, however, have not resigned themselves to defeat. With the support of international anti-China forces, the “East Turkistan” forces have resorted to all means, fair or foul, to organize, plan and carry out acts of separatism and sabotage. In the early 1950s the separatists instigated many riots in Xinjiang, calling on Uygurs to “unite under the moon-and-star banner to create a republic of Islam”. In the 1960s there were the riots in Ili and Tacheng on the China-Russia border, the riot of the “East Turkistan People's Revolutionary Party”, and the armed rebellion of the Gang of Ahongnof in southern Xinjiang. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, religious extremism made further inroads into Xinjiang. It soon blended with terrorism to stir up social unrest in the region, seriously undermining local stability and security. 1949年新中国成立后,在中国共产党的领导下,新疆各族人民共同团结奋斗、共同建设美好家园,实现了社会稳定、经济发展和人民生活改善。但“东突”势力并不甘心失败,在国际反华势力的支持下,不择手段地组织策划实施各种分裂破坏活动。20世纪50年代初期,分裂分子在新疆制造了多起暴乱,他们的口号是“维吾尔人应该在星月旗下团结起来”“建立伊斯兰共和国”。60年代,先后发生了“伊塔事件”、“东突厥斯坦人民革命党”叛乱、南疆阿洪诺夫集团武装暴乱。70年代末80年代初,宗教极端主义进一步向新疆渗透。80年代以后,宗教极端主义与恐怖主义沆瀣一气、兴风作浪,成为严重危害新疆稳定安全的浊流。
Since the 1990s, especially after the September 11 attacks in the US, the “East Turkistan” forces inside and outside China have stepped up their collaboration as terrorism and extremism spread around the globe, trying desperately to establish “East Turkistan” through “Jihad” (holy war). In the name of ethnicity and religion, they deceitfully used people's ethnic identity and religious belief to instigate religious fanaticism, spread religious extremism, and incite the common people to join in violent and terrorist activities. They brainwashed people with the “Jihad”, abetting them to “die for their belief in order to enter heaven”. Some of the most susceptible followers, no longer possessed of any self-control, became extremists and terrorists who heartlessly slaughtered innocent people. 20世纪90年代以来,特别是美国“9·11”事件后,受国际局势变化和恐怖主义、极端主义全球蔓延的影响,境内外“东突”势力加强勾连,扬言通过发动“圣战”建立“东突厥斯坦”国家。他们打着民族、宗教的幌子,利用群众朴素的民族宗教感情,煽动宗教狂热、大肆散布宗教极端思想,蛊惑煽动群众,实施暴力恐怖活动,使一些人走上违法犯罪的道路。他们大肆鼓吹“圣战殉教进天堂”等邪说,把一些人变成完全受其精神控制的极端分子和恐怖分子,甚至变成杀人不眨眼的魔鬼。
Religious extremism under the banner of Islam runs counter to Islamic doctrines. It is not Islam. For a long time separatists have tied extremism to religion, to religious believers, and to society as a whole. They tell people not to obey anyone but Allah and incite them to resist government management. They abuse those who do not follow the path of extremism as pagans, traitors and scum, urging their followers to verbally assault, reject, and isolate non-believers, Party members and officials, and patriotic religious individuals. They deny and reject all forms of secular culture, preaching a life without TV, radio and newspaper, forbidding people to weep at funerals or laugh at weddings, imposing bans on singing and dancing, and forcing women to wear heavily-veiled black long gowns. They over-generalize the “Halal” concept, stamping food, medicine, cosmetics, clothing, etc. with the Halal symbol. They turn a blind eye to the diverse and splendid cultures of Xinjiang created by all its ethnic groups, trying to sever the ties between the Chinese culture and the ethnic cultures of Xinjiang. All this indicates their denial of modern civilization, rejection of human progress, and gross violation of the human rights of their fellow citizens. 宗教极端主义打着伊斯兰教旗号,但完全违背宗教教义,并不是伊斯兰教。长期以来,他们把极端思想与宗教捆绑在一起,与广大信教群众捆绑在一起,与社会生活捆绑在一起,煽动群众“除了真主以外不能服从任何人”,教唆信教群众抵制政府管理;鼓吹把一切不遵循极端做法的人都视为异教徒、宗教叛徒、民族败类,煽动辱骂、排斥、孤立不信教群众、党员干部和爱国宗教人士;否定和排斥一切世俗文化,宣扬不能看电视、听广播、读报刊,强迫葬礼不哭、婚礼不笑,禁止人们唱歌跳舞,强制妇女穿戴蒙面罩袍;泛化“清真”概念,不仅在食品上,而且在药品、化妆品、服装等物品上都打上清真标签;无视新疆各民族共同创造的多姿多彩、辉煌灿烂的传统文化,企图割裂中华文化与新疆各民族文化的联系。这一切,都是对现代文明的否定,都是对人类进步的破坏,都是对公民人权的粗暴侵犯。
III. Violent Terrorism and Religious Extremism Are Grave Abuses of Human Rights   三、暴力恐怖和宗教极端行为严重践踏人权
Terrorist and extremist forces in Xinjiang, driven by the goal of separatism, engaged in wildly sabotaging activities. This badly undermines local stability and brings enormous suffering to all ethnic groups in the region. Incomplete statistics show that from 1990 to the end of 2016, separatist, terrorist and extremist forces launched thousands of terrorist attacks in Xinjiang, killing large numbers of innocent people and hundreds of police officers, and causing immeasurable damage to property. 在分裂主义的影响下,新疆恐怖主义势力、极端主义势力大肆实施破坏活动,给新疆社会稳定带来极大危害,给各族人民造成极大伤痛。据不完全统计,自1990年至2016年底,“三股势力”在新疆等地共制造了数千起暴力恐怖案(事)件,造成大量无辜群众被害,数百名公安民警殉职,财产损失无法估算。
...... 疯狂残害普通民众。1992年2月5日,正当中国各族人民欢度春节时,恐怖组织在乌鲁木齐市52路、30路公共汽车上实施了2起爆炸案件,炸毁公共汽车2辆,造成3人死亡、23人受伤。1997年2月25日,“东突”恐怖分子实施了乌鲁木齐市2路、10路、44路公共汽车爆炸案,炸毁3辆公共汽车,致使9人死亡、68名乘客重伤。2011年7月30日,2名恐怖分子在喀什市美食街路口劫持一辆卡车,持刀杀害司机后,驾车冲向人群,并下车持刀砍杀路边群众,造成8人死亡、27人受伤;次日,恐怖分子在该市人民西路香榭大街步行街疯狂砍杀路人,造成6人死亡、15人受伤。2012年2月28日,9名恐怖分子在喀什地区叶城县幸福路步行街持砍刀袭击群众,造成15人死亡、20人受伤。2014年3月1日,8名新疆籍恐怖分子在昆明市火车站广场和售票厅持砍刀疯狂砍杀群众,造成31人死亡、141人受伤。2014年4月30日,2名恐怖分子混入乌鲁木齐市火车南站出站口人群中,1人持匕首袭击群众,另1人引爆手提箱内爆炸装置,造成3人死亡、79人受伤。2014年5月22日,5名恐怖分子驾驶2辆越野车冲破乌鲁木齐市沙依巴克区公园北街早市防护栏,冲撞碾压群众,引爆爆炸装置,造成39人死亡、94人受伤。2015年9月18日,一伙恐怖分子袭击阿克苏地区拜城县一处煤矿,造成16人死亡、18人受伤。

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