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Opinions of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on Keeping the Land Contracting Relationship Stable and Unchanged on a Long-term Basis [Effective]
中共中央、国务院关于保持土地承包关系稳定并长久不变的意见 [现行有效]

Opinions of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on Keeping the Land Contracting Relationship Stable and Unchanged on a Long-term Basis 


As set forth in the 19th CPC National Congress, the rural land contracting relationship will remain stable and unchanged on a long-term basis, and the current round of contracts will be extended for another 30 years upon expiration. For the purposes of protecting the farmers' rights and interests in land contracting, further improving the rural land contracting management system, and advancing the implementation of the rural vitalization strategy, the opinions on keeping the rural land (contracted arable land) stable and unchanged on a long-term basis (hereinafter referred to as “keeping unchanged on a long-term basis”) are hereby offered as follows: 党的十九大提出,保持土地承包关系稳定并长久不变,第二轮土地承包到期后再延长三十年。为充分保障农民土地承包权益,进一步完善农村土地承包经营制度,推进实施乡村振兴战略,现就保持农村土地(指承包耕地)承包关系稳定并长久不变(以下简称“长久不变”)提出如下意见。
I. Significance   一、重要意义
Since the implementation of the household land contracting system, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council have been adhering to the guideline of stabilizing rural land contracting relationship by extending the contracting term twice and improving the relevant regulations and systems, thereby maintaining the farmers' various rights in contracted land according to law. At the critical time when the socialism with Chinese characteristics enters into a new era, the fact that the CPC Central Committee pledged to keep the land contracting relationship stable and unchanged on a long-term basis is of primary significance and profound influence, as it embodies the continuance and development of the rural land policies of the Party. 自实行家庭承包经营以来,党中央、国务院一直坚持稳定农村土地承包关系的方针政策,先后两次延长承包期限,不断健全相关制度体系,依法维护农民承包土地的各项权利。在中国特色社会主义进入新时代的关键时期,党中央提出保持土地承包关系稳定并长久不变,是对党的农村土地政策的继承和发展,意义重大、影响深远。
1. “Keeping unchanged on a long-term basis” will be conducive to consolidating and improving the rural land management system. The two-tier management system, which is based on the household contracting management system that combines centralized and decentralized approaches, constitutes a major success of the reform and opening up policy and serves as the basic management system in rural areas. The system accords with the actual conditions of China and the characteristics of agricultural production; and it is highly flexible with strong vitality. A stable land contracting relationship will help boost the confidence of farmers in agricultural production and ensure lasting stability in rural areas. In addition, “keeping unchanged on a long-term basis” will lay a more solid foundation for the basic rural land management system and bring strong dynamism to the system as it honors the wishes of farmers. (一)实行“长久不变”有利于巩固和完善农村基本经营制度。在农村实行以家庭承包经营为基础、统分结合的双层经营体制,是改革开放的重大成果,是农村基本经营制度。这一制度符合我国国情和农业生产特点,具有广泛适应性和强大生命力。承包关系稳定,有利于增强农民发展生产的信心、保障农村长治久安。实行“长久不变”,顺应了农民愿望,将为巩固农村基本经营制度奠定更为坚实基础,展现持久制度活力。
2. “Keeping unchanged on a long-term basis” will be conducive to promoting the development of modern agriculture with Chinese characteristics. Land contracting relationship is the embodiment of rural production relationship, and needs constant improvement to conform to the development of productive forces. The household responsibility system introduced at the early stage of the reform and opening up has successfully solved the problem of basic livelihood for millions of farmers. The development of industrialization and urbanization, the migration of numerous rural labors, as well as the significant improvement of farming equipment have made it possible to expand the scale of agricultural business management. “Keeping unchanged on a long-term basis” will also promote the establishment of a pattern of separating ownership rights, contract rights, and management rights for contracted land - contract rights will be stabilized, contract rights and interests of rural residents will be protected, management rights will be loosened, and the role of new entities in rural land management will be maximized, thus facilitating the connection between small farmers and modern agriculture, supporting the development of rural land management at an appropriate scale in diverse forms, and promoting agricultural modernization with Chinese characteristics. (二)实行“长久不变”有利于促进中国特色现代农业发展。土地承包关系是农村生产关系的集中体现,需要适应生产力发展的要求不断巩固完善。改革开放初期实行家庭联产承包制,成功解决了亿万农民的温饱问题。随着工业化、城镇化发展和农村劳动力大量转移,农业物质装备水平大幅提升,农业经营规模扩大成为可能。实行“长久不变”,促进形成农村土地“三权”分置格局,稳定承包权,维护广大农户的承包权益,放活经营权,发挥新型农业经营主体引领作用,有利于实现小农户和现代农业发展有机衔接,有利于发展多种形式适度规模经营,推进中国特色农业现代化。
3. “Keeping unchanged on a long-term basis” will be conducive to supporting the implementation of rural vitalization strategy. Currently, the issue of unbalanced and inadequate development is the most prominent in rural areas. The implementation of rural vitalization strategy plays a historically important role in securing a victory in building a moderately prosperous society in all aspects and embarking on a new journey of comprehensively building a modern socialist country. Reform is the key to revitalize rural areas in an all-round way. To this end, the focus shall be put on improving the property right system and the market-oriented distribution of resources, and institutional support to rural areas shall be strengthened. “Keeping unchanged on a long-term basis” while improving the land contracting management system will help protect the farmers' rights and interests in land contracting, push forward the optimal distribution of rural land resources, stimulate agricultural entities, production factors and the market, and provide a stronger system guarantee for rural vitalization. (三)实行“长久不变”有利于推动实施乡村振兴战略。当前,我国发展不平衡不充分问题在乡村最为突出。实施乡村振兴战略是决胜全面建成小康社会、全面建设社会主义现代化国家的重大历史任务。改革是乡村全面振兴的法宝。推动乡村全面振兴,必须以完善产权制度和要素市场化配置为重点,强化制度性供给。实行“长久不变”,完善承包经营制度,有利于强化农户土地承包权益保护,有利于推进农村土地资源优化配置,有利于激活主体、激活要素、激活市场,为实现乡村振兴提供更加有力的制度保障。
4. “Keeping unchanged on a long-term basis” will be conducive to maintaining social harmony and stability in rural areas. As the land issue runs through the entire process of rural reform and involves the substantial benefits of millions of farmers, how to balance the rights and interests of all parties concerned in land demonstrates the administration and governance capabilities of the Party. “Keeping unchanged on a long-term basis” while further clarifying the rights and obligations in contracted land between the village collective and farmers, between farmers and farmers, and between farmers and new rural land management entities will help make good advantage of the socialist collective economy, properly adjust the relations among parties concerned, remove the hidden disputes over land, promote social fairness and justice, and further consolidate the foundation of the Party's governance in rural areas by ensuring fairness at the starting point and equal opportunities. (四)实行“长久不变”有利于保持农村社会和谐稳定。土地问题贯穿农村改革全过程,涉及亿万农民切身利益,平衡好各方土地权益,是党的执政能力和国家治理水平的重要体现。实行“长久不变”,进一步明晰集体与农户、农户与农户、农户与新型农业经营主体之间在承包土地上的权利义务关系,有利于发挥社会主义集体经济的优越性,通过起点公平、机会公平,合理调节利益关系,消除土地纠纷隐患,促进社会公平正义,进一步巩固党在农村的执政基础。
II. General requirements   二、总体要求
1. Guiding ideology: With Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, efforts shall be made to comprehensively fulfill the spirit of the 19th CPC National Congress and the Second and Third Plenary Sessions of the 19th CPC Central Committee, earnestly implement the decisions and arrangements of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, revolve around pursuing coordinated implementation of the five-sphere integrated plan and the four-pronged comprehensive strategy, firmly uphold and follow the new concept of development, focus on the primary task of handling the relationship between farmers and land, continue to support farmers in household contracting management, stay committed to keeping the land contracting relationship stable and long-lasting, provide farmers with long-term land right security, improve the basic management system of rural areas, and lay an institutional foundation for improving modernization in agriculture and rural areas, enhancing comprehensive rural vitalization, and maintaining social harmony and stability. (一)指导思想。以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,全面贯彻党的十九大和十九届二中、三中全会精神,认真落实党中央、国务院决策部署,紧紧围绕统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局和协调推进“四个全面”战略布局,牢固树立和贯彻落实新发展理念,紧扣处理好农民和土地关系这一主线,坚持农户家庭承包经营,坚持承包关系长久稳定,赋予农民更加充分而有保障的土地权利,巩固和完善农村基本经营制度,为提高农业农村现代化水平、推动乡村全面振兴、保持社会和谐稳定奠定制度基础。
2. Basic principles (二)基本原则
- Stabilizing the basic management system in rural areas: keeping to the system of collective ownership of rural land, ensuring that the members of collective economic organizations can equally enjoy land rights and interests, continuously exploring specific ways of attaining goals, refraining from land privatization; and adhering to the basic role of the household contracting management system, and not changing the position of farmers in household land contracting or infringing on farmers' rights and interests in land contracting regardless of how the land management rights are transferred or how the new agricultural management entities proceed.

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