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Several Opinions of the General Office of the State Council on Deepening Integration of Industries into Education [Effective]
国务院办公厅关于深化产教融合的若干意见 [现行有效]

Several Opinions of the General Office of the State Council on Deepening Integration of Industries into Education 


(No. 95 [2017] of the General Office of the State Council) (国办发〔2017〕95号)

The people's governments of all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government; all ministries and commissions of the State Council; and all institutions directly under the State Council: 各省、自治区、直辖市人民政府,国务院各部委、各直属机构:
Since the beginning of the new century, China's educational undertaking has thrived and expanded, fostered and provided a large number of quality talents for the socialist modernization drive, and made major contributions to the acceleration of the development and growth of the modern industry system. Nevertheless, affected by systems, mechanisms and other various factors, the supply side, fostering of talents, and the industry demand side cannot completely match each in structure, quality and level, and there remains the "two-skin" problem. Deepening integration of industries into education and promoting the organic connection between the educational chain as well as the talent chain and the industry chain as well as the innovation chain are the urgent requirements of current advancement of the structural reform of the supply side of human resources and are significant for comprehensive improvement of educational quality, expansion of employment and entrepreneurship, advancement of economic transformation and upgrading, and fostering of new momentum for economic development under new conditions. For the purposes of implementing the spirit of the 19th CPC National Congress, deepening the integration of industries into education, and comprehensively improving the quality of human resources, with the approval of the State Council, the following opinions are hereby offered. 进入新世纪以来,我国教育事业蓬勃发展,为社会主义现代化建设培养输送了大批高素质人才,为加快发展壮大现代产业体系作出了重大贡献。但同时,受体制机制等多种因素影响,人才培养供给侧和产业需求侧在结构、质量、水平上还不能完全适应,“两张皮”问题仍然存在。深化产教融合,促进教育链、人才链与产业链、创新链有机衔接,是当前推进人力资源供给侧结构性改革的迫切要求,对新形势下全面提高教育质量、扩大就业创业、推进经济转型升级、培育经济发展新动能具有重要意义。为贯彻落实党的十九大精神,深化产教融合,全面提升人力资源质量,经国务院同意,现提出以下意见。
I. General requirements   一、总体要求
1. Guiding ideology. (一)指导思想。
We shall comprehensively implement the spirit of the 19th CPC National Congress, adhere to the guidance of the Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, closely center on the overall advancement of the overall layout for "economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological progress" and coordinated advancement of the Four-Pronged Comprehensive Strategy, insist on centering on the people, persist in new development concepts, conscientiously carry out the decisions and arrangements of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on the comprehensive educational reform, deepen the reform of vocational education and higher education, among others, allow enterprises to play a major engaging role, promote the all-around integration of the structural factors of the supply side, talent fostering, and industry demand side, cultivate a number of quality innovation, technical and skill talents, and provide powerful support for the acceleration of the establishment of the industry system featuring collaborative development of the real economy, science and technology innovation, modern finance, and human resources, enhancement of core competitiveness of industries, and gathering of new development momentum. 全面贯彻党的十九大精神,坚持以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,紧紧围绕统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局和协调推进“四个全面”战略布局,坚持以人民为中心,坚持新发展理念,认真落实党中央、国务院关于教育综合改革的决策部署,深化职业教育、高等教育等改革,发挥企业重要主体作用,促进人才培养供给侧和产业需求侧结构要素全方位融合,培养大批高素质创新人才和技术技能人才,为加快建设实体经济、科技创新、现代金融、人力资源协同发展的产业体系,增强产业核心竞争力,汇聚发展新动能提供有力支撑。
2. Principles and objectives. (二)原则和目标。
Overall coordination and joint advancement. Integrating industries into education shall be considered as an important measure to promote coordinated economic and social development, embedded in all parts of economic transformation and upgrading, and reflected in the whole process of talent development, so as to form a work pattern of collaborative advancement by the government, enterprises, schools, industries and the public. 统筹协调,共同推进。将产教融合作为促进经济社会协调发展的重要举措,融入经济转型升级各环节,贯穿人才开发全过程,形成政府企业学校行业社会协同推进的工作格局。
Meeting demand and optimizing structure. Based on the demand in industry and regional development, the distribution of educational resources shall be improved, the adjustment of the structure of talent fostering shall be accelerated, the modalities of educational organizations shall be innovated on, and the interactive development of education and industries shall be promoted. 服务需求,优化结构。面向产业和区域发展需求,完善教育资源布局,加快人才培养结构调整,创新教育组织形态,促进教育和产业联动发展。
Schools and enterprises shall cooperate in fostering talents. The activism and initiative of enterprises to participate in the integration of industries into education shall be fully triggered, policy guidance shall be enhanced, pioneering shall be encouraged, supply-demand connection and process reshaping shall be prompted, and a permanent mechanism for the cooperation between schools and enterprises shall be developed. 校企协同,合作育人。充分调动企业参与产教融合的积极性和主动性,强化政策引导,鼓励先行先试,促进供需对接和流程再造,构建校企合作长效机制。
The main objects of integrating industries into education are to gradually improve engagement of enterprises in education, improve the diversified educational system, comprehensively promote collaborative fostering of talents by schools and enterprises, after around ten years, generally form a development pattern featuring overall integration and positive interaction between education and industries, improve the demand-driven talent fostering mode, basically solve the major structural contradiction between talent supply and industry demand, and conspicuously enhance the contribution of vocational education and higher education to economic development and industry upgrading. 深化产教融合的主要目标是,逐步提高行业企业参与办学程度,健全多元化办学体制,全面推行校企协同育人,用10年左右时间,教育和产业统筹融合、良性互动的发展格局总体形成,需求导向的人才培养模式健全完善,人才教育供给与产业需求重大结构性矛盾基本解决,职业教育、高等教育对经济发展和产业升级的贡献显著增强。
II. Developing an overall consolidated development pattern of education and industries   二、构建教育和产业统筹融合发展格局
3. Concurrently planning integration of industries into education and economic and social development. When economic and social development plans and plans for regional development, industry development, urban construction and major productivity distribution are developed and implemented, the requirements for consolidated development of industries and education shall be specified, and priority for education and talents shall be integrated into all policies. In conjunction with the implementation of innovation-driven development, new urbanization and strong manufacturing country strategies, the structures of education and industries shall be optimized in an overall manner, and the policies and measures, supporting manners, realizing path and major projects of consolidated development of industries and education shall be concurrently planned. (三)同步规划产教融合与经济社会发展。制定实施经济社会发展规划,以及区域发展、产业发展、城市建设和重大生产力布局规划,要明确产教融合发展要求,将教育优先、人才先行融入各项政策。结合实施创新驱动发展、新型城镇化、制造强国战略,统筹优化教育和产业结构,同步规划产教融合发展政策措施、支持方式、实现途径和重大项目。
4. Distributing vocational education and regional development in an overall manner. According to regional and national overall development strategies and main functional area plans, the distribution of vocational education shall be optimized, and vocational education resources shall be guided in gradually gathering in clustering areas of industries and population. Oriented on the main areas for poverty alleviation, it shall be vigorously advanced that students are enrolled at quality vocational schools in urban areas. The vocational education aid as poverty alleviation from eastern China to western China and from urban areas to rural areas shall be strengthened. Middle China shall be supported in building major national advanced manufacturing vocational education bases. Vocational education urgently needed in revitalization of old industrial bases including northeast China shall be supported. The collaboration and cooperation between cities in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and Yangtze River economic belt shall be strengthened, and all regions shall be guided, based on regional functions and industry characteristics, among others, exploring differentiated development path for vocational education. (四)统筹职业教育与区域发展布局。按照国家区域发展总体战略和主体功能区规划,优化职业教育布局,引导职业教育资源逐步向产业和人口集聚区集中。面向脱贫攻坚主战场,积极推进贫困地区学生到城市优质职业学校就学。加强东部对口西部、城市支援农村职业教育扶贫。支持中部打造全国重要的先进制造业职业教育基地。支持东北等老工业基地振兴发展急需的职业教育。加强京津冀、长江经济带城市间协同合作,引导各地结合区域功能、产业特点探索差别化职业教育发展路径。
5. Promoting higher education in integrating with the national innovation system and the building of new urbanization. The advancement mechanism for the building of world first-class universities and first-class disciplines shall be improved, and attention shall be paid to the role in supporting and leading the development of regional and national innovation centers. An innovation ecosystem featuring close cooperation between institutions of higher learning and backbone enterprises as well as micro, small and medium-sized startups shall be improved, and the capacity of innovation centers to gather talent resources and drive industry upgrading shall be enhanced. Based on the development of new urbanization in which conurbations take the lead, higher education resources shall be reasonably distributed, the industry carrying capacity and innovation capability of small and medium-sized cities shall be enhanced, and a network of integration of industries into education featuring orderly echelon, complementary functions, resource sharing and close cooperation shall be built. (五)促进高等教育融入国家创新体系和新型城镇化建设。完善世界一流大学和一流学科建设推进机制,注重发挥对国家和区域创新中心发展的支撑引领作用。健全高等学校与行业骨干企业、中小微创业型企业紧密协同的创新生态系统,增强创新中心集聚人才资源、牵引产业升级能力。适应以城市群为主体的新型城镇化发展,合理布局高等教育资源,增强中小城市产业承载和创新能力,构建梯次有序、功能互补、资源共享、合作紧密的产教融合网络。
6. Promoting the building of disciplines and programs in being commensurate with the transformation and upgrading of industries. A discipline and program system closely connected with the industry chain and innovation chain shall be established. Sought-after disciplines and programs urgently needed by industries, such as modern agriculture, intelligent manufacturing, high-end equipment, new generation of information technology, biomedicine, energy conservation and environmental protection, new energy, new materials, research, development and design, digital creativity, modern transport, efficient logistics, finance lease, e-commerce, and service outsourcing, shall be vigorously developed. The development of the programs in the social fields including housekeeping, health, elderly support, culture, and tourism shall be vigorously supported, and the building oriented on standards, regulation and brands shall be advanced. The building of programs relating to urban capability of sustainable development, such as intelligent cities and smart buildings, shall be strengthened. The building of disciplines and programs relating to national strategies and national security, such as integrated circuit, aircraft engines and gas turbines, cybersecurity, and artificial intelligence, shall be vigorously supported. Based on the new round of science and technology revolution, industry revolution and the development of the new economy, the overlapping and integration of disciplines and programs shall be promoted, and the advancement of the building of new engineering programs shall be accelerated. (六)推动学科专业建设与产业转型升级相适应。建立紧密对接产业链、创新链的学科专业体系。大力发展现代农业、智能制造、高端装备、新一代信息技术、生物医药、节能环保、新能源、新材料以及研发设计、数字创意、现代交通运输、高效物流、融资租赁、电子商务、服务外包等产业急需紧缺学科专业。积极支持家政、健康、养老、文化、旅游等社会领域专业发展,推进标准化、规范化、品牌化建设。加强智慧城市、智能建筑等城市可持续发展能力相关专业建设。大力支持集成电路、航空发动机及燃气轮机、网络安全、人工智能等事关国家战略、国家安全等学科专业建设。适应新一轮科技革命和产业变革及新经济发展,促进学科专业交叉融合,加快推进新工科建设。
7. Improving the demand-driven mechanism for the adjustment of the structure of talent fostering. The advancement of the reform of simplification of administrative procedures, delegation of powers, combination of decentralization and control, and optimization of services shall be accelerated, attention shall be paid to allowing the market mechanism to play a role in allocating non-basic public educational resources, and the effective regulation of talent supply by the job market shall be enhanced. The system of release of annual reports on the employment quality of university graduates shall be further improved, attention shall be paid to allowing industry organizations to play a role in predicting demand for talents and employers to play a role in assessing professional proficiencies, and market supply-demand ratio and employment quality shall be used as a major basis for schools to establish and adjust disciplines and programs and determine the number of students. New postgraduate admission plans shall be made in favor of universities and disciplines undertaking major national strategic tasks and vigorously promoting collaboration between schools and enterprises. The program early warning and leaving mechanism shall be strictly implemented, and schools shall be guided in reducing or ceasing in a timely manner the admissions to programs similar to other programs, featuring successive failure to reach the employment standard. (七)健全需求导向的人才培养结构调整机制。加快推进教育“放管服”改革,注重发挥市场机制配置非基本公共教育资源作用,强化就业市场对人才供给的有效调节。进一步完善高校毕业生就业质量年度报告发布制度,注重发挥行业组织人才需求预测、用人单位职业能力评价作用,把市场供求比例、就业质量作为学校设置调整学科专业、确定培养规模的重要依据。新增研究生招生计划向承担国家重大战略任务、积极推行校企协同育人的高校和学科倾斜。严格实行专业预警和退出机制,引导学校对设置雷同、就业连续不达标专业,及时调减或停止招生。
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