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Notice by the Supreme People's Procuratorate of Issuing the Opinions on Strengthening Prosecution involving Minors in the New Era [Effective]
最高人民检察院关于印发《最高人民检察院关于加强新时代未成年人检察工作的意见》的通知 [现行有效]

Notice by the Supreme People's Procuratorate of Issuing the Opinions on Strengthening Prosecution involving Minors in the New Era 


The people's procuratorates at all levels: 各级人民检察院:
The Opinions of the Supreme People's Procuratorate on Strengthening Prosecution involving Minors in the New Era are hereby issued to you for your earnest implementation according to actual conditions. 现将《最高人民检察院关于加强新时代未成年人检察工作的意见》印发你们,请结合实际,认真贯彻落实。
Supreme People's Procuratorate 最高人民检察院
April 21, 2020 2020年4月21日
Opinions of the Supreme People's Procuratorate on Strengthening Prosecution involving Minors in the New Era 最高人民检察院关于加强新时代未成年人检察工作的意见
For the purposes of further studying Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, comprehensively implementing the guiding principle of the 19th CPC National Congress, and the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Plenary Sessions of the 19th CPC Central Committee, earnestly fulfilling the overall arrangement of the procuratorial work in the new era, and comprehensively improving the level of juvenile prosecution, the opinions on strengthening prosecution involving minors are hereby offered as follows. 为深入学习贯彻习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想,全面贯彻党的十九大和十九届二中、三中、四中全会精神,认真落实新时代检察工作总体部署,全面提升未成年人检察工作水平,现就加强新时代未成年人检察工作提出如下意见。
I. General requirements for juvenile prosecution in the new era 一、新时代未成年人检察工作的总体要求
1. Situation and mission of juvenile prosecution in the new era. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the cause of the CPC and the country has witnessed a historic transformation and made significant achievements under the firm leadership of the CPC Central committee with Xi Jinping at its core, thus creating unprecedented opportunities for strengthening the protection of juveniles. As a result, prosecution involving minors has seen six rapid changes as follows: from handling criminal cases of juveniles while educating and redeeming juvenile offenders to punishing crimes of assaulting minors and protecting and salvaging minor victims as well; from giving lenient treatment to juvenile offenders to laying equal stress on precise assistance and education, punishment according to law, effective control, and adequate protection for juvenile offenders; from prosecuting juvenile offenders in a traditional manner to using various means to provide comprehensive judicial protection; from fostering a “human-centered” approach of crime prevention to taking active measures to encourage innovations in social governance; from focusing on legal supervision to paying similar attention to communication and uniting the forces from all sides; and from pushing forward the prosecution work by local procuratorial organs from the bottom to making plans and promoting the work as a whole by the Supreme People's Procuratorate at the top. Significant progress has been made in providing professional and well-regulated prosecution involving minors with the participation of all relevant parties, and a framework of the prosecution system for juveniles with Chinese socialist characteristics has been basically constructed. As the principal contradiction in Chinese society changed in the new era, the people have moved their focus from “whether there is judicial protection for juveniles” to “whether there is good or better judicial protection”, and have had more and higher requirements in this regard. The strategic arrangement made by the 4th Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee for modernizing the national governance system and capacity, and the Law on the Protection of Minors and the Law on the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency that are under revision will provide procuratorial organs with more tasks in judicial protection of minors. Meanwhile, however, there still exist many pronounced problems in juvenile prosecution in terms of judicial concepts, judicial competency, effect of case handling, institutional innovation, and supervision efforts, leaving a wide disparity between the existing prosecution work and new requirements in the new era. In particular, the protection of minors is facing a severe and complicated situation at the current stage, crimes involving minors occur in large numbers and frequently, major or serious juvenile criminal cases happen from time to time, and the problems of failure to abide by laws and slack law enforcement are quite common, seriously endangering the health and growth of juveniles. As juvenile prosecution plays an important role in the country's general plan of the protection of minors with heavier duties and clearer responsibilities in the new era, stronger efforts must be made to promote prosecution related to juveniles so as to improve quality and efficiency and ensure greater success. 1.新时代未成年人检察工作的形势任务。党的十八大以来,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,党和国家事业发生历史性变革、取得历史性成就,为加强未成年人保护工作带来前所未有的发展机遇,推动未成年人检察工作加速实现六个转变:从办理未成年人犯罪案件,教育挽救涉罪未成年人,向同时打击侵害未成年人犯罪,保护救助未成年被害人转变;从对未成年人犯罪强调宽缓化处理,逐渐向精准帮教、依法惩治、有效管束、促进保护并重转变;从传统的未成年人刑事检察向综合运用多种手段、全面开展司法保护转变;从注重围绕“人”开展犯罪预防,向更加积极促进社会治理创新转变;从强调法律监督,向同时注重沟通配合,凝聚各方力量转变;从各地检察机关积极探索自下而上推动,向高检院加强顶层设计,整体推进转变。未成年人检察专业化、规范化、社会化建设取得了长足进展,中国特色社会主义未成年人检察制度的框架初步形成。随着新时代社会主要矛盾发生变化,人民群众对未成年人司法保护的关注从“有没有”到“好不好”向“更加好”发展,提出许多新的更高要求。十九届四中全会作出推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化的战略部署,《未成年人保护法》《预防未成年人犯罪法我能说我还比较喜欢洗碗吗》正在修改,将赋予检察机关未成年人司法保护新的更重任务。但与此同时,未成年人检察工作在司法理念、专业能力、办案效果、机制创新、监督力度等方面还存在很多突出问题,与新时代新要求相比尚有较大差距。特别是当前未成年人保护形势严峻复杂,涉及未成年人的犯罪多发高发,重大、恶性案件时有发生,未成年人保护有法不依、执法不严等问题较为普遍,严重危害未成年人健康成长。新时代未成年人检察工作在未成年人国家保护大格局中具有特殊重要的责任、地位,职责任务更加繁重,主导责任更加明确,必须下大力气进一步抓实、抓好,实现工作质效明显提升,确保取得新的更大成绩。
2. Overall guidelines for juvenile prosecution in the new era. With Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era as guidance, efforts shall be made to further study the guiding principle of the 19th CPC National Congress and the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Plenary Sessions of the 19th CPC Central Committee, and uphold the general requirements of “underscoring politics, thinking in the bigger picture, promoting development, and seeking self-improvement”. There shall also be efforts to implement the guidelines of “education, reforming and redemption” and the principle of “centering on education and supplementing it with punishment”, further introduce new judicial concepts, and have an accurate understanding of judicial rules for juveniles. Furthermore, professional and well-regulated prosecution involving minors with the participation of all relevant parties shall be continuously strengthened, and juvenile prosecution shall be extensively advanced, so as to ensure that all laws on the protection of juveniles will be effectively implemented, joint efforts from all social sectors will be mobilized, and the national governance system and capacity will be modernized. 2.新时代未成年人检察工作的总体思路。坚持以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,深入学习贯彻党的十九大和十九届二中、三中、四中全会精神,坚持“讲政治、顾大局、谋发展、重自强”的总体要求,积极贯彻“教育、感化、挽救”方针和“教育为主、惩罚为辅”原则,进一步更新司法理念,准确把握未成年人司法规律,持续加强专业化、规范化、社会化建设,推动未成年人检察工作更加深入开展,为保障未成年人保护法律全面落实到位,真正形成全社会保护合力,促进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化作出贡献。
3. Juvenile prosecution in the new era must be governed by the following basic principles: 3.新时代未成年人检察工作必须遵循的基本原则:
- Upholding absolute leadership of the Party: Voluntarily placing the whole process of juvenile prosecution under the absolute leadership of the Party, and underscoring politics and the bigger picture while promoting the rule of law and protection of individuals; and fully leveraging the strengths of the legal system with Chinese socialist characteristics, exploiting the legal supervision functions and the bridging role of procuratorial organs, taking the initiative to fulfill duties, and enhancing the juvenile judicial system. --坚持党的绝对领导。自觉把党的绝对领导贯穿于未成年人检察工作全过程,实现讲政治、顾大局与讲法治、促保护的统一。充分发挥中国特色社会主义法律制度优越性,立足检察机关法律监督职能和承上启下诉讼地位,积极充分履职,推动未成年人司法发展进步。
- Continuing to take the people-centered approach: Focusing on difficulties and challenges of great concern to the people in the protection of juveniles, strengthening efforts in the supply-side structural reform of juvenile prosecution, and helping people enjoy a stronger sense of gain, happiness and security. --坚持以人民为中心。聚焦人民群众反映强烈的未成年人保护热点、难点和痛点问题,加大未成年人检察供给侧结构性改革力度,切实增强人民群众的获得感、幸福感、安全感。
- Continuing to observe the inherent judicial rules for juveniles: Following the guideline of allowing juveniles to benefit the most, laying equal stress on case investigation, supervision, prevention and education, merging punishment with assistance and education, combining protection, education and control of juveniles, and constantly promoting comprehensive judicial protection of juveniles as well as protection of both minor offenders and minor victims; and supporting case handling in a professional manner while raising the awareness of all social sectors in the protection of minors, ensuring the establishment of a social support system with mutual supplementation and resource sharing, and continuously improving the quality and effect of juvenile prosecution. --坚持遵循未成年人司法内在规律。以未成年人利益最大化理念为指引,实行办案、监督、预防、教育并重,惩戒和帮教相结合,保护、教育、管束有机统一,持续推进未成年人双向、综合、全面司法保护。实行专业化办案与社会化保护相结合,实现社会支持的体系化支撑、优势化互补、共享化构建,不断提升未成年人检察工作品质与效果。
- Seeking both temporary and permanent solutions: Paying close attention to solving social problems reflected in cases involving juveniles through case handling, continuing to provide supervision and guidance rather than take the place of functional departments, enabling functional departments to fulfill their duties, integrating the concerted efforts from families, schools, society, network, governance and judiciary, building a bigger pattern for the protection of minors, and promoting the modernization of the social governance system and governance capacity. --坚持标本兼治。注重结合办案推动解决未成年人案件背后的社会问题,坚持督导而不替代,助推职能部门充分履职,凝聚家庭、学校、社会、网络、政府、司法各方保护力量,形成未成年人保护大格局,促进社会治理体系和治理能力现代化建设。
- Adhering to innovation and development: Fulfilling the requirement that “there is no end to juvenile prosecution”, encouraging the combination of top-level design and primary-level innovation, comprehensively promoting innovations in theories, systems and practices, providing more replicable experiences and models, and persistently inspiring the vitality of prosecution involving minors. --坚持创新发展。按照“未成年人检察工作没有止境”的要求,推动顶层设计与基层首创相结合,全面推进理论创新、制度创新、实践创新,形成更多可复制的经验、模式,使未成年人检察工作持续迸发生机活力。
II. Severely punishing crimes infringing upon juveniles 二、从严惩治侵害未成年人犯罪
4. Approving arrests for and filing lawsuits against crimes infringing on minors in a strict and rapid manner as legally required. Crimes infringing on minors shall not be tolerated, religious extremists, ethnic secessionists and other hostile forces that instill an extremist ideology in juveniles or organizing and utilizing juveniles to commit a crime of terrorism or extremism shall be severely punished. Focus shall be put on cracking down on crimes of sexually assaulting minors, trafficking or abducting children, enticing or forcing minors to participate in a criminal organization, organizing minors to beg or commit any other activity in violation of the public security administration. Crimes of endangering the security of campuses, infringement by guardians, and infringing on rural “left-behind children” and children in difficult situations shall be punished according to the law. Proposals on stricter sentencing shall be raised, and initiatives shall be taken to propose the application of prohibition over practice or an injunction. The procuratorates at higher levels shall continue to supervise the handling of crimes and strengthen follow-up guidance. A mechanism for quick response to and intervention in investigation and guidance for evidence collection in major difficult and complicated cases shall be upheld and improved. Communication with investigation and judicial organs shall be strengthened; a consensus shall be reached through discussions on model cases, joint participation in trainings, and integration of judicial policies; and judicial criteria shall be unified, so as to form joint forces in combating crimes.   4.依法从严从快批捕、起诉侵害未成年人犯罪。坚持零容忍,严厉打击宗教极端、民族分裂等敌对势力向未成年人灌输极端思想、组织利用未成年人实施恐怖活动犯罪和极端主义犯罪。突出打击性侵害未成年人,拐卖、拐骗儿童,成年人拉拢、迫使未成年人参与犯罪组织,组织未成年人乞讨或进行其他违反治安管理活动的犯罪。依法惩处危害校园安全、监护侵害、侵害农村留守儿童和困境儿童犯罪。坚持依法从严提出量刑建议,积极建议适用从业禁止、禁止令。上级检察院对重大案件要坚持挂牌督办,加强跟踪指导。坚持和完善重大疑难案件快速反应、介入侦查引导取证机制。加强与侦查、审判机关的沟通交流,通过典型案例研讨、同堂培训、一体推行司法政策等方式凝聚共识,统一司法尺度,形成打击合力。
5. Stepping up supervision on criminal proceedings. Efforts shall be made to remain committed to the principle of “conducting supervision in case handling while handling cases during supervision”, expand sources of supervision clues, improve the means of supervision, and enhance the quality and efficiency of supervision. Any act infringing on a juvenile's litigious right in violation of court procedures, particularly criminal special procedures for minors, shall be corrected under supervision in a timely manner. Communication and coordination with the law enforcement and case handling management centers of public security organs shall be strengthened, supervision on case filing and investigation shall be further conducted, and emphasis shall be laid on the issues of failure to file cases involving sexual assaults of minors, failure to investigate such cases, failure to punish crimes of sexually assaulting minors, and substitution of fines for criminal punishments. Supervision on criminal trials and execution of criminal penalties in juvenile cases shall be actively promoted, and problems such as imposing lighter punishments for more severe crimes, finding guilty persons innocent, absence of special disciplinary measures, and poor performance of community corrections shall be given focused supervision, so as to ensure that the punishment fits the crime and law enforcement is effective. 5.强化刑事诉讼监督。牢固树立“在办案中监督、在监督中办案”理念,拓展监督线索来源,完善监督方式,提升监督质效。对违反诉讼程序尤其是未成年人刑事案件特别程序规定,侵犯涉案未成年人诉讼权利的行为,要及时监督纠正。注重强化与公安机关执法办案管理中心等平台的沟通与衔接,深入开展立案监督、侦查活动监督,重点监督对性侵害未成年人案件有案不立、立而不侦、有罪不究、以罚代刑等问题。积极推进涉及未成年人案件刑事审判监督、刑罚执行监督,重点监督重罪轻判、有罪判无罪、特殊管教措施虚置、社区矫正空转等问题,确保罚当其罪、执行到位。
6. Continuing to advance the “one-stop” case handling mechanism. Communication with public security organs shall be strengthened. Endeavors shall be made to realize early intervention in cases of sexually assaulting minors and full coverage of simultaneous video and audio recording on inquiring of minor victims, and effectively increase the ratio of cases with “one inquiry only”, so as to avoid and reduce “secondary victimization”. Cooperation shall be conducted with public security organs and women's federations on actively establishing a “one-stop” evidence collection and assistance mechanism that integrates inquiring, extraction of biological samples, physical checks and psychological counseling for minor victims. All prefectures, cities, and autonomous prefectures will each have at least one “one-stop” case handling site for minor victims before December 31, 2020. 6.持续推进“一站式”办案机制。加强与公安机关沟通,努力实现性侵害未成年人案件提前介入、询问被害人同步录音录像全覆盖,切实提高一次询问的比例,避免和减少二次伤害。会同公安机关、妇联等部门积极推进集未成年被害人接受询问、生物样本提取、身体检查、心理疏导等于一体的“一站式”取证、救助机制建设。2020年底各地市(州)至少建立一处未成年被害人“一站式”办案场所。
7. Providing more care and assistance to minor victims. The Opinions of the Supreme People's Procuratorate on Comprehensively Strengthening State Judicial Assistance for Minors and other relevant provisions shall be implemented to ensure that whoever meets certain conditions will be covered by judicial assistance, with focus on strengthening caring for and assistance to special victims, such as orphans, left-behind children in rural areas, children in difficult situations, de facto unsupported children and children of rural migrant workers in cities. Active measures shall be taken to coordinate functional departments and use joint efforts of the society to provide diversified assistance to them in terms of physical and mental health, living conditions, resumption of studies and employment, and legal support, and help minor victims and their families to shake off poverty. Cooperation shall be conducted with judicial and administrative departments to improve the legal assistance system for minor victims in criminal cases. 7.加强未成年被害人关爱救助工作。认真落实《最高人民检察院关于全面加强未成年人国家司法救助工作的意见》等规定,实现符合条件对象救助全覆盖,重点加强对孤儿、农村留守儿童、困境儿童、事实无人抚养儿童及进城务工人员子女等特殊被害人群体的关爱救助。主动协调职能部门,借助社会力量,提供身心康复、生活安置、复学就业、法律支持等多元综合救助,帮助被害人及其家庭摆脱困境。会同司法行政部门,健全完善刑事案件未成年被害人法律援助制度。
III. Punishing, assisting and educating delinquent juveniles according to the law 三、依法惩戒、精准帮教罪错未成年人
8. Continuing to combine punishment and education. Tendency to simply give lighter punishment, purely crack down on offenders, or pursue formalism in assistance and education shall be corrected. Juveniles who are subjectively malicious, commit crimes with an execrable criminal nature, use cruel means, or cause serious consequences shall be punished according to the law and be properly controlled and educated, and the educating and alarming role of criminal punishment shall be maximized. Juveniles who are not subjectively malicious or who are first or casual offenders shall be given leniency in punishment, be provided with assistance and education, and be encouraged to smoothly return to the society. The criteria for conviction and sentencing of minors shall be precisely grasped. The growing environment and criminal mentality of minor offenders shall be further studied. Individual cases shall be meticulously analyzed, and the overall guidelines and principles of the Party and the country on crimes committed by minors shall be tailor-made and precisely applied to each judicial case. For gang-related crimes involving minors, criminal policies and the nature of crimes shall be accurately defined, facts and evidences shall be carefully and thoroughly scrutinized, stringent criteria for determining minors involved in such a crime shall be established, and those that do not meet the criteria shall not be determined as being involved in such a crime. Cases in which minors are to be determined as committing a gang-related crime and that require initiation of a public prosecution shall be reported level by level to provincial procuratorates for examination. 8.坚持惩治与教育相结合。克服简单从轻、单纯打击和帮教形式化倾向,对于主观恶性大、犯罪性质恶劣、手段残忍、后果严重的未成年人,依法惩处,管束到位,充分发挥刑罚的教育和警示功能;对于主观恶性不大、初犯偶犯的未成年人,依法从宽,实施精准帮教,促进顺利回归社会。准确把握未成年人定罪量刑标准,深入研究涉罪未成年人成长环境、犯罪心理,把个案情况吃透,将党和国家有关处理未成年人犯罪的统一方针、原则,个别化、精准化运用到每一个司法案件中。对未成年人涉黑涉恶案件要准确理解刑事政策和案件本质,认真全面审查事实证据,从严把握认定标准,不符合规定的依法坚决不予认定。对拟认定未成年人构成黑恶犯罪并提起公诉的案件,要逐级上报省级检察院审查把关。
9. Further implementing the special procuratorial system for minors. Efforts shall be intensified to put the arrest of a minor under strict control, and scientific measures shall be taken to ensure that social risks are imminent, detention is necessary, and assistance and education are unavailable before the arrest. The collection and review of social investigation shall be improved so that the quality of investigation will be assessed in a scientific manner, the issue of formalism and homogeneity in investigation reports shall be solved, social investigation shall, if possible, be conducted on all minors, and social investigation shall be fully utilized to serve as reference for case handling, and assistance and education. Trainings on the capabilities of adults in performing their duties shall be strengthened in an effort to build a stable team of appropriate adults. Psychological and social work experts shall be retained to provide psychological counseling and psychological assessment, and the ways of using psychological counseling and psychological assessment to assist case handling shall be properly regulated. The significance and value of conditional non-prosecution shall be accurately identified, and conditional non-prosecution shall be actively applied to suspected criminal minors that meet certain conditions so as to ensure that the proportion of its application will keep increasing. Procuratorial organs shall implement the system for sealing of criminal records, cooperate with public security organs and the people's courts to develop the relevant provisions on sealing criminal records, coordinate and supervise public security organs in issuing certificates of having no record of criminal offenses, and, in light of judicial practices in handling cases, put forward recommendations on revising and improving the system of sealing criminal records.

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