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Opinions of the Supreme People's Court on Deepening the Enforcement Reform and Improving the Permanent Mechanism for Solving Enforcement Difficulties—the Outline of People's Courts' Enforcement Work (2019-2023) [Effective]
最高人民法院关于深化执行改革健全解决执行难长效机制的意见——人民法院执行工作纲要(2019—2023) [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】

Opinions of the Supreme People's Court on Deepening the Enforcement Reform and Improving the Permanent Mechanism for Solving Enforcement Difficulties 

最高人民法院关于深化执行改革健全解决执行难长效机制的意见

—the Outline of People's Courts' Enforcement Work (2019-2023) --人民法院执行工作纲要(2019-2023)
(No. 16 [2019] of the Supreme People's Court) (法发〔2019〕16号)

It was clearly stated at the Fourth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee that "enforcement difficulties shall be practically solved" and that "the timely realization of interests by prevailing parties shall be ensured in accordance with the law." In order to resolutely implement the major decisions and arrangements of the CPC Central Committee, the Supreme People's Court ("SPC") proposed "basically solving enforcement difficulties in two to three years" at the 4th Session of the Twelfth National People's Congress in March 2016. From 2016 to 2018, under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core, courts across the country seriously made plans, exercised effective efforts, joined forces, overcame difficulties, made historic changes to enforcement work, and achieved leap-forward development, and the process objective of "basically solving enforcement difficulties" was accomplished as scheduled. Nevertheless, there remains a shortfall compared with the objective of "effectively solving enforcement difficulties" put forward by the CPC Central Committee and the expectations of the public, and in certain aspects and regions, enforcement difficulties persist and even remain relatively prominent. 党的十八届四中全会明确提出“切实解决执行难”“依法保障胜诉当事人及时实现权益”。为坚决贯彻落实党中央重大决策部署,2016年3月,最高人民法院在十二届全国人大四次会议上提出“用两到三年时间基本解决执行难问题”。2016至2018年,全国法院在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,认真谋划、真抓实干、同心协力、攻坚克难,执行工作发生历史性变化,取得跨越式发展,“基本解决执行难”这一阶段性目标如期实现。但与党中央提出的“切实解决执行难”目标和人民群众期待相比还有差距,在有些方面、有些地区,执行难问题仍然存在甚至还较为突出。
For the purposes of thoroughly implementing General Secretary Xi Jinping's new concepts, ideas, and strategy respecting comprehensive law-based governance of the country, carrying out the spirit of the 19th CPC National Congress and the Second and Third Plenary Sessions of the 19th CPC Central Committee in an all-round manner, consolidating the achievements of "basically solving enforcement difficulties," establishing and improving a permanent mechanism for enforcement work, further raising the level of enforcement work, and striving to move towards the objective of "effectively solving enforcement difficulties," the SPC developed the Opinions on Deepening the Enforcement Reform and Improving the Permanent Mechanism for Solving Enforcement Difficulties, which shall be implemented as a working outline of people's courts' enforcement work from 2019 to 2023. 为深入贯彻习近平总书记全面依法治国新理念新思想新战略,全面贯彻落实党的十九大和十九届二中、三中全会精神,巩固“基本解决执行难”成果,建立健全执行工作长效机制,进一步提升执行工作水平,奋力向“切实解决执行难”的目标迈进,最高人民法院制定《关于深化执行改革健全解决执行难长效机制的意见》,作为人民法院执行工作2019年至2023年工作纲要予以实施。
I. General requirements   一、总体要求
1. Guiding ideology (一)指导思想
Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics in a New Era shall be adhered to as the guidance, the spirit of the 19th CPC National Congress and the Second and Third Plenary Sessions of the 19th CPC Central Committee shall be comprehensively implemented, the overall advancement of the overall layout for "economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological progress" and the coordinated advancement of the Four-Pronged Comprehensive Strategy shall be closely brought into focus, the development thought oriented to the people shall be adhered to, the general tone of seeking progress while keeping performance stable shall be adhered to, the requirements for advancing the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity and the construction of the social credit system shall be implemented, the political advantages and system advantages of socialism with Chinese characteristics shall be maximized, the compulsory characteristics of enforcement work shall be maximized, modern information technology shall be leveraged, the building of well-regulated enforcement shall be vigorously strengthened, the credibility of enforcement shall be comprehensively enhanced, and the modernization of the enforcement work system and enforcement work capacity shall be advanced. 坚持以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,全面贯彻党的十九大和十九届二中、三中全会精神,紧紧围绕统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局和协调推进“四个全面”战略布局,坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,坚持稳中求进工作总基调,落实推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化、推进社会诚信体系建设要求,充分发挥中国特色社会主义政治优势、制度优势,充分发挥执行工作强制性特点,充分运用现代信息技术,大力加强执行规范化建设,全面提升执行公信力,推进执行工作体系和执行工作能力现代化。
2. Basic principles (二)基本原则
—Adhering to the correct political direction: The Party's absolute leadership over the work of people's courts shall be adhered to, equipping the mind with Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics in a New Era to guide practice and promote work shall be adhered to, the "consciousness of the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the leadership core, and keep in alignment" shall be enhanced, the "confidence in the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics" shall be firmly developed, "defending the status of General Secretary Xi Jinping as the core of the CPC Central Committee and the whole Party and the authority and centralized and unified leadership of the CPC Central Committee" shall be achieved, the path of the socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics shall be unswervingly taken, the Party's role as the leading core in providing overall leadership and coordinating the efforts of all involved shall be relied closely on, the enforcement system with Chinese characteristics shall be further developed and improved, and the building of a higher-level socialist judicial system shall be promoted. --坚持正确政治方向。坚持党对人民法院工作的绝对领导,坚持以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想武装头脑指导实践推动工作,增强“四个意识”、坚定“四个自信”、做到“两个维护”,坚定不移走中国特色社会主义法治道路,紧紧依靠党总揽全局、协调各方的领导核心作用,进一步发展和完善中国特色执行制度,推动创造更高水平的社会主义司法制度。
—Adhering to a people-centered approach: The mass line shall be adhered to, the stance of the public shall be adopted steadily, the connection with the public shall be enhanced, the new requirements and expectations of the public for enforcement work shall be responded positively to, the focus shall be on solving prominent problems that the public complain most, working mechanisms for serving the public and relieving the public of worries shall be innovated, and efforts shall be exercised so that the public can see in every judicial case that justice is served. --坚持以人民为中心。坚持群众路线,站稳人民立场,增进群众感情,积极回应人民群众对执行工作的新要求新期待,着力解决人民群众反映最强烈的突出问题,创新为民服务、为民解忧工作机制,努力让人民群众在每一个司法案件中感受到公平正义。
—Adhering to serving the big picture: The enforcement function of people's courts shall be maximized, and it shall be ensured that the major decisions and arrangements of the CPC Central Committee are implemented by people's courts without any reservation, so as to provide fine judicial services for economic and social development and strong guarantees for optimizing the business environment. --坚持服务大局。充分发挥人民法院执行职能,确保党中央重大决策部署在人民法院得到不折不扣贯彻执行,为经济社会发展提供优质司法服务,为优化营商环境提供有力保障。
—Adhering to the law of enforcement: The general law of judicial activities shall be followed, the law governing enforcement work shall be respected, supporting reform measures, guarantee mechanisms for performance of duties, and separate evaluation mechanisms for enforcement conforming to the law of the operation of enforcement power shall be established and improved, and it shall be ensured that all work initiatives are based on the real circumstances and withstand testing. --坚持遵循执行规律。既遵循司法活动的一般规律,又尊重执行工作自身规律,建立健全符合执行权运行规律的配套改革措施、履职保障机制和执行单独考核机制,确保各项工作举措符合实际,经得起检验。
—Adhering to a problem-oriented approach: The pertinence of work shall be enhanced, and in light of outstanding problems that affect the authority of enforcement and credibility of enforcement and restrict the quality and efficiency of enforcement, work efforts shall be increased to solve practical problems and achieve practical results. --坚持问题导向。增强工作的针对性,针对影响执行权威和执行公信力、制约执行工作质量和效率的突出问题,加大工作力度,解决实际问题,取得实际成效。
—Adhering to reform and innovation: The initiative of primary-level organizations shall be respected and protected, and courts in all regions shall be encouraged to actively practice and make explorations, continually gain experience, and promote and apply the experience in a timely manner, so as to achieve positive interaction between primary-level exploration and top-level design. --坚持改革创新。尊重和保护基层首创精神,鼓励各地法院积极实践探索,不断积累经验,及时推广运用,实现基层探索和顶层设计的良性互动。
—Adhering to seeking both temporary and permanent solutions: The focus shall be on solving outstanding problems in the current enforcement field based on reality, while strategic thinking and system thinking are adhered to so as to establish and improve permanent working mechanisms and comprehensively deal with enforcement difficulties from the source. --坚持“标本兼治”。既要立足现实,着力解决当前执行领域的突出问题,又要坚持战略思维、系统思维,建立健全长效工作机制,从源头综合治理执行难。
—Adhering to "compulsory nature, application of information technology, and regulation": "Compulsory nature, application of information technology, and regulation" means that the compulsory nature of enforcement work shall be highlighted in accordance with the law, the application of information technology in enforcement work shall be advanced with all-out efforts, and the regulation of enforcement work shall be vigorously strengthened. The characteristics that the enforcement work of people's courts is to realize the lawful interests of parties by the state's compulsory power shall be accurately grasped, acts of circumventing, resisting, and intervening in enforcement shall be combated in accordance with the law, and strong deterrence and a tough stance shall be formed. The development of a modern enforcement model supported by modern information science and technology shall be adhered to. The reform of enforcement systems and mechanisms shall be deepened, and the supervision and administration system of enforcement shall be improved, so as to regulate enforcement, change attitude to enforcement, and improve the credibility of enforcement. --坚持“一性两化”。“一性两化”即依法突出执行工作的强制性,全力推进执行工作信息化,大力加强执行工作规范化。要准确把握人民法院执行工作是以国家强制力实现当事人合法权益的特点,依法打击规避、抗拒、干预执行的行为,形成强大的威慑力和高压态势。坚持以现代信息科技为支撑,形成现代化的执行模式。深化执行体制机制改革,完善执行监督管理体系,规范执行行为,转变执行作风,提高执行公信力。
3. Overall objectives (三)总体目标
The results of "basically solving enforcement difficulties" shall be consolidated and deepened, a permanent mechanism for solving enforcement difficulties shall be established and improved, the level of enforcement work shall be comprehensively raised, and efforts shall be made to move towards the objective of "effectively solving enforcement difficulties." 巩固和深化“基本解决执行难”工作成果,建立健全解决执行难长效机制,全面提高执行工作水平,奋力向“切实解决执行难”目标迈进。
—Ensuring that the benign cycle of enforcement work and the high-standard operation of "3+1" core indicators become regular. --确保执行工作良性循环状态和“3+1”核心指标高标准运行常态化。
—Ensuring that the working mechanism in which "the head provides direction, and the focus is on the head" becomes regular. --确保“一把手抓、抓一把手”工作机制常态化。
—Ensuring that the model of enforcement work supported by modern information technology becomes regular. --确保以现代信息技术为支撑的执行工作模式常态化。
—Ensuring that the serious rectification of passive enforcement, selective enforcement, arbitrary enforcement, or otherwise irregular enforcement becomes regular. --确保对消极执行、选择性执行、乱执行等不规范执行行为严肃整治常态化。
—Ensuring that the tough stance on circumventing, resisting, and intervening in enforcement becomes regular. --确保对规避执行、抗拒执行、干预执行的高压态势常态化。
—Further advancing the building of systems and mechanisms for the working pattern for comprehensively dealing with enforcement difficulties, integrating enforcement work into the overall framework for the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity, and comprehensively dealing with enforcement difficulties from the source. --进一步推进综合治理执行难工作格局制度化机制化,把执行工作纳入国家治理体系和治理能力现代化总体框架,从源头综合治理执行难。
—Further deepening the reform of enforcement systems and mechanisms, improving the legal system and supporting systems for enforcement, and gradually developing mature and stable enforcement systems, mechanisms and models with Chinese characteristics. --进一步深化执行体制机制改革,完善执行法律体系及配套制度,逐步形成成熟、稳定的中国特色执行制度、执行机制和执行模式。
—Further advancing the extensive and intensive application of modern information science and technology in the enforcement field, comprehensively improving the level of information technology-enabled and intelligent enforcement, and achieving the modernization of the model of administration and supervision of enforcement, enforcement guarantee model, model of inspection and control of enforcement, and model of realization of property for enforcement. --进一步推进现代信息科技在执行领域的广泛应用、深度应用,全面提升执行信息化、智能化水平,实现执行管理监督模式、执行保障模式、执行查控模式、执行财产变现模式现代化。
—Further transforming enforcement concepts, effecting strict, impartial, well-regulated, and peaceful enforcement, paying more attention to the methods and effects of enforcement, effectively improving the credibility of enforcement, and striving to achieve the organic unity of the legal, political and social effects of enforcement. --进一步转变执行理念,严格公正规范文明执行,更加注重执行方法与执行效果,切实提高执行公信力,努力实现执行工作法律效果、政治效果和社会效果的有机统一。
—Further optimizing the comprehensive application of various enforcement measures, striving to achieve efficient, precise and fine-grained crackdown on circumvention and resistance of and intervention in enforcement and punishment of dishonesty, advancing the construction of the social credit system, and substantially increasing the proportion of voluntary satisfaction of effective legal instruments by parties. --进一步优化各种强制执行措施综合应用,努力实现高效、精准、精细打击规避执行、抗拒执行、干预执行及惩戒失信行为,推进社会诚信体系建设,大幅提高当事人主动履行生效法律文书的比例。
—Further strengthening team building, reinforcing the enforcement team, optimizing personnel structure, comprehensively improving the "four modernization" level of the enforcement team, and building an enforcement team that is loyal to the Party, serves the people, has the courage to take responsibility, is impartial in law enforcement, and follow strict discipline. --进一步加强队伍建设,充实执行力量,优化人员结构,全面提升执行队伍“四化”水平,锻造一支对党忠诚、服务人民、勇于担当、执法公正、纪律严明的执行铁军。
II. Primary tasks   二、主要任务
1. Improving the overall working pattern of comprehensively dealing with enforcement difficulties (一)完善综合治理执行难工作大格局
(1) Continually deepening the overall working pattern for comprehensively dealing with enforcement difficulties in which "Party committees provide leadership, political and legal affairs commissions conduct coordination, people's congresses carry out supervision, the government gives support, courts play a primary role, other authorities cooperate, and the public participate." The issuance of local laws, regulations and regulatory documents shall be promoted so as to make the pattern for comprehensively dealing with enforcement difficulties based on systems and mechanisms, lasting and sustainable. 1.不断深化“党委领导、政法委协调、人大监督、政府支持、法院主办、部门联动、社会参与”的执行难综合治理工作大格局。推动出台地方性法规、规范性文件,使综合治理执行难格局制度化、机制化,具有长远性和可持续性。
(2) Strengthening the evaluation of enforcement work in comprehensive control. The overall arrangement for enforcement work as an important part of the comprehensive law-based governance of the country shall be promoted, and the resolution of enforcement difficulties shall be included in all regions' indicator systems for law-based governance of provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government). The evaluation and assessment system of the comprehensive control work (security building) and the business environment evaluation system shall be effectively utilized, and the functional role of enforcement work in security building and the construction of the business environment shall be maximized. 2.加强执行工作综治考核。推动将执行工作作为全面依法治国的重要内容统筹部署,把解决执行难纳入各地依法治省(区、市)指标体系。有效利用综治工作(平安建设)考核评价体系及营商环境评价体系,充分发挥执行工作在平安建设和营商环境建设中的职能作用。
(3) Advancing the establishment of mechanisms for departmental cooperation and interaction in enforcement work. The requirements of "joint building, joint governance and sharing" proposed by the Commission for Political and Legal Affairs of the CPC Central Committee shall be implemented, and political and legal affairs commissions shall lead all cooperative and assisting departments in improving the joint conference system, incorporating all the work of enforcement interaction into the remit of various interaction departments, clarifying tasks, consolidating duties, and strengthening evaluation. The regular operation of the working mechanism for interaction in enforcement shall be promoted so as to effectively solve the problem of "non-interaction or ineffective interaction." 3.推进执行工作部门协作联动机制化。落实中央政法委提出的“共建、共治、共享”要求,由政法委牵头各协作、协助部门健全联席会议制度,把执行联动各项工作纳入各联动部门职责范围,明确任务,夯实责任,加强考核。促进执行联动工作机制常态化运转,切实解决“联而不动、动而乏力”的问题。
(4) Strengthening the grid-based management of primary-level enforcement work. The role of primary-level Party organizations shall be maximized. In reliance on primary-level comprehensive control centers, the work of assistance in enforcement shall be included in the grid-based management in primary-level comprehensive control of public security, all aspects of resources shall be integrated, and working mechanisms for primary-level grid-based managers in comprehensive control to assist in service, find parties, assist in investigating property clues, supervise performance, resolving public complaints relating to enforcement, and give publicity on enforcement shall be established. Comprehensive control platforms shall be promoted in being connected with people's courts' enforcement command and case-handling platforms, so as to push the dishonest judgment debtors list, list for restricted consumption, reward notices and other enforcement information to primary-level grid-based managers in comprehensive control instantaneously. Mechanisms for education and training, supervisory evaluation, incentive guarantees, and the like for primary-level grid-based managers in comprehensive control to assist in enforcement shall be established to promote the positive interaction between primary-level governance and the enforcement work of people's courts. 4.加强基层执行工作网格化管理。充分发挥基层党组织作用,依托基层综治中心,将协助执行工作纳入基层社会治安综合治理网格化管理的内容,整合各方面资源,建立基层综治网格员协助送达、查找当事人、协查财产线索、督促履行、化解涉执信访、开展执行宣传等工作机制。推动综治平台与人民法院执行指挥、办案平台互联互通,实时向基层综治网格员推送失信被执行人名单、限制消费人员名单、悬赏公告等执行信息。建立基层综治网格员协助执行的教育培训、监督考核、激励保障等机制,促进基层治理与人民法院执行工作的良性互动。
2. Advancing the resolution of enforcement difficulties from the source (二)推进执行难源头治理
(5) Improving the integrity, comprehensiveness and accuracy of the basic information for the social credit system. Historical opportunities shall be seized, and the accuracy, comprehensiveness and integrity of information on market supervision and administration, information on tax registration, information on citizens' individual property, information on population resources, and information on wealth management investment shall be advanced in the form of consultation and joint meetings, so as to consolidate the foundation for the building of a social credit system and solve the problem from the source that the inaccuracy and incompleteness of information on property for enforcement and judgment debtors result in ineffective functions of the search and control system for enforcement. 5.提高社会信用体系基础信息的完整性、全面性和准确性。把握历史机遇,以会商、联席会议等形式推进市场监督管理信息、税务登记信息、公民个人财产信息、人口资源信息、理财投资信息准确、全面、完整,夯实社会诚信体系建设基础,从源头上解决执行财产和被执行人信息不准确、不全面,导致执行查控系统功能不能有效发挥的问题。
(6) Actively participating in and advancing the establishment of a sound social credit system. Various problems discovered in enforcement shall be reported to the leading entities and joint meetings for the building of a social credit system, the integration of social credit information resources shall be promoted, and the integration of all social credit and punishment systems shall be furthered, so as to form a social credit system and a social credit evaluation system that are connected, complementary, arranged in an orderly manner, and clearly hierarchical and fundamentally solve core enforcement difficulties. 6.积极参与并推进构建完善的社会诚信体系。及时向社会诚信体系建设牵头单位及联席会议反映执行中发现的各种问题,促进社会诚信信息资源整合,促进社会诚信惩戒各系统集成,形成相互衔接、相互补充、布局有序、层次分明的社会诚信体系及社会信用评价体系,从根本上解决执行工作的核心难题。
(7) Promoting the public awareness of law, risk prevention and honesty to be heightened. In accordance with the working requirements that "who enforces the law disseminates the law," legal publicity and education respecting enforcement shall be strengthened by omnimedia streaming, releasing model cases, broadcasting film and television shows, or otherwise, so as to enhance the voluntariness of parties in satisfying effective legal instruments, promote the establishment of a social atmosphere in which "law-abidingness and honesty are honorable, and lawbreaking and dishonesty are shameful," and enable law-abidingness and honesty to take root and become habit. Market participants' awareness of risk shall be cultivated, and market participants shall be assisted in fully understanding and paying attention to market risks, especially business traps. Parties shall be assisted in fully understanding litigation risks and the risk of judgment debtors' insolvency, and parties shall be guided in applying for preservation measures. 7.推动提升全社会法律意识、风险防范意识及诚信意识。按照“谁执法谁普法”工作要求,通过全媒体网络直播、发布典型案例、播放影视作品等形式加强强制执行法治宣传教育,增强当事人自觉履行生效法律文书的主动性、自觉性,推动形成“守法守信光荣、违法失信可耻”的社会氛围,让守法守信逐渐内化为信念,成为习惯。培养市场主体的风险意识,帮助市场主体充分认识、注意防范市场风险,特别是商业陷阱。帮助当事人充分认识诉讼风险以及被执行人丧失履行能力的风险,引导当事人申请采取保全措施。
(8) Strengthening the effective connection between enforcement procedures on one side and the social security system and commercial insurance system on the other side. A mechanism for cooperation between people's courts and social security authorities in resolving enforcement cases relating to people's livelihood shall be established and improved, and the inclusion of people's livelihood-related cases in which judgment debtors are insolvent in the social security system shall be promoted. The advancement of the scope of application of commercial insurance, especially liability insurance, shall be explored, so that personal injury, trespass to property, and other types of debts are paid in a timely manner in the case of insolvency of judgment debtors. The establishment of an insurance system that is linked to enforcement procedures and complies with the law and the law of markets shall be promoted. 8.强化执行程序与社会保障体系、商业保险体系的有效衔接。建立健全人民法院与社会保障部门化解涉民生执行案件合作机制,推动将被执行人丧失履行能力的涉民生案件纳入社会保障体系。探索推进商业保险特别是责任保险的适用范围,让人身伤害、财产侵权等类型债务在被执行人丧失履行能力情况下能够得到及时赔付。推动建立与强制执行程序相关联,符合法律规定和市场规律的保险体系。
(9) Increasing judicial relief efforts. The sources of relief funds shall be actively broadened, relief procedures and standards shall be harmonized, approval process shall be simplified, the relief work for parties in difficulty in enforcement cases shall be effectively conducted, and "impossibility of enforcement" cases shall be separated in an orderly manner according to the law. 9.加大司法救助力度。积极拓宽救助资金来源渠道,规范救助程序和救助标准,简化审批流程,切实做好执行案件中困难当事人的救助工作,依法有序分流“执行不能”案件。
(10) Improving the working mechanism for passing enforcement cases for bankruptcy examination. The SPC systems and measures relating to passing enforcement cases for bankruptcy examination shall be implemented, so as to increase the efforts to clear "zombie enterprises" from the enforcement procedures and fundamentally reduce the backlog of enforcement cases. The work flow of passing enforcement cases for bankruptcy examination shall be further optimized and regulated, and the incentive and restraint mechanism for parties to apply for or agree to passing enforcement cases for bankruptcy examination shall be improved, so as to ensure that due passing shall be effected and that due bankruptcy shall be granted and ensure that channels are smooth and in orderly operation. Efforts will be made to solve the problem of lack of bankruptcy expenses in the process of passing enforcement cases for bankruptcy examination, and the establishment of a special fund for clearing "zombie enterprises" shall be promoted. The evaluation mechanism for the handling of cases arising from passing enforcement cases for bankruptcy examination and trials of bankruptcy cases shall be improved, and people's courts at all levels shall be motivated to promote the work of passing enforcement cases for bankruptcy examination. The design of summary bankruptcy procedures shall be advanced, so as to try cases in which "no property is available for disposition" in a fast-track manner. The connection between the enforcement information system and the bankruptcy case trial information system shall be strengthened, so as to advance the sharing of measure resources, information resources and property disposition resources. 10.完善执转破工作机制。落实最高人民法院关于执转破工作相关制度措施,强化执行程序中“僵尸企业”的清出力度,从根本上减少执行案件存量。进一步优化、规范执转破工作流程,完善当事人申请或同意执转破的激励和约束机制,做到应转必转、当破必破,确保渠道畅通,运转有序。着力解决执转破进程中缺少破产费用的问题,推动建立清出“僵尸企业”的专项基金。完善办理执转破案件及审理破产案件考核机制,调动各级人民法院推动执转破工作的积极性。推进简易破产程序设计,快速审理“无财产可破”案件。加强执行信息系统与破产案件审理信息系统对接,推进措施资源、信息资源和财产处置资源共享。
(11) Advancing the improvement of the legal system for enforcement and supporting systems. In accordance with the legislative plan, the survey and drafting of the civil enforcement bill shall be completed before the end of 2019. The work related to the amendment of the Bankruptcy Law shall be effectively conducted in cooperation, the effective connection between the enforcement procedures and the bankruptcy procedures shall be advanced, and effective experience in passing enforcement cases for bankruptcy examination, summary bankruptcy procedures and the like shall be enshrined in the law. The work of the pilot program equivalent to the functions of the personal bankruptcy system shall be conducted, so as to lay a practical foundation for the establishment of a personal bankruptcy system. Cooperation in the amendment of the Company Law shall be conducted, and transfer and concealment of property and other circumvention of enforcement shall be contained from the source by improving the corporate governance structure, financial management system, responsibilities of companies' controlling shareholders and senior management, denial of corporate legal personality and other systems. 11.推进完善强制执行法律体系及配套制度。按照立法规划,2019年底之前完成民事强制执行法调研起草工作。配合做好破产法修改相关工作,推进执行程序与破产程序的有效衔接,将执行转破产、破产简易程序等行之有效的经验法律化。开展与个人破产制度功能相当的试点工作,为建立个人破产制度打下实践基础。配合公司法的修改工作,通过完善公司治理结构、财务管理制度、公司控股股东及高级管理人员责任、公司法人人格否认等制度,从源头遏制转移、隐匿财产等规避执行行为。
3. Advancing the enforcement system reform in depth (三)深入推进执行体制改革
(12) Advancing the reform of the enforcement management system of people's courts. The "unified management, command and coordination" of enforcement shall be enhanced relying on enforcement commands, and the advancement of the reform of the enforcement management system shall be explored. All local courts shall be supported, under the leadership of local Party committees, with the SPC approval, in light of the staffing and personnel management reform, in launching a pilot program of the reform of the enforcement management system. The models for the pilot program shall include (a) that the municipal (prefecture) intermediate people's courts vertically lead the enforcement divisions of district (county) people's courts; and (b) that the enforcement divisions of district (county) people's courts are under the dual leadership of the people's courts at the same level and the enforcement divisions of intermediate people's courts, and superior enforcement divisions take controlling leadership with regard to enforcement business. The pilot program shall be completed before the end of 2020. 12.推进人民法院执行管理体制改革。依托执行指挥中心强化 “三统一”执行管理,探索推进执行管理体制改革。支持各地法院在地方党委领导下,经最高人民法院批准,结合编制和人事管理改革,开展执行管理体制改革试点。试点模式包括:一是市(地)中级人民法院对区(县)人民法院执行机构垂直领导;二是区(县)人民法院执行机构接受本级人民法院和中级人民法院级执行机构双重领导,在执行业务上以上级执行机构领导为主。试点工作在2020年底前完成。
(13) Accelerating the advancement of the reform of the adjudication and enforcement separation system. The power of enforcement shall be divided into the power of effecting enforcement and the power of enforcement adjudication, and people's courts with a heavy caseload and certain conditions may establish enforcement tribunals under their enforcement bureau or separately, so as to task the enforcement tribunals with handling cases involving objection to enforcement, reconsideration and actions for objection to enforcement. For courts without good conditions, a different judge team of their enforcement divisions shall be tasked with the work of effecting enforcement and adjudicative matters such as objection to enforcement and reconsideration, and relevant tribunals shall be charged with handling cases involving actions for objection to enforcement. 13.加快推进审执分离体制改革。将执行权区分为执行实施权和执行裁判权,案件量大及具备一定条件的人民法院在执行局内或单独设立执行裁判庭,由执行裁判庭负责办理执行异议、复议以及执行异议之诉案件。不具备条件的法院的执行实施工作与执行异议、复议等裁判事项由执行机构不同法官团队负责,执行异议之诉案件由相关审判庭负责办理。
(14) Establishing a mechanism in which any tribunal dispatched by a basic people's court effects enforcement in a case tried by the tribunal. A dispatched tribunal shall establish a special enforcement team, if with good personnel conditions, or task relatively determined personnel with enforcement, if without good conditions. The enforcement work of dispatched tribunals shall be placed under the unified management of the enforcement divisions of basic people's courts, full-time and part-time personnel shall be included in the enforcement personnel roster, and cases shall be included in the enforcement case management platform in a unified manner. 14.建立基层人民法院派出法庭审理的案件由该派出法庭执行的机制。具备人员条件的派出法庭设立专门执行团队,不具备条件的可确定相对固定人员负责执行。派出法庭的执行工作由基层人民法院执行机构统一管理,专职或兼职人员纳入执行人员名册,案件纳入统一的执行案件管理平台。
(15) Comprehensively implementing the model that the enforcement team handles cases. The model of handling of cases by teams led by judges: "judge plus assistant judge (enforcer) plus judicial police plus clerk" shall be implemented, the inter-team and intra-team division of tasks and division of power shall be optimized, and the operating model of the power of enforcement featuring "personnel classification, intensive matters, clear powers and responsibilities, and smooth cooperation" shall be improved. 15.全面推行执行团队办案模式。实行以法官为主导的“法官+法官助理(执行员)+法警+书记员”团队办案模式,优化团队之间、团队内部的任务分工和职权划分,完善“人员分类、事务集约、权责清晰、配合顺畅”的执行权运行模式。
(16) Advancing the participation of judicial police in enforcement. In accordance with the principle of "formation management, stationing-based use," a relatively fixed judicial police force shall be stationed at enforcement divisions, the police force shall be managed in a unified manner at the disposal of enforcement divisions, and the police force and enforcement divisions shall be jointly evaluated and trained. Any qualified permanent assistant judge or clerk of an enforcement division may be transferred to the judicial police on a voluntary basis and managed as its permanent member. The judicial police shall be given the power of law enforcement conforming to the requirements of the enforcement work in providing policing guarantees, and the judicial police shall be brought into play for taking compulsory measures, crackdown on resistance to enforcement, evidence collection and the like, so as to enhance the efficiency and deterrence of enforcement.
......
 16.推进司法警察参与执行。按照“编队管理、派驻使用”原则,向执行机构派驻相对固定的司法警察,警队统一管理,执行机构调度使用,警队和执行机构共同考核、培训。执行机构在编的法官助理、书记员符合条件的,可以按自愿原则转为司法警察,编入警队管理。赋予司法警察在执行警务保障中体现执行工作要求的执法权限,发挥司法警察采取强制措施、打击拒执行为、收集证据等作用,提升执行效率和威慑力。
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