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Opinions of the General Office of the CPC Central Committee and the General Office of the State Council on Improving the Measures for Separating Rural Land Ownership from Contracted Management Right [Effective]
中共中央办公厅、国务院办公厅关于完善农村土地所有权承包权经营权分置办法的意见 [现行有效]

Opinions of the General Office of the CPC Central Committee and the General Office of the State Council on Improving the Measures for Separating Rural Land Ownership from Contracted Management Right 


(October 30, 2016) (2016年10月30日)

For purposes of further improving the rural land ownership system and promoting the concurrent development of new industrialization, information, urbanization and agricultural modernization, the following opinions on improving the measures for separating rural land ownership from contracted management right (hereinafter referred to as "separation of rights") are hereby offered. 为进一步健全农村土地产权制度,推动新型工业化、信息化、城镇化、农业现代化同步发展,现就完善农村土地所有权、承包权、经营权分置(以下简称“三权分置”)办法提出以下意见。
I. Significant meaning   一、重要意义
When the household responsibility system was implemented in rural areas to separate land ownership and contracting and management right in the beginning of the reform and opening up, the ownership belonged the collectives and contracting and management right belonged to rural households, which greatly motivated millions of farmers, effectively provided enough food, and the reform in rural areas witnessed significant achievements. The current reform of the rural land system shall respect the wish of farmers to keep land contracting rights and circulate land management rights, the right to contracted land management shall be separated into contracted management right, and implementing the parallel separation of ownership, contracted management right, and focusing on the advancement of agricultural modernization are an important institutional innovation on the rural reform since the household responsibility system. "Separation of rights" is a self-improvement of the basic rural management system; it conforms to objective pattern that productive relations adapt to the development of productivity, demonstrates the standing vigor of the basic rural management system, and is helpful to well define the relations in property in land, to better protect the rights and interests of farmers' collectives, contracting farmers and management entities; and is helpful to promote the reasonable use of land resources, establish a new agricultural management system, develop various moderate-scale business operations, improve land yields, productivity and resource utilization efficiency, and promote the development modern agriculture. All regions and all relevant departments shall fully recognize the significance in "separation of rights," properly deal with the relations among the "three rights," correctly make use of "separation of rights" theory to guide the reform and practice, and incessantly explore and enrich the specific forms of realizing the "separation of rights." 改革开放之初,在农村实行家庭联产承包责任制,将土地所有权和承包经营权分设,所有权归集体,承包经营权归农户,极大地调动了亿万农民积极性,有效解决了温饱问题,农村改革取得重大成果。现阶段深化农村土地制度改革,顺应农民保留土地承包权、流转土地经营权的意愿,将土地承包经营权分为承包权和经营权,实行所有权、承包权、经营权(以下简称“三权”)分置并行,着力推进农业现代化,是继家庭联产承包责任制后农村改革又一重大制度创新。“三权分置”是农村基本经营制度的自我完善,符合生产关系适应生产力发展的客观规律,展现了农村基本经营制度的持久活力,有利于明晰土地产权关系,更好地维护农民集体、承包农户、经营主体的权益;有利于促进土地资源合理利用,构建新型农业经营体系,发展多种形式适度规模经营,提高土地产出率、劳动生产率和资源利用率,推动现代农业发展。各地区各有关部门要充分认识“三权分置”的重要意义,妥善处理“三权”的相互关系,正确运用“三权分置”理论指导改革实践,不断探索和丰富“三权分置”的具体实现形式。
II. General requirements   二、总体要求
(1) Guiding ideology. We shall comprehensively implement the spirit of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), and the Third, Fourth and Fifth Plenary Sessions of the 18th CPC Central Committee, study and implement in depth the spirit of a series of important speeches delivered by the General Secretary Xi Jinping, closely center ourselves on the overall advancement of the overall layout for "economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological progress" and coordinated advancement of the Four-Pronged Comprehensive Strategy, firmly develop new development concepts, conscientiously implement the decisions and arrangements of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, focus on the major reform theme of correctly handling the relations between farmers and land, scientifically define the meaning of "three rights," the bounds of rights and mutual relations, gradually establish a regulated and efficient "three rights" operation mechanism, constantly improve the rural land ownership system featuring clear property, complete rights and abilities, smooth circulation and strict protection, optimize land resources allocation, foster new types of operating entities, promote moderate-scale operation and development, further consolidate and improve the basic rural management system, and provide solid guarantee to the development of modern agriculture, increase in farmers' income and construction of new socialist rural areas. (一)指导思想。全面贯彻党的十八大和十八届三中、四中、五中全会精神,深入学习贯彻习近平总书记系列重要讲话精神,紧紧围绕统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局和协调推进“四个全面”战略布局,牢固树立新发展理念,认真落实党中央、国务院决策部署,围绕正确处理农民和土地关系这一改革主线,科学界定“三权”内涵、权利边界及相互关系,逐步建立规范高效的“三权”运行机制,不断健全归属清晰、权能完整、流转顺畅、保护严格的农村土地产权制度,优化土地资源配置,培育新型经营主体,促进适度规模经营发展,进一步巩固和完善农村基本经营制度,为发展现代农业、增加农民收入、建设社会主义新农村提供坚实保障。
(2) Basic principles (二)基本原则
-- Respecting farmers' wishes. Adhering to the principal position of farmers, protecting the lawful rights and interests of farmers, delegating the choice power to farmers, giving play to their initiatives and creativity, strengthening demonstration and guidance, giving no forcible orders and make no one-cut-for-all measures. --尊重农民意愿。坚持农民主体地位,维护农民合法权益,把选择权交给农民,发挥其主动性和创造性,加强示范引导,不搞强迫命令、不搞一刀切。
-- Observing policies. Adhering to and improving the basic rural management system, adhering to the collective ownership of rural land, adhering to the basic position of household management, and adhering to and stabilizing land contracting relations, instead of breaking down the rural land collective ownership system, reducing cultivated land, weakening grain production ability and damaging interests of farmers. --守住政策底线。坚持和完善农村基本经营制度,坚持农村土地集体所有,坚持家庭经营基础性地位,坚持稳定土地承包关系,不能把农村土地集体所有制改垮了,不能把耕地改少了,不能把粮食生产能力改弱了,不能把农民利益损害了。
-- Adhering to gradual reform. Fully recognizing the durability and complexity of the reform of the rural land system, keeping sufficient historical patience, prudently, steadily and properly advancing the reform from points to areas and without undue haste, and gradually making experience from practice into institutional arrangements. --坚持循序渐进。充分认识农村土地制度改革的长期性和复杂性,保持足够历史耐心,审慎稳妥推进改革,由点及面开展,不操之过急,逐步将实践经验上升为制度安排。
-- Adhering to adopting measures suitable to local conditions. Giving full consideration to the difference in resources endowment and social and economic development in all regions, encouraging practice exploration and institutional innovation that conform to the actual circumstances, and summarizing and forming specific paths and measures to "separate rights" suitable for various regions. --坚持因地制宜。充分考虑各地资源禀赋和经济社会发展差异,鼓励进行符合实际的实践探索和制度创新,总结形成适合不同地区的“三权分置”具体路径和办法。
III. Gradually forming a pattern of "separation of rights"   三、逐步形成“三权分置”格局
The measures of "separation of rights" shall be improved, the forms to effectively realize the rural land collective ownership system shall be constantly explored, collective ownership shall be implemented, the contracting right of rural households shall be stabilized, the control over land management right shall be loosened, and full play shall be given to the respective functions and overall effectiveness of "three rights" so as to form a pattern featuring clear layers, reasonable structure and equal protection. 完善“三权分置”办法,不断探索农村土地集体所有制的有效实现形式,落实集体所有权,稳定农户承包权,放活土地经营权,充分发挥“三权”的各自功能和整体效用,形成层次分明、结构合理、平等保护的格局。
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