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Fire Protection Law of the People's Republic of China (2019 Amendment) [Effective]
中华人民共和国消防法(2019修正) [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】

Fire Protection Law of the People's Republic of China 

中华人民共和国消防法

(Adopted at the 2nd session of the Standing Committee of the Ninth National People's Congress on April 29, 1998; revised at the 5th session of the Standing Committee of the Eleventh National People's Congress on October 28, 2008; and amended in accordance with the Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress to Amend Eight Laws Including the Construction Law of the People's Republic of China at the 10th Session of the Standing Committee of the Thirteenth National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on April 23, 2019) (1998年4月29日第九届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二次会议通过 2008年10月28日第十一届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第五次会议修订 根据2019年4月23日第十三届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国建筑法〉等八部法律的决定》修正)

Contents 目  录
Chapter I General Provisions 第一章 总  则
 
Chapter II Prevention of Fire Disasters 第二章 火灾预防
 
Chapter III Fire Protection Organizations 第三章 消防组织
 
Chapter IV Fire Fighting and Rescue 第四章 灭火救援
 
Chapter V Supervision and Inspection 第五章 监督检查
 
Chapter VI Legal Liabilities 第六章 法律责任
 
Chapter VII Supplementary Provisions 第七章 附  则
 
Chapter I General Provisions 

第一章 总  则

 
Article 1 This Law is formulated for the purposes of preventing fire disasters, reducing fire damages, strengthen the emergency response and rescue work, protecting the human and property safety and maintaining the public safety.   第一条 为了预防火灾和减少火灾危害,加强应急救援工作,保护人身、财产安全,维护公共安全,制定本法。
Article 2 In the fire protection work, the policy of focusing on prevention and combining prevention with firefighting shall be observed, the principle of uniform governmental leadership, departmental supervision according to law, overall responsibilities of entities and active participation of citizens shall be followed, a safety accountability system for fire prevention shall be adopted, and a sound socialized fire protection network shall be established.   第二条 消防工作贯彻预防为主、防消结合的方针,按照政府统一领导、部门依法监管、单位全面负责、公民积极参与的原则,实行消防安全责任制,建立健全社会化的消防工作网络。
Article 3 The State Council shall lead the fire protection work throughout the country. The local people's governments at all levels shall be responsible for the fire protection work within their respective administrative areas.   第三条 国务院领导全国的消防工作。地方各级人民政府负责本行政区域内的消防工作。
The people's governments at all levels shall incorporate the fire protection work into the national economy and social development plans so as to ensure that the fire protection work be commensurate with the economic and social development. 各级人民政府应当将消防工作纳入国民经济和社会发展计划,保障消防工作与经济社会发展相适应。
Article 4 The emergency management authority of the State Council shall supervise and administer the fire protection work throughout the country. The emergency management authority of a local people's government at or above the county level shall supervise and administer the fire protection work within its administrative area, and the fire and rescue department of such a people's government shall be responsible for carrying out the fire protection work. The fire protection work of a military facility shall be supervised and administered by the competent authority of the facility, with the help of the fire and rescue department. The fire protection work of an underground mine, nuclear power plant or offshore oil and natural gas rig shall be supervised and administered by the competent authority of the mine, plant or rig.   第四条 国务院应急管理部门对全国的消防工作实施监督管理。县级以上地方人民政府应急管理部门对本行政区域内的消防工作实施监督管理,并由本级人民政府消防救援机构负责实施。军事设施的消防工作,由其主管单位监督管理,消防救援机构协助;矿井地下部分、核电厂、海上石油天然气设施的消防工作,由其主管单位监督管理。
Other departments of the people's government at or above the county level shall, within their respective functions, do a good job in the fire protection under this Law and other relevant laws and regulations. 县级以上人民政府其他有关部门在各自的职责范围内,依照本法和其他相关法律、法规的规定做好消防工作。
If any law or administrative regulation provides otherwise for the forest or grassland fire protection, the provisions of that law or administrative regulation shall prevail. 法律、行政法规对森林、草原的消防工作另有规定的,从其规定。
Article 5 Any entity or individual shall have the obligation to maintain the fire safety, protect fire protection facilities, prevent fire disasters and report fire alarms. Any entity or adult shall have the obligation to participate in the organized firefighting work   第五条 任何单位和个人都有维护消防安全、保护消防设施、预防火灾、报告火警的义务。任何单位和成年人都有参加有组织的灭火工作的义务。
Article 6 The people's governments at all levels shall organize regular activities on fire protection publicity and education to raise citizens' awareness of fire safety.   第六条 各级人民政府应当组织开展经常性的消防宣传教育,提高公民的消防安全意识。
Organs, social groups, enterprises, public institutions and other entities shall intensify the fire protection publicity and education for their personnel. 机关、团体、企业、事业等单位,应当加强对本单位人员的消防宣传教育。
The emergency management authorities and the fire and rescue departments thereof shall intensify the publicity of laws and regulations on fire protection, and urge, direct and help the relevant entities to do a good job in the fire protection publicity and education. 应急管理部门及消防救援机构应当加强消防法律、法规的宣传,并督促、指导、协助有关单位做好消防宣传教育工作。
The competent administrative departments of education and human resources, schools, and relevant occupational training institutions shall incorporate the fire protection knowledge into the contents of education, teaching and training. 教育、人力资源行政主管部门和学校、有关职业培训机构应当将消防知识纳入教育、教学、培训的内容。
The press, radio, television and other relevant entities shall carry out fire protection publicity and education geared to the society. 新闻、广播、电视等有关单位,应当有针对性地面向社会进行消防宣传教育。
Trade unions, communist youth leagues, women's federations and other groups shall organize the fire protection publicity and education by taking into consideration the characteristics of their respective objects of work. 工会、共产主义青年团、妇女联合会等团体应当结合各自工作对象的特点,组织开展消防宣传教育。
The villagers' committees and residents' committees shall assist the people's governments, public security authorities, emergency management authorities and other departments in intensifying the fire protection publicity and education. 村民委员会、居民委员会应当协助人民政府以及公安机关、应急管理等部门,加强消防宣传教育。
Article 7 The state shall encourage and support the scientific research and technical innovations on fire protection, popularize the use of advanced fire protection and emergency response and rescue technologies and equipment, and encourage and support the fire protection activities for public good conducted by social forces.   第七条 国家鼓励、支持消防科学研究和技术创新,推广使用先进的消防和应急救援技术、设备;鼓励、支持社会力量开展消防公益活动。
Entities and individuals having made great contributions to the fire protection work shall be commended and rewarded under the relevant provisions of the state. 对在消防工作中有突出贡献的单位和个人,应当按照国家有关规定给予表彰和奖励。
Chapter II Prevention of Fire Disasters 

第二章 火灾预防

 
Article 8 The people's governments at all levels shall integrate the fire protection plan into the urban and rural planning, including the fire safety layout, firehouses, firefighting water supply, firefighting communications, fire truck passages, fire equipment, etc., and be responsible for organizing the implementation of the plan.   第八条 地方各级人民政府应当将包括消防安全布局、消防站、消防供水、消防通信、消防车通道、消防装备等内容的消防规划纳入城乡规划,并负责组织实施。
If the urban and rural fire safety layout does not meet the fire safety requirements, it shall be adjusted and improved. If the public fire protection facilities and equipment are inadequate or do not meet the actual demands, efforts shall be made in the building, rebuilding, allocation or technological innovation thereof. 城乡消防安全布局不符合消防安全要求的,应当调整、完善;公共消防设施、消防装备不足或者不适应实际需要的,应当增建、改建、配置或者进行技术改造。
Article 9 The fire protection design or construction of a construction project must conform to the national fire protection technical standards for project construction. The employer, as well as the designing, construction, project supervision and other entities, shall be responsible for the quality of fire protection design and construction according to law.   第九条 建设工程的消防设计、施工必须符合国家工程建设消防技术标准。建设、设计、施工、工程监理等单位依法对建设工程的消防设计、施工质量负责。
Article 10 Construction projects of which the national fire protection technical standards for project construction require a fire protection design shall be governed by the fire protection design review and final inspection system for construction projects.   第十条 对按照国家工程建设消防技术标准需要进行消防设计的建设工程,实行建设工程消防设计审查验收制度。
Article 11 For a special construction project as specified by the housing and urban-rural development authority under the State Council, the construction employer shall submit fire protection design documents to the housing and urban-rural development authority for review, and the housing and urban-rural development authority shall be responsible for review results according to the law.   第十一条 国务院住房和城乡建设主管部门规定的特殊建设工程,建设单位应当将消防设计文件报送住房和城乡建设主管部门审查,住房和城乡建设主管部门依法对审查的结果负责。
For a construction project other than one specified in the preceding paragraph, the construction employer shall provide fire protection design drawings and technical information as needed for construction when applying for a construction license or approval of the construction commencement report. 前款规定以外的其他建设工程,建设单位申请领取施工许可证或者申请批准开工报告时应当提供满足施工需要的消防设计图纸及技术资料。
Article 12 Where a special construction project fails to undergo or is nonconforming as established by the fire protection design review, neither the construction employer nor construction contractor shall commence construction; and for any other construction project, if the construction employer fails to provide fire protection design drawings or technical information as needed for construction, the relevant department shall neither issue a construction license nor approve the construction commencement report.   第十二条 特殊建设工程未经消防设计审查或者审查不合格的,建设单位、施工单位不得施工;其他建设工程,建设单位未提供满足施工需要的消防设计图纸及技术资料的,有关部门不得发放施工许可证或者批准开工报告。
Article 13 Where the housing and urban-rural development authority under the State Council requires that an application for fire protection final inspection of an as-built construction project should be filed, a construction employer shall file such an application with the housing and urban-rural development authority.   第十三条 国务院住房和城乡建设主管部门规定应当申请消防验收的建设工程竣工,建设单位应当向住房和城乡建设主管部门申请消防验收。
For a construction project other than one specified in the preceding paragraph, the construction employer shall report for recordation to the housing and urban-rural development authority after final inspection, and the housing and urban-rural development authority shall conduct random inspection. 前款规定以外的其他建设工程,建设单位在验收后应当报住房和城乡建设主管部门备案,住房和城乡建设主管部门应当进行抽查。
Where a construction project that is subject to fire protection final inspection according to the law fails or is nonconforming as established by the fire protection final inspection, it shall be prohibited from being put into use; and any other construction project that is nonconforming as established by random inspection conducted under the law shall cease to be used. 依法应当进行消防验收的建设工程,未经消防验收或者消防验收不合格的,禁止投入使用;其他建设工程经依法抽查不合格的,应当停止使用。
Article 14 Specific measures for fire protection design, fire protection final inspection, filing and random inspection of construction projects shall be developed by the housing and urban-rural development authority under the State Council.   第十四条 建设工程消防设计审查、消防验收、备案和抽查的具体办法,由国务院住房和城乡建设主管部门规定。
Article 15 Before a public gathering place is put into use or opens for business, the employer or user entity shall apply to the fire and rescue department of the local people's government at or above the county level for a fire safety inspection.   第十五条 公众聚集场所在投入使用、营业前,建设单位或者使用单位应当向场所所在地的县级以上地方人民政府消防救援机构申请消防安全检查。
The fire and rescue department shall, within 10 working days from the day of accepting the application, conduct a fire safety inspection of the said place under the provisions on fire protection technical standards and administration. The said place shall not be put into use or open for business if it has not undergone a fire safety inspection or does not conform to the fire safety requirements upon inspection. 消防救援机构应当自受理申请之日起十个工作日内,根据消防技术标准和管理规定,对该场所进行消防安全检查。未经消防安全检查或者经检查不符合消防安全要求的,不得投入使用、营业。
Article 16 Organs, social groups, enterprises, public institutions and other entities shall perform the following fire safety duties:   第十六条 机关、团体、企业、事业等单位应当履行下列消防安全职责:
1. to implement a fire safety accountability system, formulate the entity's fire safety bylaws and operating procedures for fire safety, and work out a firefighting and emergency evacuation preparedness plan; (一)落实消防安全责任制,制定本单位的消防安全制度、消防安全操作规程,制定灭火和应急疏散预案;
2. to prepare fire protection facilities and apparatuses under the national standards and industrial standards, set up fire safety signs, and conduct regular testing and maintenance so as to ensure that they are in good condition and effective; (二)按照国家标准、行业标准配置消防设施、器材,设置消防安全标志,并定期组织检验、维修,确保完好有效;
3. to make a thorough overhaul of the fire protection facilities in a building at least once a year so as to ensure that they are in good condition and effective, and archive complete and accurate overhaul records for future reference; (三)对建筑消防设施每年至少进行一次全面检测,确保完好有效,检测记录应当完整准确,存档备查;
4. to ensure that the evacuation passages, safety exits and fire truck passages are clear and the fire and smoke compartmentation and fire separation distance meet the relevant fire protection technical standards; (四)保障疏散通道、安全出口、消防车通道畅通,保证防火防烟分区、防火间距符合消防技术标准;
5. to organize fire prevention inspections so as to eliminate potential fire risks; (五)组织防火检查,及时消除火灾隐患;
6. to organize pertinent fire prevention drillings; and (六)组织进行有针对性的消防演练;
7. to perform other fire safety duties as prescribed by laws and regulations. (七)法律、法规规定的其他消防安全职责。
The major person in charge of an entity shall be the person responsible for the entity's fire safety. 单位的主要负责人是本单位的消防安全责任人。
Article 17 The fire and rescue department of a local people's government at or above the county level shall determine the entities which have a higher risk of fire disaster and in which the occurrence of a fire disaster may result in serious casualties or property losses as the key fire safety entities within its administration area, and report the same via the emergency management authority to the people's government for archival purposes.   第十七条 县级以上地方人民政府消防救援机构应当将发生火灾可能性较大以及发生火灾可能造成重大的人身伤亡或者财产损失的单位,确定为本行政区域内的消防安全重点单位,并由应急管理部门报本级人民政府备案。
The key fire safety entities shall perform the following fire safety duties besides those as described in Article 16 of this Law: 消防安全重点单位除应当履行本法第十六条规定的职责外,还应当履行下列消防安全职责:
1. to determine a fire safety manager who shall organize the fire safety management of this entity; (一)确定消防安全管理人,组织实施本单位的消防安全管理工作;
2. to maintain the fire protection archives, determine the key fire safety spots, set up fire prevention signs, and conduct strict management; (二)建立消防档案,确定消防安全重点部位,设置防火标志,实行严格管理;
3. to exercise daily fire prevention patrol and maintain patrol records; and (三)实行每日防火巡查,并建立巡查记录;
4. to offer pre-job fire safety training for employees and organize regular fire safety training and fire protection drilling. (四)对职工进行岗前消防安全培训,定期组织消防安全培训和消防演练。
Article 18 For a same building managed or used by two or more entities, the fire safety responsibilities of each party shall be defined, and persons in charge shall be specified to manage the common evacuation passages, safety exits, fire protection facilities of the building and fire truck passages in a unified way.   第十八条 同一建筑物由两个以上单位管理或者使用的,应当明确各方的消防安全责任,并确定责任人对共用的疏散通道、安全出口、建筑消防设施和消防车通道进行统一管理。
The realty service enterprise for a residential area shall maintain and manage the common fire protection facilities in the management area, and provide fire safety and prevention services. 住宅区的物业服务企业应当对管理区域内的共用消防设施进行维护管理,提供消防安全防范服务。
Article 19 In arrangement, a site for the production, storage or trade of dangerous articles such as flammables, and explosives shall not be in the same building as a residential site is, and shall keep a safe distance from a residential site.   第十九条 生产、储存、经营易燃易爆危险品的场所不得与居住场所设置在同一建筑物内,并应当与居住场所保持安全距离。
If a site for the production, storage or trade of any other articles and a residential site are arranged in the same building, the national fire protection technical standards for project construction shall be satisfied. 生产、储存、经营其他物品的场所与居住场所设置在同一建筑物内的,应当符合国家工程建设消防技术标准。
Article 20 To hold a large-scale mass activity, the organizer shall apply to the public security organ for a safety permit, work out a firefighting and emergency evacuation preparedness plan, organize drillings, make a clear division of fire safety responsibilities, determine fire safety managers, keep the fire protection facilities and apparatuses complete, in good condition and effective, and ensure that the evacuation passages, safety exits, evacuation direction signs, emergency illuminations and fire truck passages conform to the provisions on fire protection technical standards and administration.   第二十条 举办大型群众性活动,承办人应当依法向公安机关申请安全许可,制定灭火和应急疏散预案并组织演练,明确消防安全责任分工,确定消防安全管理人员,保持消防设施和消防器材配置齐全、完好有效,保证疏散通道、安全出口、疏散指示标志、应急照明和消防车通道符合消防技术标准和管理规定。
Article 21 It shall be forbidden to smoke or use naked fire at a place with a risk of fire disaster or explosion. If it is necessary to use naked fire in the construction or in any other special case, the relevant party shall go through the formalities for a prior approval and take corresponding fire safety measures according to the relevant provisions, and the operation staff shall abide by the fire safety provisions.   第二十一条 禁止在具有火灾、爆炸危险的场所吸烟、使用明火。因施工等特殊情况需要使用明火作业的,应当按照规定事先办理审批手续,采取相应的消防安全措施;作业人员应当遵守消防安全规定。
The personnel of electric welding, gas welding and other operations with a fire risk and the operation staff of the automatic fire protection system must assume their posts with corresponding qualification certificates and observe the operating procedures for fire safety. 进行电焊、气焊等具有火灾危险作业的人员和自动消防系统的操作人员,必须持证上岗,并遵守消防安全操作规程。
Article 22 The establishment of factories, warehouses and special depots or docks for the production, storage and loading and unloading of such dangerous articles as flammables and explosives shall conform to the fire protection technical standards. The filling, supply and pressure regulating stations of flammable and explosive gas and liquid shall be set up at places meeting the fire safety requirements, and conform to the requirements for the prevention of fire and explosion.   第二十二条 生产、储存、装卸易燃易爆危险品的工厂、仓库和专用车站、码头的设置,应当符合消防技术标准。易燃易爆气体和液体的充装站、供应站、调压站,应当设置在符合消防安全要求的位置,并符合防火防爆要求。
Where an established factory, warehouse, or special depot or dock for the production, storage or loading and unloading of such dangerous articles as flammables and explosives or an established filling, supply or pressure regulating station of flammable and explosive gas or liquid does not conform to the provisions of the preceding paragraph any more, the local people's government shall organize and coordinate the relevant departments or entities to solve the nonconformity within a prescribed time limit so as to eliminate the potential safety risk. 已经设置的生产、储存、装卸易燃易爆危险品的工厂、仓库和专用车站、码头,易燃易爆气体和液体的充装站、供应站、调压站,不再符合前款规定的,地方人民政府应当组织、协调有关部门、单位限期解决,消除安全隐患。
Article 23 The provisions on fire protection technical standards and administration must be observed in the production, storage, transport, sale, use and disposal of such dangerous articles as flammables and explosives.   第二十三条 生产、储存、运输、销售、使用、销毁易燃易爆危险品,必须执行消防技术标准和管理规定。
Anyone entering a site of production or storage of such dangerous articles as flammables and explosives must follow the fire safety provisions. It shall be forbidden to illegally carry such dangerous articles as flammables or explosives into a public place or the public transport. 进入生产、储存易燃易爆危险品的场所,必须执行消防安全规定。禁止非法携带易燃易爆危险品进入公共场所或者乘坐公共交通工具。
The provisions on fire protection technical standards and administration must be followed in the management of warehouses for the storage of flammable materials. 储存可燃物资仓库的管理,必须执行消防技术标准和管理规定。
Article 24 Fire protection products must conform to the national standards. If there are no national standards, the fire protection product must conform to the industrial standards. It is forbidden to produce, sell or use any unqualified fire protection product or any fire protection product which has been eliminated by the state in a public proclamation.   第二十四条 消防产品必须符合国家标准;没有国家标准的,必须符合行业标准。禁止生产、销售或者使用不合格的消防产品以及国家明令淘汰的消防产品。
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