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Opinions of the Higher People's Court of Beijing Municipality on Regulating Discretionary Power in Civil Cases and Unifying Judgment Criteria (For Trial Implementation) [Effective]
北京高院发布关于规范民事案件自由裁量权、统一裁判尺度的试行意见 [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】

Opinions of the Higher People's Court of Beijing Municipality on Regulating Discretionary Power in Civil Cases and Unifying Judgment Criteria (For Trial Implementation) 

北京高院发布关于规范民事案件自由裁量权、统一裁判尺度的试行意见

(December 3, 2019) (2019年12月3日)

For the purposes of regulating the exercise of discretionary power in civil cases and safeguarding unified criteria of judgment in the courts of Beijing, and ensuring fairness and efficiency in civil adjudication, in accordance with the relevant laws, and normative documents prescribed by the Committee of Political and Legislative Affairs under the CCCPC such as the Opinions on Strengthening the Supervision and Administration of Judicial Power Operation, the Guiding Opinions of the Supreme People's Court on Effectively Regulating the Exercise of Discretionary Power in Trial and Enforcement and Guaranteeing the Uniform Application of Law, and the Implementation Measures of the Higher People's Court of Beijing Municipality for Promoting the Uniform Application of Law (For Trial Implementation), the Opinions are hereby developed in combination with the actual conditions of civil trials in the courts of Beijing. 为规范北京法院民事案件自由裁量权行使、保障裁判尺度统一,确保民事审判公正高效,根据相关法律及中央政法委《关于加强司法权力运行监督管理的意见》 《最高人民法院关于在审判执行工作中切实规范自由裁量权行使保障法律统一适用的指导意见》 《北京市高级人民法院关于促进法律适用统一的实施办法(试行)》等规范性文件,结合北京法院民事审判工作实际,制定本工作意见。
I. Definition and general requirements 

一、概念与总体要求

Article 1 Definition: For the purpose of the Opinions, “discretionary power in civil cases” means the power to analyze and determine issues such as case facts, application of law, and procedures while leaving a certain room for choice and determination on these issues, and to finally render a judgment that is impartial, reasonable and according to law during the course of trial of a civil case in accordance with the legal provisions and the legislative spirit and by firmly adhering to correct judicial concepts and adopting scientific methods.   第一条 【概念】 本意见所称民事案件自由裁量权,是指民事案件审理过程中,在对于事实认定、法律适用及程序处理等问题具有一定选择和判断空间情况下,根据法律规定和立法精神,秉持正确司法理念,运用科学方法进行分析和判断,并最终依法作出公正合理裁判结果的权力。
Article 2 Significance: Regulating the exercise of discretionary power in civil cases is the requirement of safeguarding fairness and justice, the embodiment of unifying judgment criteria and maintaining judicial authority, and the foundation of creating a good legal order and environment.   第二条 【工作意义】 规范民事案件自由裁量权行使、是维护公平正义的要求,是实现裁判尺度统一、维护司法权威的体现,是构建良好法治秩序与环境的基础。
Article 3 Objectives: In regulating the exercise of discretionary power in civil cases, the courts in Beijing shall, to the maximum degree, guarantee unified judgment criteria, ensure the quality of civil trials, improve judicial credibility, and maintain judicial authority on the basis of accurately determining case facts, correctly applying law, and protecting impartial trial of individual cases.   第三条 【工作目标】 规范民事案件自由裁量权行使应在准确认定案件事实、正确适用法律,确保个案公正基础上,最大限度地保证裁判尺度统一,保证审判质量、提升司法公信、树立司法权威。
Article 4 Principles: In regulating the exercise of discretionary power in civil cases, the courts in Beijing shall ensure the integration of procedural and substantive justice, the integration of regulating discretionary power, realizing supervision by courts at higher levels, and safeguarding the independent exercise of judicial authority according to law, and the integration of political effects, legal effects and social effects.   第四条 【工作原则】 规范民事案件自由裁量权行使工作应确保程序公正与实体公正相统一;确保规范自由裁量权、实现审级监督与保障依法独立行使审判权相统一;确保政治效果、法律效果、社会效果相统一。
Article 5 Methods: Regulating the exercise of discretionary power in civil cases shall depend on bottom-up and top-down interactions between the courts of three levels, and go through the complete process of a civil trial; put focus on various aspects, such as unified adjudication concepts, basic norms and guidelines, and studies on difficult problems; and be promoted by specifying the duties of courts of all levels, strengthening the supervision and administration of trials, opening up information and communication channels, building supporting and protection platforms, and other concrete means.   第五条 【工作方法】 规范民事案件自由裁量权行使工作应依托三级法院上下联动,贯穿民事审判全过程;应从审判理念统一、基础规范指引、疑难问题研究等不同层面着力;通过明确各级审判主体职责、加强审判监督管理、畅通信息沟通渠道、搭建配套保障平台等具体方式积极推进。
Article 6 Functional departments and duties: The Civil Division I of the Municipal Higher People's Court is a functional department responsible for regulating the exercise of discretionary power in civil cases handled by courts in Beijing, and its specific duties include: supervising and guiding the task of regulating the exercise of discretionary power in civil cases; putting together major issues concerning the exercise of discretionary power in civil cases of Beijing; developing uniform standards for the exercise of discretionary power in similar civil cases; leading the establishment of a work mechanism for regulating the exercise of discretionary power in civil cases; and organizing the establishment of a platform for exchanging views on difficult problems concerning discretionary power in civil cases handled by courts in Beijing.   第六条 【职能部门与职责】 市高院民一庭是负责全市法院民事案件规范自由裁量权行使工作的职能部门,具体职责包括:监督指导全市法院民事案件自由裁量权规范具体工作;汇总全市民事案件自由裁量权行使中存在的重大问题;制定民事类案自由裁量权行使统一标准;牵头建立规范民事案件自由裁量权行使工作机制;组织建立全市法院民事案件自由裁量疑难问题交流平台等。
Article 7 Adjudicatory concepts and methods: Civil judges shall firmly uphold the concept of regulating the exercise of discretionary power in their adjudication work, properly use the basis of claim, elements of legal relationship and other scientific methods, accurately determine the facts, correctly apply the law, and ensure that the criteria for the exercise of discretionary power are consistent.   第七条 【裁判理念与方法】 民事法官在审判工作中应牢固树立规范自由裁量权行使的理念,正确运用请求权基础、法律关系要件等科学方法,准确认定要件事实、正确适用法律,确保自由裁量权行使尺度统一。
II. Mechanism of discovering problems in the exercise of discretionary power 

二、自由裁量权行使问题发现机制

Article 8 Retrieval of similar cases: In a civil trial, a judge shall lay emphasis on analyzing and discovering the problems of inconsistent judgment criteria in the exercise of discretionary power. A judge's case trial report concerning difficult problems in the exercise of discretionary power shall include the retrieval of similar cases.   第八条 【类案检索的应用】 民事审判中,法官应注重通过类案检索分析发现自由裁量权行使中存在的裁判尺度不统一问题。法官提交涉及自由裁量权行使疑难问题的案件审理报告,应包括类案检索部分。
If the retrieval-related materials submitted by the parties concerned may involve the issue of inconsistent criteria in the exercise of discretionary power, the judge shall carefully discern whether the materials can serve as the basis of a trial; and, if it is not required to reply in an adjudicative document, write it down in the transcript or work record. 对于当事人提交的类案检索材料显示可能涉及自由裁量权行使不统一问题的,法官应认真甄别是否可作为裁判参考,无需在裁判文书中回应的,应在合议笔录或工作记录中载明。
The judge may, if deeming it necessary, explain to the parties concerned that their retrieval results can serve as the basis of a trial. 法官认为有必要的,可释明当事人提交类案检索结果作为裁判参考。
Article 9 Methods of retrieval and sequence of similar cases retrieved: The retrieval of similar civil cases shall follow the sequence as below: the guiding cases issued by the Supreme People's Court; the cases for reference issued by the Municipal Higher People's Court; and the cases discussed in a court-level judge meeting or by the judicial committee. If, however, no similar case is found, other valid cases of intermediate courts and higher courts within the jurisdiction or courts all over the country can be retrieved.   第九条 【类案检索方法及顺序】 民事类案检索时应依次检索最高人民法院发布的指导性案例、市高院发布的参阅案例、本院院级法官会议或审判委员会讨论的案例。如在上述范围无法查找到类案,可对所在辖区的中、高级法院、全国法院其他生效案件进一步检索。
A judge may retrieve similar cases using such elements as cause of action, key words, parties concerned, and legal relationship through the case-handling system for Beijing courts, the China Judgments Online, special commercial websites, and other information platforms. 法官可依托北京法院办案系统、中国裁判文书网、专业性商业网站等信息平台,以案由、关键词、当事人、法律关系等为要素对类案进行检索。
Article 10 Scope of similar cases for compulsory retrieval: In the trial of a common civil case, a judge shall retrieve similar cases, record the retrieval results, and save them in the supplementary case file.   第十条 【强制类案检索的范围】 普通民事案件审理中,法官应当进行类案检索,检索结果应当形成记录存入副卷。
In the trial of cases through “diversified mediation + fast-track sentencing”, a judge may, according to the case circumstances, determine whether to retrieve similar cases. If retrieval is conducted, the judge shall write it down in his or her records of file review. 前端“多元调解+速裁”类案件审理中,法官可根据案件情况确定是否进行类案检索。进行类案检索的,应当在阅卷笔录中予以记录。
Article 11 Discovery and coordination of correlated cases: If, when handling a civil case, a judge finds, through retrieval of similar cases or at request of the party concerned, that the case under trial is highly consistent with another similar case in terms of key elements such as the parties concerned and subject matter of action, he or she shall communicate and coordinate with the case-handling judge on the issue of consistent criteria in the exercise of discretionary power in a timely manner. 卡在了奇怪的地方  第十一条 【关联类案发现与协调】 民事法官办理案件中,通过类案检索或当事人自行提出等方式,发现在审案件与其他类案在当事人、诉讼标的等关键关联要素方面具有高度一致性的,应及时与审理关联类案的承办法官就裁量权行使统一问题进行沟通协调。
If there is a difficult problem concerning consistent criteria in the exercise of discretionary power between a case on trial and correlated cases or there is a lack of communication channels, the judge shall report it to the court president or division chief in a timely manner; and the court president or division chief may, if deeming it necessary after study and coordination, submit a request to the civil division of the court at the higher level or the Civil Division I of the Municipal Higher People's Court for instructions. 在审案件与关联类案存在裁量权统一疑难问题,或者协调渠道上存在困难的,法官应及时向院、庭长报告;院、庭长经研究协调后认为有必要的,可向上级法院民事审判庭、市高院民一庭请示协调。
Article 12 Enhanced court trial functions: In civil cases, efforts shall be made to strengthen the court trial functions, and discover the disputes over consistent criteria in the exercise of discretionary power by finding the focus of disputes and listening to the adversarial debates of the parties concerned in a court trial.   第十二条 【庭审功能强化】 民事案件应当注重开庭审理功能的强化,通过开庭审理中整理争议焦点、听取当事人诉辩交锋等形式,及时发现存在的自由裁量权行使统一争议。
If a civil case of second instance is not to be heard in a court session, it shall be reported to the division chief for review. 二审民事案件不开庭审理的,应当报请庭长审核。
Article 13 Supervision of court president and division chief: The court president and division chief shall strengthen the quality management in handling civil cases, and, if finding a difficulty factor in the exercise of discretionary power after a case is accepted, mark the difficulty factor and notify the case-handling judge in a timely manner.   第十三条 【院、庭长监督】 院、庭长应当加强民事案件质量的管理,在案件受理后发现存在自由裁量权行使疑难因素的,应及时进行标识并告知承办法官。
If, when hearing a civil case, a judge has any doubt about the exercise of discretionary power, he or she shall report it to the court president or division chief for supervision and guidance in a timely manner; and if the court president or division chief discovers a difficult problem in the exercise of discretionary power, he or she shall provide supervision and guidance over the case according to the duties specified in the relevant provisions.
......
 民事案件审理中对于自由裁量权行使存在疑问的,法官应及时报请院、庭长对个案监督指导;院、庭长发现案件存在自由裁量权行使疑难问题的,应当依相关规定确定的职责进行个案监督指导。
......

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