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Notice of the Supreme People's Court on Issuing the Twentieth Group of Guiding Cases [Effective]
最高人民法院关于发布第20批指导性案例的通知 [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】

Notice of the Supreme People's Court on Issuing the Twentieth Group of Guiding Cases 

最高人民法院关于发布第20批指导性案例的通知

(No. 347 [2018] of the Supreme People's Court) (法〔2018〕347号)

The higher people's courts of all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government; the Military Court of the People's Liberation Army; and the Production and Construction Corps Branch of the Higher People's Court of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous: 各省、自治区、直辖市高级人民法院,解放军军事法院,新疆维吾尔自治区高级人民法院生产建设兵团分院:
Upon deliberation and decision of the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court, five cases (Guiding Cases No. 102-106) including People v. Fu Xuanhao and Huang Zichao (Case of Sabotaging Computer Information System) are hereby issued as the twentieth group of guiding cases for reference in trial of similar cases. 经最高人民法院审判委员会讨论决定,现将付宣豪、黄子超破坏计算机信息系统案等五个案例(指导案例102-106号),作为第20批指导性案例发布,供在审判类似案件时参照。
Supreme People's Court 最高人民法院
December 25, 2018 2018年12月25日
Guiding Case No. 102 指导案例102号
People v. Fu Xuanhao and Huang Zichao (Case of Sabotaging Computer Information System) 付宣豪、黄子超破坏计算机信息系统案
(Issued on December 25, 2018 as deliberated and adopted by the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court) (最高人民法院审判委员会讨论通过2018年12月25日发布)
Keywords: criminal; crime of sabotaging computer information system; DNS hijacking; serious consequences; particularly serious consequences 关键词 刑事/破坏计算机信息系统罪/DNS劫持/后果严重/后果特别严重
Key Points of Judgment 裁判要点
1. DNS hijacking that forces network users to get access to a specified website by modifying the settings of a router or browser, locking the homepage, popping up new windows or any other technical means is sabotaging computer information system and, if the consequences are serious, constitutes the crime of sabotaging computer information system. 1.通过修改路由器、浏览器设置、锁定主页或者弹出新窗口等技术手段,强制网络用户访问指定网站的“DNS劫持”行为,属于破坏计算机信息系统,后果严重的,构成破坏计算机信息系统罪。
2. Whether "DNS hijacking" gives rise to serious or particularly serious consequences shall be determined by the number of computer information systems that are unable to normally function, the duration when such systems are unable to normally function, and the loss or impact as a result, among others. 2.对于“DNS劫持”,应当根据造成不能正常运行的计算机信息系统数量、相关计算机信息系统不能正常运行的时间,以及所造成的损失或者影响等,认定其是“后果严重”还是“后果特别严重”。
Legal Provisions 相关法条
Article 286 of the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国刑法》第286条
Basic Facts 基本案情
From the end of 2013 to October 2014, defendants Fu Xuanhao, Huang Zichao and others rented servers and used malicious code to modify the DNS settings of the routers of Internet users, so that when users visited navigation websites such as “2345.com,” they were redirected to the navigation website they set, "5w.com." Defendants Fu Xuanhao, Huang Zichao and others then sold users' web traffic obtained to Hangzhou Jiu Shang Technology Co., Ltd. (owner of the navigation website, "5w.com") and received illegal income amounting to 754,762.34 yuan. 2013年底至2014年10月,被告人付宣豪、黄子超等人租赁多台服务器,使用恶意代码修改互联网用户路由器的DNS设置,进而使用户登录“2345.com”等导航网站时跳转至其设置的“5w.com”导航网站,被告人付宣豪、黄子超等人再将获取的互联网用户流量出售给杭州久尚科技有限公司(系“5w.com”导航网站所有者),违法所得合计人民币754,762.34元。
On November 17, 2014, defendant Fu Xuanhao voluntarily surrendered to the public security authority after receiving a phone call from the police. Defendant Huang Zichao voluntarily surrendered. The two defendants confessed to the aforesaid criminal facts truthfully after their surrender. 2014年11月17日,被告人付宣豪接民警电话通知后自动至公安机关,被告人黄子超主动投案,二被告人到案后均如实供述了上述犯罪事实。
Defendants and their defender had no objection to the criminal charges and facts. 被告人及辩护人对罪名及事实均无异议。
Judgment 裁判结果
The People's Court of Pudong New District of Shanghai entered the Criminal Judgment (No. 1460 [2015], First, Criminal Division, Pu) on May 20, 2015: (1) Defendant Fu Xuanhao was guilty of sabotaging computer information system and should be sentenced to a fixed-term imprisonment of three years with a three-year suspension of execution. (2) Defendant Huang Zichao was guilty of sabotaging computer information system and should be sentenced to a fixed-term imprisonment of three years with a three-year suspension of execution. (3) The tools for criminal use seized in the case and the illegal income returned in the case shall be confiscated and turned over to the state treasury. After the judgment was pronounced by the court of first instance, neither of defendants appealed, and nor did the public prosecution authority. The judgment has come into effect. 上海市浦东新区人民法院于2015年5月20日作出(2015)浦刑初字第1460号刑事判决:一、被告人付宣豪犯破坏计算机信息系统罪,判处有期徒刑三年,缓刑三年。二、被告人黄子超犯破坏计算机信息系统罪,判处有期徒刑三年,缓刑三年。三、扣押在案的作案工具以及退缴在案的违法所得予以没收,上缴国库。一审宣判后,二被告人均未上诉,公诉机关未抗诉,判决已发生法律效力。
Judgment's Reasoning 裁判理由
The effective court judgment held that: According to the provisions of Article 286 of the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, whoever sabotaged the functionality of computer information systems so that such systems were unable to function normally committed the crime of sabotaging computer information system if the consequences were serious. In this case, defendants Fu Xuanhao and Huang Zichao conducted "DNS hijacking," a kind of traffic hijacking. DNS, short for the Domain Name System, was used to provide domain name resolution services. DNS hijacking was a process in which domain name resolution was modified to redirect visitors to a specific domain name from an original IP address to a falsified IP address and render users unable to visit the website correlating with the original IP address or cause the users to visit false websites, and so as to achieve the purpose of stealing data or sabotaging the normal services of the original website. The two defendants used malicious code to modify the DNS settings of the routers of Internet users and directed by hijacking the traffic generated by users visiting navigation websites such as "2345.com" to the navigation website defendants set, "5w.com," and sold the obtained users' web traffic, which obviously sabotaged the functionality of the computer information systems of network users and rendered such systems unable to function normally. The objective behavioral components of the crime of sabotaging computer information system were constituted. 法院生效裁判认为,根据《中华人民共和国刑法》第二百八十六条的规定,对计算机信息系统功能进行破坏,造成计算机信息系统不能正常运行,后果严重的,构成破坏计算机信息系统罪。本案中,被告人付宣豪、黄子超实施的是流量劫持中的“DNS劫持”。DNS是域名系统的英文首字母缩写,作用是提供域名解析服务。“DNS 劫持”通过修改域名解析,使对特定域名的访问由原IP地址转入到篡改后的指定IP地址,导致用户无法访问原IP地址对应的网站或者访问虚假网站,从而实现窃取资料或者破坏网站原有正常服务的目的。二被告人使用恶意代码修改互联网用户路由器的DNS设置,将用户访问“2345.com”等导航网站的流量劫持到其设置的“5w.com”导航网站,并将获取的互联网用户流量出售,显然是对网络用户的计算机信息系统功能进行破坏,造成计算机信息系统不能正常运行,符合破坏计算机信息系统罪的客观行为要件。
According to the Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court and the Supreme People's Procuratorate of Several Issues on the Application of Law in the Handling of Criminal Cases about Endangering the Security of Computer Information Systems, if illegal income of not less than 25,000 yuan was derived from, or economic losses of not less than 50,000 yuan were caused by sabotaging computer information system, "the consequences" should be determined to be "particularly serious." In this case, the two defendants received illegal income amounting to 754,762.34 yuan, and thus "the consequences" were "particularly serious." 根据《最高人民法院、最高人民检察院关于办理危害计算机信息系统安全刑事案件应用法律若干问题的解释》,破坏计算机信息系统,违法所得人民币二万五千元以上或者造成经济损失人民币五万元以上的,应当认定为“后果特别严重”。本案中,二被告人的违法所得达人民币754,762.34元,属于“后果特别严重”。
In summary, defendants Fu Xuanhao and Huang Zichao carried out the act of DNS hijacking in violation of the rules of the state, revised the data stored in computer information systems, gave rise to particularly serious consequences, and should be sentenced to a fixed-term imprisonment of five years in accordance with the law. Give that defendants returned all the illegal income with the help of their families, did not obtain or divulge the individual information of citizens, both had circumstances of surrender, and had no criminal record, the punishment was mitigated in favor of them, with a suspension of execution applied, in accordance with the law. 综上,被告人付宣豪、黄子超实施的“DNS劫持”行为系违反国家规定,对计算机信息系统中存储的数据进行修改,后果特别严重,依法应处五年以上有期徒刑。鉴于二被告人在家属的帮助下退缴全部违法所得,未获取、泄露公民个人信息,且均具有自首情节,无前科劣迹,故依法对其减轻处罚并适用缓刑。
(Judges of the effective judgment: Li Jun, Bai Yanli, and Zhu Genchu) (生效裁判审判人员:李俊、白艳利、朱根初)
Guiding Case No. 103 指导案例103号
People v. Xu Qiang (Case of Sabotaging Computer Information System) 徐强破坏计算机信息系统案
(Issued on December 25, 2018 as deliberated and adopted by the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court) (最高人民法院审判委员会讨论通过2018年12月25日发布)
Keywords: criminal; crime of sabotaging computer information system; mechanical remote monitoring system 关键词 刑事/破坏计算机信息系统罪/机械远程监控系统
Key Points of Judgment 裁判要点
The mechanical remote monitoring system of an enterprise is a computer information system. When the rules of the state are violated by sabotaging the functionality of such a system, rendering it unable to function normally, if the consequences are serious, the violation shall constitute the crime of sabotaging computer information system. 企业的机械远程监控系统属于计算机信息系统。违反国家规定,对企业的机械远程监控系统功能进行破坏,造成计算机信息系统不能正常运行,后果严重的,构成破坏计算机信息系统罪。
Legal Provisions 相关法条
Paragraphs 1 and 2, Article 286 of the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国刑法》第286条第1款、第2款
Basic Facts 基本案情
Zoomlion Heavy Industry Science and Technology Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as the "Zoomlion") used the Zoomlion Internet of Things GPS Information Service System to strengthen the management of construction equipment paid by installments. The computer information system consisted of the Zoomlion Internet of Things Remote Monitoring Platform, GPS terminals, controllers and displays and performed functions such as automatic gathering, processing, storage, transmission, and display of data and automatic control of equipment. The controllers, GPS terminals and displays were installed on all construction equipment when it was manufactured. 为了加强对分期付款的工程机械设备的管理,中联重科股份有限公司(以下简称中联重科)投入使用了中联重科物联网GPS信息服务系统,该套计算机信息系统由中联重科物联网远程监控平台、GPS终端、控制器和显示器等构成,该系统具备自动采集、处理、存储、回传、显示数据和自动控制设备的功能,其中,控制器、GPS终端和显示器由中联重科在工程机械设备的生产制造过程中安装到每台设备上。
Zoomlion installed the Zoomlion Internet of Things GPS Information Service System on the pump vehicles "sold under a mortgage plan" pumping equipment and explicitly stipulated in the product purchase contract that, "If buyer breaches the contract, the seller has the right to take measures such as equipment shutdown or lock-up," and “Ownership of the product belongs to seller until buyer makes the last installment payment, even if buyer has obtained the registration document for the motor vehicle." The headquarters of Zoomlion monitored the pump vehicles through the remote monitoring and maintenance platform and, when a customer delayed or made no payments, locked up the equipment through the system. A pump vehicle that received the "lock-up" command could be started but was unable to function. 中联重科对“按揭销售”的泵车设备均安装了中联重科物联网GPS信息服务系统,并在产品买卖合同中明确约定“如买受人出现违反合同约定的行为,出卖人有权采取停机、锁机等措施”以及“在买受人付清全部货款前,产品所有权归出卖人所有。即使在买受人已经获得机动车辆登记文件的情况下,买受人未付清全部货款前,产品所有权仍归出卖人所有”的条款。然后由中联重科总部的远程监控维护平台对泵车进行监控,如发现客户有拖欠、赖账等情况,就会通过远程监控系统进行“锁机”,泵车接收到“锁机”指令后依然能发动,但不能作业。
In May 2014, defendant Xu Qiang used a GPS jammer to terminate the lock-up status of five Zoomlion pump vehicles under the name or management of Zhong A (here and below, first name withheld), Gong A, and Zhang A. The specific facts were as follows: 2014 年5月间,被告人徐强使用“GPS 干扰器”先后为钟某某、龚某某、张某某名下或管理的五台中联重科泵车解除锁定。具体事实如下:
1. In early April 2014, Zhong A discovered that the pump vehicle he purchased bearing license plate Gui A77462 was to be locked up by Zoomlion and arranged for Xu Guanlun to seek a person providing unlocking services. Xu A contacted and told Gong A that Zhong A had a pump vehicle to unlock. Gong A gave his consent and requested defendant Xu Qiang in a phone call to unlock the pump vehicle. On May 18, 2014, defendant Xu Qiang, carrying a GPS jammer, and Gong A arrived in Qingzhen City in Guiyang City. Defendant Xu Qiang connected the signal line on the GPS jammer to the electrical enclosure on the right side of the pump vehicle, switched on the GPS jammer, and used the jammer to successfully unlock the pump vehicle bearing license plate Gui A77462. Zhong A paid 40,000 yuan to Gong A for the unlocking service, and Gong A also paid 9,600 yuan out of the sum to Xu A as agreed for his intermediary service. That same day and the next day, Gong A also facilitated defendant Xu Qiang in permanently unlocking the three pump vehicles respectively bearing license plates Xiang AB0375, Xiang AA6985 and Xiang AA6987, under the management of Gong A, brought by Huang A, the sister-in-law of Gong A, from Zoomlion and Changsha Zoomlion Used Equipment Sales Co., Ltd. under an installment payment plan. Gong A paid defendant Xu Qiang an aggregate of 30,000 yuan for unlocking the four pump vehicles. 1.2014 年4月初,钟某某发现其购得的牌号为贵A77462的泵车即将被中联重科锁机后,安排徐关伦帮忙打听解锁人。徐某某遂联系龚某某告知钟某某泵车需解锁一事。龚某某表示同意后,即通过电话联系被告人徐强给泵车解锁。2014 年 5月18日,被告人徐强携带“GPS干扰器”与龚某某一起来到贵阳市清镇市,由被告人徐强将“GPS干扰器”上的信号线连接到泵车右侧电控柜,再将“GPS干扰器”通电后使用干扰器成功为牌号为贵A77462的泵车解锁。事后,钟某某向龚某某支付了解锁费用人民币40000元,龚某某亦按约定将其中人民币9600元支付给徐某某作为介绍费。当日及次日,龚某某还带着被告人徐强为其管理的其妹夫黄某从中联重科及长沙中联重科二手设备销售有限公司以分期付款方式购得的牌号分别为湘AB0375、湘 AA6985、湘 AA6987的三台泵车进行永久解锁。事后,龚某某向被告人徐强支付四台泵车的解锁费用共计人民币30000 元。

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