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Position Paper of the People's Republic of China For the 73rd Session of the United Nations General Assembly [Effective]
第73届联合国大会中方立场文件 [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】

Position Paper of the People's Republic of China For the 73rd Session of the United Nations General Assembly

 

第73届联合国大会中方立场文件

(August 28, 2018) (2018年8月28日)

I. The world is undergoing major changes unprecedented in a century. As economic globalization, IT revolution and cultural diversification gain momentum in an increasingly multi-polar world, the interests and destinies of all countries are closely linked and deeply intertwined. At the same time, regional hotspot issues keep flaring up, the problem of unbalanced development is far from being resolved, and global challenges such as climate change, terrorism and cyber security issues have become more pronounced. All these factors, combined with surging unilateralism and protectionism in particular, have exerted a severe impact on the international order, architecture and rules.   一、当今世界正经历百年未有之大变局。世界多极化、经济全球化深入发展,社会信息化、文化多样化持续推进,各国利益和命运紧密相联,深度交融。同时,地区热点问题此起彼伏,发展失衡的问题远未解决,气候变化、恐怖主义、网络安全等全球性挑战日益凸显,特别是单边主义和保护主义进一步抬头,国际秩序、国际体系、国际规则受到严重冲击。
Under such circumstances, the international community should build consensus and join hands in tackling new threats and challenges to safeguard world peace, promote common development and improve global governance. 当前形势下,国际社会应该凝聚共识,携起手来,共同应对新威胁和新挑战,为维护世界和平、促进共同发展、加强全球治理作出积极努力。
Multilateralism must be steadfastly upheld. From a historical dimension, multilateralism is an irreversible trend of our times consistent with the mighty tide of multi-polarity and economic globalization. From the perspective of reality, global challenges call for global solutions and fundamentally, multilateralism is the only way forward. Countries should jointly oppose unilateralism and protectionism and advocate extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits for win-win results. --各国要坚定支持多边主义。从历史维度看,多边主义符合世界多极化、经济全球化发展大势,是不可逆转的时代潮流。从现实维度看,全球性挑战需要全球性应对,坚持多边主义是根本之道。我们应共同反对单边主义和保护主义,积极倡导共商共建共享,努力实现双赢多赢共赢。
International rules must be voluntarily observed. Countries should defend the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and other basic norms governing international relations, respect each other's independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and independent choice of social system and development path. Efforts should be directed toward building a new type of international relations featuring mutual respect, fairness and justice, and win-win cooperation and a community with a shared future for mankind. Countries, whether big or small, strong or weak, rich or poor, are equal members of the international community and as such, should participate as equals in the formulation of international rules. Reform of global economic governance should be continued with a view to increasing the representation and voice of emerging markets and developing countries and preserve development space for developing countries. --各国要自觉遵守国际规则。各国应捍卫联合国宪章宗旨和原则及其他国际关系基本准则,尊重各国独立、主权和领土完整,尊重各国自主选择的社会制度和发展道路,推动构建相互尊重、公平正义、合作共赢的新型国际关系,构建人类命运共同体。国家不分大小、强弱、贫富,都是国际社会平等一员,都应该平等参与国际规则制定。要继续推进全球经济治理改革,提高新兴市场国家和发展中国家代表性和发言权,维护发展中国家发展空间。
The multilateral architecture must be jointly maintained. As the most universal, representative and authoritative inter-governmental organization, the United Nations is an important symbol of multilateralism and a living example of its success. Countries should support the UN in playing an active role in international affairs and in rallying and steering the world in the pursuit of enduring peace, development and prosperity. Efforts should be made to uphold the rules-based multilateral trading regime with the WTO at the center, and the core values and basic principles of the regime, and to further trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, so as to build an open world economy and make globalization more open, inclusive and beneficial to all. --各国要共同维护多边体系。联合国是最具普遍性、代表性和权威性的政府间国际组织,是多边主义的重要象征和成功实践。各国应支持联合国在国际事务中发挥积极作用,团结并引领世界各国实现持久和平与发展繁荣。各国应维护以世界贸易组织为核心、以规则为基础的多边贸易体制及其核心价值和基本原则,提升贸易投资自由化便利化水平,构建开放型世界经济,推动全球化朝着更加开放、包容、普惠、共赢方向发展。
II. China's Priorities for the 73rd Session of the United Nations General Assembly   二、中方在第73届联合国大会重点关注的工作包括以下方面:
1. China supports the efforts made by Secretary-General António Guterres to advance UN reform in the areas of peace and security, development and internal management. China hopes that the reform will enable the UN to play a bigger role in peace and security affairs, enhance its capacity to implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and improve its internal management and operation efficiency. The reform should be open and transparent, taking into full consideration views of member states and in particular, placing high emphasis on and striving to address the appeals and concerns of developing countries. (一)中方支持联合国秘书长古特雷斯推动联合国和平安全、发展、内部管理三大领域改革的努力,希望改革有助于联合国在和平安全领域发挥更大作用,加强落实2030年可持续发展议程的能力,并提高内部管理水平和运行效率。改革进程应公开、透明,充分听取会员国意见,特别是高度重视并解决发展中国家的诉求和关切。
2. The international community should be committed to political settlement of hotspot issues, step up preventive diplomacy, support the UN mediation efforts, and oppose threat of force or unilateral sanctions. The Security Council, as the core of the international collective security mechanism, shoulders the primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security. Its authority and role must be upheld. No one should bypass the Security Council in dealing with major issues concerning international peace and security. (二)国际社会应坚持政治解决热点问题的大方向,加强预防性外交,支持联合国斡旋和调解工作,反对军事威胁和单边制裁。安理会作为国际集体安全机制的核心,对维护国际和平与安全负有首要责任。各国都应维护安理会权威和作用,在事关国际和平与安全的重大问题上,不能绕开安理会行事。
The Palestinian issue is at the heart of the Middle East issue. China supports the Palestinian people's efforts to establish an independent Palestinian state that enjoys full sovereignty, with East Jerusalem as its capital and based on the 1967 borders. China also supports Palestine's greater participation in international affairs as a state. The parties concerned need to properly solve their disputes through political and diplomatic means on the basis of relevant UN resolutions, the principle of “land for peace”, the Arab Peace Initiative and the Roadmap for Peace in the Middle East. --巴勒斯坦问题是中东问题的核心。中方支持巴勒斯坦人民建立以1967年边界为基础、以东耶路撒冷为首都、拥有完全主权的、独立的巴勒斯坦国,支持巴勒斯坦以国家身份更多参与国际事务。中东问题有关各方应在联合国有关决议、“土地换和平”原则、“阿拉伯和平倡议”、中东和平“路线图”计划等基础上,通过政治和外交途径妥善解决彼此争端。
On the Syrian issue, peace cannot be achieved through military means. China supports the role of the UN as the main channel of mediation and the implementation of Security Council Resolution 2254. Efforts should be made to find through inclusive political dialogue a political solution that suits Syria's reality and accommodates the legitimate concerns of all parties. --叙利亚问题依靠军事手段无法实现和平。中方支持联合国发挥斡旋主渠道作用,落实好安理会第2254号决议,通过包容性的政治对话,找到符合叙利亚实际、兼顾各方合理关切的政治解决方案。
Upholding the integrity and sanctity of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) is conducive to strengthening the international nuclear non-proliferation regime and maintaining peace and stability in the Middle East, and serves the common interests of the international community. China hopes that relevant parties will adopt a long-term perspective and bear in mind the big picture, stay committed to political and diplomatic solution, and ensure the continued implementation of the JCPOA. --维护伊朗核问题全面协议的完整性和严肃性,有助于维护国际核不扩散体系及中东和平稳定,符合国际社会的共同利益。中方希望有关各方从长远和大局出发,坚持政治外交解决方向,使全面协议得以继续执行下去。
China is committed to a denuclearized, peaceful and stable Korean Peninsula and settlement of relevant issues through dialogue and consultation. In light of the current circumstances, China hopes to see and supports closer dialogue and contacts among relevant parties to further demonstrate goodwill and ease tensions. China hopes that the US and the DPRK continue to actively engage in interactions, meet each other half way and implement the consensus reached by the two leaders at their summit. China supports the improvement of the relations between the DPRK and the ROK and the joint efforts of all parties to make denuclearization on the Korean Peninsula and the political settlement of the Korean Peninsula issue a sustainable and irreversible process. --中方一贯坚持实现朝鲜半岛无核化,坚持维护半岛和平稳定,坚持通过对话协商解决问题。当前形势下,中方希望并支持有关各方加强对话接触,进一步互释善意,缓和形势。中方欢迎并期待朝美双方继续积极互动,相向而行,落实好两国领导人会晤共识,支持朝韩改善关系,各方共同努力推动半岛无核化和半岛问题政治解决成为可持续、不可逆的进程。
China supports African countries in solving African issues through African ways. China stands for respecting the sovereignty of countries concerned, heeding their views and giving full play to the roles of regional and sub-regional organizations such as the African Union (AU). The AU's independent peace missions have become an important instrument in dealing with conflicts and crises in Africa. China supports the UN in providing them with predictable and stable funding assistance. --中方支持非洲国家以非洲方式解决非洲问题,主张尊重当事国主权,听取当事国意见,充分发挥非盟等区域和次区域组织作用。非盟自主和平行动已成为应对非洲冲突和危机的重要手段,中方支持联合国为其提供可预测、稳定的资金支持。
3. The UN peacekeeping operations are an effective instrument for easing regional conflicts and safeguarding collective security. The operations should give priority to political settlement, adhere to the three principles of “consent of the parties, impartiality and non-use of force except in self-defense and defense of the mandate”, and refrain from interfering in affairs within the scope of the host country's sovereignty. Peacekeeping mandates should feature practical feasibility, clear targets, sharp focus, and flexible adjustment as circumstances evolve. Sufficient resources should be allocated to peacekeeping operations, the cost-effectiveness of the resources should be enhanced and the safety of peacekeeping institutions and personnel ensured. China stands for constant improvement of the UN peacekeeping operations to enable them to more effectively maintain stability and advance the political process in the host country. (三)联合国维和行动是缓解地区冲突、维护集体安全的有效手段。维和行动应坚持政治优先,坚持维和三原则,避免干预当事国主权范围内的事务。维和授权应现实可行,目标明确,重点突出,并根据形势发展灵活调整。维和行动应获得充足资源,同时提高资源使用效率,并保障维和行动机构和人员安全。中方支持不断改进和完善维和行动,使维和行动更好地维护当事国稳定,协助当事国推进政治进程。
4. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is a grand blueprint for global development. Countries should integrate the Agenda into their national development strategies, make parallel and balanced progress in the areas of economy, society and environment. The international community should strengthen partnerships for development and forge a cooperation framework with North-South cooperation as the main channel and South-South cooperation as a supplement. Developed countries should honor their ODA commitments and help developing countries enhance development capacities. (四)2030年可持续发展议程为全球发展绘制了宏伟蓝图。各国应将2030年议程纳入国家发展战略,全面平衡推进经济、社会、环境发展。国际社会要强化发展伙伴关系,构建以南北合作为主渠道、南南合作为补充的合作格局。发达国家应切实履行官方发展援助承诺,帮助广大发展中国家增强发展能力。
The Belt and Road Initiative is highly compatible with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in terms of goals, concepts and implementation paths. The Belt and Road Initiative champions the principle of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits and promotes the Silk Road spirit of peace, cooperation, openness, inclusiveness, mutual learning and mutual benefit. It focuses on infrastructure connectivity, upholds high quality and high standards, promotes regional connectivity and international cooperation, and encourages equal participation for shared benefits. China will continue to seek synergy between the Belt and Road Initiative and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development to build a road of peace, prosperity, openness and innovation that connects different civilizations and contributes to economic development of the world and common prosperity of all countries. “一带一路”倡议与2030年可持续发展议程在目标、理念、实施路径等方面高度契合。“一带一路”倡议坚持共商共建共享理念,弘扬“和平合作、开放包容、互学互鉴、互利共赢”的丝路精神,以基础设施互联互通为主线,坚持高质量高标准,促进区域互联互通和国际合作,各国平等参与、共同受益。中方将继续推进“一带一路”倡议与2030年可持续发展议程对接,建设和平、繁荣、开放、创新、文明之路,为世界经济发展和各国共同繁荣贡献力量。
The 2018 Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) will be held in September. Themed “China and Africa: Toward an Even Stronger Community with a Shared Future through Win-Win Cooperation”, the Summit synergizes the building of the Belt and Road with the Agenda 2063 of the AU, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the development strategies of different African countries, and contributes to the further development of the China-Africa comprehensive strategic partnership, the deepening of South-South cooperation and the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. 中非合作论坛北京峰会将于9月召开。峰会将以“合作共赢,携手构建更加紧密的中非命运共同体”为主题,把“一带一路”建设同落实非盟《2063年议程》、2030年可持续发展议程以及非洲各国发展战略相互对接,促进中非全面战略合作伙伴关系深入发展,为深化南南合作、落实2030年可持续发展议程作出积极贡献。
5. The international combat against terrorism has made progress, but terrorism remains a serious threat to global security governance. All parties need to unite and face it together. Combating terrorism requires a holistic strategy that addresses both the symptoms and root causes of terrorism. It is important to give full play to the leading role of the UN and its Security Council, and fully implement the relevant Security Council resolutions and the Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy. There should be no double standards, and terrorism should not be linked with any particular country, ethnicity or religion. Given the new developments and characteristics of terrorism, the international counter-terrorism cooperation should focus on aspects such as fighting cyber terrorism, the financing of terrorism, the spread of extremist ideologies and the cross-border movements of terrorists. (五)国际反恐斗争取得积极进展,但恐怖主义仍是全球安全治理的严重威胁,各方必须团结一致,合力应对。打击恐怖主义需要综合治理、标本兼治,充分发挥联合国及安理会的主导作用,全面落实安理会相关决议及联合国《全球反恐战略》。反恐不能搞双重标准,更不能把恐怖主义与特定国家、民族和宗教挂钩。针对恐怖主义新趋势和新特点,国际反恐合作的重点应包括打击网络恐怖主义、恐怖融资、极端思想传播、恐怖分子跨境流通等方面。
6. The prosperity and stability of cyberspace concerns global peace, security and development and is an important new frontier for current global governance. China supports the UN in further advancing cyber security and digital cooperation, establishing a more broadly participated mechanism of dialogue process on cyber issues and formulating a universally accepted code of conduct for cyberspace so as to lay the foundation for the establishment of a regular mechanism for cyber issues under the UN framework. (六)网络空间的繁荣稳定事关国际和平、安全与发展,是当前全球治理的重要新疆域。中方支持联合国发挥主导作用,继续推进网络安全和数字合作,建立更广泛成员参与的网络议题机制化对话进程,制定各方普遍接受的网络空间行为规范,为未来在联合国框架下建立网络问题常设机制奠定基础。
7. China has consistently advocated the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons. China is firmly committed to a nuclear strategy based on self-defense and adopts a highly stable nuclear policy. China has upheld its commitments that it would not be the first to use nuclear weapons and that it would refrain from using or threatening to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones. China has always maintained its nuclear capabilities at the minimum level required for national security. China supports the efforts of the international community to reduce the operational status of nuclear weapons, opposes any negative measure that may lower the threshold for the use of nuclear weapons and is willing to work with all parties to reduce the risk of a nuclear war and maintain global strategic balance and stability. (七)中国一贯主张最终全面禁止和彻底销毁核武器,始终坚持自卫防御的核战略,采取高度稳定的核政策,恪守不首先使用、不对无核武器国家和无核武器区使用或威胁使用核武器等承诺,始终将核力量维持在国家安全需要的最低水平。中方支持国际社会推动降低核武器戒备状态的努力,反对任何可能降低核武器使用门槛的消极举措,愿同各方一道努力,减少核战争风险,维护全球战略平衡与稳定。
8. China stands for maintaining the effectiveness, authority and universality of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), striking a balance between compliance and implementation of the Convention, and placing equal emphasis on the delayed destruction process of both the chemical weapons stockpile and abandoned chemical weapons. China supports the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in playing its due role in investigating and handling the alleged use of chemical weapons in strict accordance with the Convention. (八)中方主张维护《禁止化学武器公约》有效性、权威性和普遍性,平衡处理遵约与履约的关系,对库存和遗弃化武销毁逾期等问题予以同等重视;支持禁化武组织严格按照公约规定,在调查处理指称使用化武事件方面发挥应有作用。
Annex: Positions of the People's Republic of China on Major Issues on the Agenda of the 73rd Session of the United Nations General Assembly 中国在主要国际和地区问题上的立场附后。
Annex: Positions of the People's Republic of China on Major Issues on the Agenda of the 73rd Session of the United Nations General Assembly 中国在主要国际和地区问题上的立场
I. The Role of the UN   一、联合国作用
The international situation is undergoing profound and complex changes. There is strong support for a multi-polar world and greater democracy in international relations. Economic globalization and the IT revolution are changing the world profoundly, resulting in greater interdependence among countries. At the same time, the international community faces multiple challenges. Traditional and non-traditional security threats are intertwined, the development gap between North and South remains wide, and the global governance system needs to be improved. 当前,国际形势正在发生深刻复杂变化,世界多极化和国际关系民主化深入人心,经济全球化、社会信息化深刻改变着世界,国与国相互依存更加紧密。与此同时,国际社会仍面临诸多挑战。各种传统安全威胁和非传统安全威胁相互交织。南北发展差距依然突出,全球治理机制有待完善。
The UN is the most universal, representative and authoritative inter-governmental organization. The purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations constitute the cornerstone of the contemporary international relations. People around the world look to the UN to uphold world peace, promote common development and pursue win-win cooperation, thus establishing a new win-win type of international relations featuring wide consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, and beyond that, a community with a shared future for mankind. Addressing global problems and challenges requires the joint efforts of the UN member states. Under the current circumstances, it is important for the UN to continue to play its central role in international affairs, follow the trend of the times, heed the voice of all nations, and rally and steer the world in the pursuit of enduring peace, development and prosperity. 联合国是最具普遍性、代表性和权威性的政府间国际组织。《联合国宪章》的宗旨和原则构成当代国际关系的基石。作为各国维护世界和平、促进共同发展、共谋互利合作的重要平台,联合国承载了世界人民共商、共建、共享合作共赢新型国际关系,打造人类命运共同体的殷切期盼。解决全球性难题和挑战,需要联合国广大会员国携手努力。当前形势下,联合国应继续在国际事务中发挥核心作用,顺应时代潮流,倾听各国人民声音,团结并引领世界各国实现持久和平与发展繁荣。
II. UN Reform   二、联合国改革
China supports the UN in keeping abreast of the times through reform to further strengthen its capacity for coordinating international efforts to tackle global challenges, better respond to the expectations of the international community, and increase the voice of developing countries in international affairs. China supports the efforts of Secretary-General António Guterres to advance UN reform in the areas of peace and security, development and internal management and hopes that the reform will enable the UN to play a bigger role in the field of peace and security, enhance its capability to implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and improve its internal management and operation efficiency. The reform process should be open and transparent, taking into full consideration the views of member states, and in particular, placing high emphasis on and striving to address the appeals and concerns of developing countries. 中方支持联合国不断与时俱进,通过改革进一步增强协调各国应对全球性挑战的能力,更好地回应国际社会期待,并提升发展中国家在国际事务中的代表性和发言权。中方支持联合国秘书长古特雷斯推动联合国和平安全、发展、内部管理三大领域改革的努力,希望改革有助于联合国在和平安全领域发挥更大作用,加强落实2030年可持续发展议程的能力,并提高内部管理水平和运行效率。改革进程应公开、透明,充分听取会员国意见,特别是高度重视并解决发展中国家的诉求和关切。
China supports the relevant measures by the UN to reform the peace and security architecture, strengthen preventive diplomacy and the Secretary-General's role in mediation, continue to reform and improve the UN peacekeeping operations, and increase the coherence, synergy and coordination in the work of the UN peace and security departments. The sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of the countries concerned must be respected and their views heeded. It is important to fully leverage the role of regional countries and organizations, take holistic and targeted measures in light of the circumstances and causes of a conflict and address both its symptoms and root causes. There needs to be coherence and coordination in the work of the UN in fields such as conflict prevention, peacekeeping, peace building and development. 中方支持联合国落实和平安全架构改革有关措施,加强预防性外交和秘书长斡旋调解职能,不断改革和完善联合国维和行动,增强联合国和安部门工作的一致性、联动性与协调性。要尊重当事国主权、独立和领土完整,听取其意见,充分发挥地区国家和区域组织作用,根据冲突的不同情况和起因,采取有针对性的措施,综合施策,标本兼治。联合国在预防冲突、维和行动、建设和平、发展等领域工作应相互衔接,统筹把握。
All parties should, in strict accordance with the mandate of Resolution 72/279 concerning reform in the field of development, fully respect the positions and concerns of developing countries and ensure the implementation of the principles such as focusing on development, ownership and leadership by member states and common but differentiated responsibilities. China supports resident coordinators in following the mandates of member states, focusing on their development function and strengthening support to the local governments in their efforts to implement the 2030 Agenda in the areas of policy advice, financial and technical assistance, and practical cooperation. It is necessary to take into full consideration the realities of different countries and respect the views of local governments on matters such as the appointment of country coordinators, their functions and mandates, the composition of country teams and the formulation of country programs. Country coordinators need to report to the local governments regularly and are responsible to the local governments. 各方应严格按照联大关于发展领域改革的第72/279号决议授权,充分尊重广大发展中国家立场和关切,确保将发展为核心、会员国主导、共同但有区别的责任等原则落到实处。中方支持驻地协调员根据会员国授权,聚焦发展职能,在政策建议、资金技术、务实合作等方面加强对方案国落实2030年议程的支持。应充分考虑各国国情,尊重各国政府在驻地协调员任命、职能赋权、驻地团队组成和制定国别工作方案等方面的意见,驻地协调员应定期向方案国政府报告工作情况,并向方案国负责。
The management reform measures and their implementation should be assessed regularly and improved constantly, and pilot programs and provisional measures may be introduced when necessary. China supports the improvement of the logistics of the UN on the basis of cost control and economies of scale. On choosing the global service center, the UN needs to conduct a comprehensive assessment and sufficient discussion on factors such as the supporting service facility and cost of procurement and logistics to ensure that the choice is reasonable, fair and balanced. China supports the reform in procurement process to improve its efficiency and transparency, enhance accountability, sufficiently and reasonably control procurement costs and expand procurement channels, and in particular, increase procurement from developing countries. 联合国管理改革措施及落实情况应定期评估,不断改进,必要时可采取试点、试行方式。中方支持改进联合国后勤服务,同时要控制成本,确保产生规模效益。在选择全球服务中心问题上,应结合各地配套设施服务水平、采购和物流成本等因素进行综合评估和充分论证,确保合理性、公平性和平衡性。中方支持改革采购流程,提高采购时效性和透明度,加强问责,应充分合理控制采购成本,积极拓宽采购渠道,尤其是增加从发展中国家采购。
China supports reform of the Security Council to enable it to better fulfill its responsibilities prescribed in the Charter of the United Nations. The priority of the reform should be on increasing the representation and voice of developing countries in the Security Council so that small and medium-sized countries will have more opportunities to sit on the Security Council and participate in its decision-making process. Reform of the Security Council concerns the future of the UN and the vital interests of all member states. It is important to continue with thorough and democratic consultations, and seek a package solution that accommodates the concerns and interests of all parties. China is ready to work with all parties to ensure that the reform will help safeguard the long-term interests of the UN and the unity of its member states. 中方支持安理会改革,以更好地履行《联合国宪章》赋予的职责。改革应优先增加发展中国家的代表性和发言权,让中小国家有更多机会进入安理会并参与决策。安理会改革涉及联合国未来和全体会员国切身利益,应继续通过充分民主协商,寻求兼顾各方关切和利益的“一揽子”解决方案。中方愿同各方一道,推动改革朝有利于维护联合国长远利益和会员国团结的方向发展。
III. Fight Against Terrorism   三、打击恐怖主义
Progress has been made in the international fight against terrorism, but the frequent occurrence of terrorist activities across the world is yet to be reversed, and the global counter-terrorism dynamics remain complex and fragile. Addressing terrorist threats is still a big challenge to global security governance. 当前,国际反恐斗争取得积极进展,但全球恐怖活动多发频发态势并未根本扭转,国际反恐形势依然复杂脆弱。应对恐怖主义威胁仍是全球安全治理的突出难题。
China opposes terrorism in all its forms, and calls for a holistic counter-terrorism strategy that addresses both the symptoms and root causes of terrorism. The international community should strengthen counter-terrorism cooperation in accordance with the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, and fully implement the relevant Security Council resolutions and the Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy. China opposes double standards on the issue of counter-terrorism, and believes that terrorism should not be linked with any particular country, ethnicity or religion. The UN and its Security Council should play a central, coordinating role in international counter-terrorism cooperation, build consensus and enhance coordination, so as to forge greater synergy for international counter-terrorism efforts. Given the new developments and characteristics of terrorism, the international counter-terrorism cooperation should focus on aspects such as fighting cyber terrorism, the financing of terrorism, the spread of extremist ideologies and the cross-border movements of terrorists. 中方反对一切形式的恐怖主义。反恐应综合治理,标本兼治。国际社会应按照《联合国宪章》的宗旨和原则,继续加强反恐合作,全面落实安理会相关决议及联合国《全球反恐战略》。中方反对在反恐问题上采取双重标准,认为不应将恐怖主义与特定的国家、民族或宗教相联系。联合国及其安理会应在国际反恐合作中发挥中心协调作用,不断凝聚共识,加强统筹协调,推动国际反恐形成更大合力。针对恐怖主义新趋势和新特点,打击网络恐怖主义、恐怖融资、极端思想传播、恐怖分子跨境流通等方面应该成为国际反恐合作的重点。
IV. UN Peacekeeping Operations   四、联合国维和行动
UN peacekeeping operations are an effective instrument for easing regional conflicts and safeguarding collective security. UN peacekeeping operations should abide by the principles of “consent of the parties, impartiality and non-use of force except in self-defense and defense of the mandate”, and refrain from interfering in affairs within the scope of the host country's sovereignty. China supports UN peacekeeping operations in advancing with the times through reasonable and necessary reform based on the broad consensus of the UN member states to enable peacekeepers to more effectively maintain stability and advance the political process in the host country. The peacekeeping mandates should give priority to political settlement and feature practical feasibility, clear targets, sharp focus, and flexible adjustment as circumstances evolve. Sufficient resources should be allocated to peacekeeping operations, the cost-effectiveness of the resources should be enhanced and the safety of peacekeeping institutions and personnel ensured. 联合国维和行动是缓解地区冲突、维护集体安全的有效手段。维和行动应坚持维和三原则,尊重当事国主权和意愿,避免干预当事国主权范围内的事务。中方支持联合国维和行动与时俱进,在会员国广泛共识基础上进行合理必要改革,使维和行动更好地维护当事国稳定,协助当事国推进政治进程。维和授权应现实可行,坚持政治优先,目标明确,重点突出,并根据形势发展灵活调整。维和行动应获得充足资源,同时提高资源使用效率,维和行动机构和人员安全应得到保障。
V. Information and Cyber Security   五、信息和网络安全
Cyberspace is a common space for human activities. The future of cyberspace should be in the hands of all countries. Countries should step up communication, broaden consensus and deepen cooperation to build a community with a shared future in cyberspace. All parties should observe international law and the basic norms governing international relations based on the purposes and principles of the UN Charter. It is essential to respect the sovereignty of other countries, reject cyber war and arms race, oppose using the Internet to interfere in other countries' internal affairs, infringing on the privacy of other countries' citizens or undermining other countries' interests, and ensure that cyberspace is used to promote social and economic development, international peace and stability and the well-being of the people. The pressing task is to formulate an international code of conduct for cyberspace that is acceptable to all, and develop international legal instruments for countering cyber crimes and cyber terrorism under the UN framework and in keeping with the principles of peace, sovereignty, shared governance and shared benefits, so as to foster a peaceful, secure, open, cooperative and orderly cyberspace and establish a multilateral, democratic and transparent global governance system for cyberspace. Countries should have in-depth discussions on the application of international law in specific fields, taking into account the special characteristics of cyberspace and gradually reach consensus. 网络空间是人类共同的活动空间,网络空间前途命运应由各国共同掌握。各国应加强沟通、扩大共识、深化合作,共同构建网络空间命运共同体。各方应遵守以《联合国宪章》宗旨和原则为基础的国际法和国际关系基本准则,尊重他国主权,反对网络战和网络军备竞赛,反对利用网络干涉他国内政、侵犯公民隐私、损害他国利益,确保网络空间用于促进社会经济发展、国际和平稳定和人类福祉。当务之急是在联合国框架下,坚持和平、主权、共治、普惠原则,制定各方普遍接受的网络空间国际行为准则,以及打击网络犯罪和网络恐怖主义国际法律文书,共同构建和平、安全、开放、合作、有序的网络空间,建立多边、民主、透明的互联网国际治理体系。具体领域国际法在网络空间的适用,应结合网络空间特殊性、国家实践和实际能力由各国深入探讨,逐步形成共识。
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