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The Belt and Road Initiative : Progress, Contributions and Prospects [Effective]
共建“一带一路”倡议:进展、贡献与展望 [现行有效]
  • Area: Economic
  • Category of treaties: Others
  • Signing Date: 04-22-2019
  • Effective date: 04-22-2019

The Belt and Road Initiative : Progress, Contributions and Prospects



(Office of the Leading Group for Promoting the Belt and Road Initiative April 22, 2019) (推进“一带一路”建设工作领导小组办公室 2019年4月22日)

Contents 目录
Preface 1 前言
I. Progress 一、进展
1. Policy coordination (一)政策沟通
2. Infrastructure connectivity (二)设施联通
3. Unimpeded trade   (三)贸易畅通
4. Financial integration   (四)资金融通
5. Closer people-to-people ties   (五)民心相通
6. Industrial cooperation   (六)产业合作
II. Contributions 二、贡献
1. Extensive consultation: from a Chinese proposal to a global consensus   (一)共商:从中国倡议到全球共识
2. Joint contribution: joining forces to build a harmonious international community   (二)共建:共同打造和谐家园
3. Shared benefits: ensuring all parties gain real benefits   (三)共享:让所有参与方获得实实在在的好处
4. Vision: building a global community of shared future   (四)愿景:构建人类命运共同体
III. Prospects 三、展望
1. A road of peace   (一)和平之路
2. A road of prosperity   (二)繁荣之路
3. A road of opening up   (三)开放之路
4. A road of green development   (四)绿色之路
5. A road of innovation   (五)创新之路
6. A road of connected civilizations   (六)文明之路
7. A road of clean government   (七)廉洁之路
Preface 前言
When visiting Kazakhstan and Indonesia in September and October of 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping raised the initiative of jointly building the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road (hereinafter referred to as the Belt and Road, or B&R). The Chinese government then set up the Leading Group for Promoting the Belt and Road Initiative with an administrative office under the National Development and Reform Commission. In March 2015, the Chinese government published the “Vision and Actions on Jointly Building Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road”. In May 2017, the first Belt and Road Forum for International Co- operation was convened in Beijing. China also hosted the Boao Forum for Asia annual conferences, the Shanghai Co- operation Organization (SCO) Qingdao Summit, the 2018 Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC), and the China International Import Expo. Over the past five years, the Belt and Road Initiative has won positive responses from numerous countries and interna- tional organizations and has attracted worldwide attention. Its influence is growing. 2013年9月和10月,中国国家主席习近平在出访哈萨克斯坦和印度尼西亚时先后提出共建“丝绸之路经济带”和“21世纪海上丝绸之路”的重大倡议。中国政府成立了推进“一带一路”建设工作领导小组,并在中国国家发展改革委设立领导小组办公室。2015年3月,中国发布《推动共建丝绸之路经济带和21世纪海上丝绸之路的愿景与行动》;2017年5月,首届“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛在北京成功召开。中国还先后举办了博鳌亚洲论坛年会、上海合作组织青岛峰会、中非合作论坛北京峰会、中国国际进口博览会等。5年多来,共建“一带一路”倡议得到了越来越多国家和国际组织的积极响应,受到国际社会广泛关注,影响力日益扩大。
The Belt and Road Initiative originated in China, but it belongs to the world. It is rooted in history, but oriented toward the future. It focuses on Asia, Europe and Africa, but is open to all partners. It spans different countries and regions, different stages of development, different histori- cal traditions, different cultures and religions, and different customs and lifestyles. It is an initiative for peaceful devel- opment and economic cooperation, rather than a geopoliti- cal or military alliance. It is a process of open, inclusive and common development, not an exclusionary bloc or a “China club”. It neither differentiates between countries by ideology nor plays the zero-sum game. Countries are wel- come to join in the initiative if they so will. The Belt and Road Initiative upholds the principles of extensive consultation, joint contribution, and shared benefits. It follows a Silk Road spirit featuring peace and cooperation, openness and inclusiveness, mutual learning and mutual benefit. It focuses on policy coordination, con- nectivity of infrastructure, unimpeded trade, financial inte-gration, and closer people-to-people ties. It has turned ideas into actions and vision into reality, and the initiative itself into a public product widely welcomed by the international community. 共建“一带一路”倡议源自中国,更属于世界;根植于历史,更面向未来;重点面向亚欧非大陆,更向所有伙伴开放。共建“一带一路”跨越不同国家地域、不同发展阶段、不同历史传统、不同文化宗教、不同风俗习惯,是和平发展、经济合作倡议,不是搞地缘政治联盟或军事同盟;是开放包容、共同发展进程,不是要关起门来搞小圈子或者“中国俱乐部”;不以意识形态划界,不搞零和游戏,只要各国有意愿,都欢迎参与。共建“一带一路”倡议以共商共建共享为原则,以和平合作、开放包容、互学互鉴、互利共赢的丝绸之路精神为指引,以政策沟通、设施联通、贸易畅通、资金融通、民心相通为重点,已经从理念转化为行动,从愿景转化为现实,从倡议转化为全球广受欢迎的公共产品。
When presiding over a symposium in August 2018 that marked the fifth anniversary of the Belt and Road Initiative, President Xi said that in advancing the initiative, we should transition from making high-level plans to intensive and meticulous implementation, so as to realize high-quality development, bring benefits to local people, and build a global community of shared future. 2018年8月,习近平主席在北京主持召开推进“一带一路”建设工作5周年座谈会,提出“一带一路”建设要从谋篇布局的“大写意”转入精耕细作的“工笔画”,向高质量发展转变,造福沿线国家人民,推动构建人类命运共同体。
I. Progress 


Since 2013, the Belt and Road Initiative, with policy coordination, connectivity of infrastructure, unimpeded trade, financial integration and closer people-to-people ties as its main goals, has advanced in solid steps. Significant progress has been made, including a number of landmark early results. Participating countries have obtained tangible benefits, and their appreciation of and participation in the initiative is growing. 2013年以来,共建“一带一路”倡议以政策沟通、设施联通、贸易畅通、资金融通和民心相通为主要内容扎实推进,取得明显成效,一批具有标志性的早期成果开始显现,参与各国得到了实实在在的好处,对共建“一带一路”的认同感和参与度不断增强。
1. Policy coordination   (一)政策沟通
Policy coordination is an important guarantee for this initiative, and an essential precondition for joint actions. Over the past five years or so, China has engaged in thor- ough communication and coordination with participating countries and international organizations, and reached a broad consensus on international cooperation for building the Belt and Road. 政策沟通是共建“一带一路”的重要保障,是形成携手共建行动的重要先导。5年多来,中国与有关国家和国际组织充分沟通协调,形成了共建“一带一路”的广泛国际合作共识。
1) The Belt and Road Initiative has been incorpo- rated into important documents of international orga- nizations. The initiative and its core concepts have been written into documents from the United Nations, G20, APEC and other international and regional organizations. In July 2015, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization issued the “Ufa Declaration of the Heads of State of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization”, showing support for the Silk Road Economic Belt initiative. In September 2016, the “G20 Leaders' Communiqué” adopted at the G20 Hangzhou Summit endorsed an initiative to establish the Global In- frastructure Connectivity Alliance. In November 2016, the 193 UN member states adopted by consensus a resolution, welcoming the Belt and Road Initiative and other economic cooperation initiatives and urging the international commu- nity to ensure a secure environment for these initiatives. In March 2017, the UN Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 2344, calling on the international community to strengthen regional economic cooperation through the Belt and Road Initiative and other development initiatives, while for the first time enshrining the concept of “a com- munity of shared future for mankind”. In January 2018, the Second Ministerial Meeting of the Forum of China and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) was held in Santiago and adopted the “Special Declaration on the Belt and Road Initiative”. In July the same year, the Eighth Ministerial Meeting of the China- Arab States Cooperation Forum (CASCF) was convened in Beijing, which adopted the “Declaration of Action on China- Arab States Belt and Road Cooperation”. In September the FOCAC Beijing Summit adopted the “Beijing Declaration Toward an Even Stronger China-Africa Community with a Shared Future” and the “Forum on China-Africa Cooperation Beijing Action Plan (2019-2021)”. 1.共建“一带一路”倡议载入国际组织重要文件。共建“一带一路”倡议及其核心理念已写入联合国、二十国集团、亚太经合组织以及其他区域组织等有关文件中。2015年7月,上海合作组织发表了《上海合作组织成员国元首乌法宣言》,支持关于建设“丝绸之路经济带”的倡议。2016年9月,《二十国集团领导人杭州峰会公报》通过关于建立“全球基础设施互联互通联盟”倡议。2016年11月,联合国193个会员国协商一致通过决议,欢迎共建“一带一路”等经济合作倡议,呼吁国际社会为“一带一路”建设提供安全保障环境。2017年3月,联合国安理会一致通过了第2344号决议,呼吁国际社会通过“一带一路”建设加强区域经济合作,并首次载入“人类命运共同体”理念。2018年,中拉论坛第二届部长级会议、中国-阿拉伯国家合作论坛第八届部长级会议、中非合作论坛峰会先后召开,分别形成了中拉《关于“一带一路”倡议的特别声明》、《中国和阿拉伯国家合作共建“一带一路”行动宣言》和《关于构建更加紧密的中非命运共同体的北京宣言》等重要成果文件。
2) More and more countries and international or- ganizations have signed intergovernmental cooperation agreements on the Belt and Road Initiative. In the B&R framework, all participating countries and international organizations, based on the principle of seeking com- mon ground while reserving differences, have exchanged views on economic development plans and policies and discussed and agreed economic cooperation plans and measures. By the end of March 2019, the Chinese govern- ment had signed 173 cooperation agreements with 125 countries and 29 international organizations. The Belt and Road has expanded from Asia and Europe to include more new participants in Africa, Latin America and the South Pacific. 2.签署共建“一带一路”政府间合作文件的国家和国际组织数量逐年增加。在共建“一带一路”框架下,各参与国和国际组织本着求同存异原则,就经济发展规划和政策进行充分交流,协商制定经济合作规划和措施。截至2019年3月底,中国政府已与125个国家和29个国际组织签署173份合作文件。共建“一带一路”国家已由亚欧延伸至非洲、拉美、南太等区域。
3) Coordination and cooperation in specific fields of the Belt and Road Initiative have progressed steadily. The Digital Silk Road has become an important part of the Belt and Road Initiative. China has launched the “Belt and Road Digital Economy International Cooperation Initia- tive” with Egypt, Laos, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Thailand, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates. It has signed coop- eration agreements with 16 countries to strengthen the con- struction of the Digital Silk Road. China issued the “Action Plan on Belt and Road Standard Connectivity (2018-2020)”. It has signed 85 standardization cooperation agreements with 49 countries and regions. The long-term mechanism for tax cooperation between B&R countries is maturing. China co-organized the Belt and Road Initiative Tax Co- operation Conference (BRITCC) in May 2018, which published the “Astana Proposal by BRITCC Participating Jurisdictions for Enhancing Cooperation in Tax Matters”, signaling that the cooperation network has expanded to 111 countries and regions. China and 49 B&R countries pub- lished the “Joint Statement on Pragmatic Cooperation in the Field of Intellectual Property Among Countries Along the Belt and Road” in August 2018. In July 2018 China hosted the Forum on the Belt and Road Legal Cooperation, which published the “Statement of the Co-Chairs of the Fo- rum on the Belt and Road Legal Cooperation”. In October 2018 China hosted the Belt and Road Energy Ministerial Conference and 18 countries jointly announced building the B&R energy partnership. In addition, China published the “Vision and Action on Jointly Promoting Agricultural Cooperation on the Belt and Road” in May 2017 and the “Vision for Maritime Cooperation Under the Belt and Road Initiative” in June the same year. China has been a strong proponent of the establishment of international commercial courts and a “one-stop” diversified resolution mechanism for international commercial disputes. 3.共建“一带一路”专业领域对接合作有序推进。数字丝绸之路建设已成为共建“一带一路”的重要组成部分,中国与埃及、老挝、沙特阿拉伯、塞尔维亚、泰国、土耳其、阿联酋等国家共同发起《“一带一路”数字经济国际合作倡议》,与16个国家签署加强数字丝绸之路建设合作文件。中国发布《标准联通共建“一带一路”行动计划(2018-2020年)》,与49个国家和地区签署85份标准化合作协议。“一带一路”税收合作长效机制日趋成熟,中国组织召开“一带一路”税收合作会议,发布《阿斯塔纳“一带一路”税收合作倡议》,税收协定合作网络延伸至111个国家和地区。中国与49个沿线国家联合发布《关于进一步推进“一带一路”国家知识产权务实合作的联合声明》。中国组织召开“一带一路”法治合作国际论坛,发布《“一带一路”法治合作国际论坛共同主席声明》。中国组织召开“一带一路”能源部长会议,18个国家联合宣布建立“一带一路”能源合作伙伴关系。中国发布《共同推进“一带一路”建设农业合作的愿景与行动》、《“一带一路”建设海上合作设想》等。中国推动建立了国际商事法庭和“一站式”国际商事纠纷多元化解决机制。
2. Infrastructure connectivity   (二)设施联通
Infrastructure connectivity is high on the B&R agenda. While committed to respecting the sovereignty and secu- rity concerns of all relevant countries, B&R countries have made concerted efforts to build an all-round, multi-level, and composite infrastructure framework centered on rail- ways, roads, shipping, aviation, pipelines, and integrated space information networks. This framework is taking shape rapidly. It has greatly reduced the transaction costs of products, capital, information, and technologies flowing between regions, and effectively promoted the orderly flow and optimal allocation of resources among different regions. Thus it will help achieve mutually beneficial coop- eration and common development. 设施联通是共建“一带一路”的优先方向。在尊重相关国家主权和安全关切的基础上,由各国共同努力,以铁路、公路、航运、航空、管道、空间综合信息网络等为核心的全方位、多层次、复合型基础设施网络正在加快形成,区域间商品、资金、信息、技术等交易成本大大降低,有效促进了跨区域资源要素的有序流动和优化配置,实现了互利合作、共赢发展。
1) Significant progress has been made in the con- struction of international economic cooperation cor- ridors and passageways. The six major corridors for international economic cooperation – the New Eurasian Land Bridge, and the China-Mongolia-Russia, China-Central Asia-West Asia, China-Indochina Peninsula, China-Pakistan, and Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar economic corridors – connect the Asian economic circle with the European eco- nomic circle. They have played an important role in establishing and strengthening connectivity partnerships between participating countries and building an efficient and smooth Eurasian market. 1.国际经济合作走廊和通道建设取得明显进展。新亚欧大陆桥、中蒙俄、中国-中亚-西亚、中国-中南半岛、中巴和孟中印缅等六大国际经济合作走廊将亚洲经济圈与欧洲经济圈联系在一起,为建立和加强各国互联互通伙伴关系,构建高效畅通的亚欧大市场发挥了重要作用。
– New Eurasian Land Bridge. Over the past five years or so, regional cooperation through the New Eurasian Land Bridge has widened, enhancing partnerships featuring openness, inclusiveness, and mutual benefits to a higher level and driving forward economic and trade exchanges between Asia and Europe. The “Budapest Guidelines for Cooperation Between China and Central and Eastern European Countries” and the “Sofia Guidelines for Cooperation Between China and Central and Eastern European Coun- tries” have been published, showing that steady progress is being made in pragmatic cooperation in the frameworks of the China-EU Connectivity Platform and the Investment Plan for Europe. Construction has started on the Belgrade- Stara Pazova section of the Hungary-Serbia Railway in Serbia. The Western China-Western European International Expressway connecting western China, Kazakhstan, Russia and Western Europe is basically complete. --新亚欧大陆桥经济走廊。5年多来,新亚欧大陆桥经济走廊区域合作日益深入,将开放包容、互利共赢的伙伴关系提升到新的水平,有力推动了亚欧两大洲经济贸易交流。《中国-中东欧国家合作布达佩斯纲要》和《中国-中东欧国家合作索菲亚纲要》对外发布,中欧互联互通平台和欧洲投资计划框架下的务实合作有序推进。匈塞铁路塞尔维亚境内贝旧段开工。中国西部-西欧国际公路(中国西部-哈萨克斯坦-俄罗斯-西欧)基本建成。
– China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor. China, Mongolia, and Russia have made positive efforts to build a cross-border infrastructure connectivity network consist- ing mainly of railways, roads and border ports. In 2018, the three countries signed the “Memorandum of Under- standing on Establishing a Joint Mechanism for Advancing the China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor”, making further progress in improving the working mechanism of the tripartite cooperation. China's side of the Tongjiang- Nizhneleninskoye railway bridge was completed in Oc- tober 2018. Construction of the Heihe-Blagoveshchensk road bridge is progressing smoothly. A Sino-Russian enter- prise consortium has completed preliminary design of the Moscow-Kazan High-Speed Railway. The “Intergovern- mental Agreement on International Road Transport Along the Asian Highway Network” signed and approved by the three countries has entered into force. The China-Mongolia- Russia cross-border terrestrial cable system has been com- pleted. --中蒙俄经济走廊。中蒙俄三国积极推动形成以铁路、公路和边境口岸为主体的跨境基础设施联通网络。2018年,三国签署《关于建立中蒙俄经济走廊联合推进机制的谅解备忘录》,进一步完善了三方合作工作机制。中俄同江-下列宁斯阔耶界河铁路桥中方侧工程已于2018年10月完工。黑河-布拉戈维申斯克界河公路桥建设进展顺利。中俄企业联合体基本完成莫喀高铁项目初步设计。三国签署并核准的《关于沿亚洲公路网国际道路运输政府间协定》正式生效。中蒙俄(二连浩特)跨境陆缆系统已建成。
– China-Central Asia-West Asia Economic Corridor. Over the past five years or so, cooperation has advanced in energy, infrastructure connectivity, economy and trade, and industrial capacity in this corridor's framework. China has signed bilateral agreements on international road transport with Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkey, and other countries, as well as China-Pakistan-Kazakhstan-Kyrgyzstan, China- Kazakhstan-Russia, China-Kyrgyzstan-Uzbekistan, and some other multilateral agreements on international road transport, constantly improving infrastructure construction in Central Asia and West Asia. The China-Saudi Arabia Investment Cooperation Forum has promoted industrial complementarity between the Belt and Road Initiative and Saudi Vision 2030, and has concluded cooperation agree- ments worth more than US$28 billion. China and Iran have drawn on their strengths in various fields and are strength- ening their combined forces in the fields of roads, infra- structure and energy. --中国-中亚-西亚经济走廊。5年多来,该走廊在能源合作、设施互联互通、经贸与产能合作等领域合作不断加深。中国与哈萨克斯坦、乌兹别克斯坦、土耳其等国的双边国际道路运输协定,以及中巴哈吉、中哈俄、中吉乌等多边国际道路运输协议或协定相继签署,中亚、西亚地区基础设施建设不断完善。中国-沙特投资合作论坛围绕共建“一带一路”倡议与沙特“2030愿景”进行产业对接,签署合作协议总价值超过280亿美元。中国与伊朗发挥在各领域的独特优势,加强涵盖道路、基础设施、能源等领域的对接合作。
– China-Indochina Peninsula Economic Corridor. Over the past five years or so, progress has been made in infrastructure connectivity and construction of cross-border economic cooperation zones through this corridor. The Kunming-Bangkok Expressway has been completed, while the China-Laos and China-Thailand railways and some other projects are well underway. Cooperation has started in building the China-Laos Economic Corridor. More intensive efforts have been made to dovetail Thailand's Eastern Eco- nomic Corridor and the Belt and Road Initiative. Economic cooperation between China and Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Viet Nam and Thailand is advancing steadily. Positive roles for the China-ASEAN (10+1) cooperation mechanism, Lancang- Mekong cooperation mechanism, and Greater Mekong Subre- gion (GMS) Economic Cooperation are becoming clearer. --中国-中南半岛经济走廊。5年多来,该走廊在基础设施互联互通、跨境经济合作区建设等方面取得积极进展。昆(明)曼(谷)公路全线贯通,中老铁路、中泰铁路等项目稳步推进。中老经济走廊合作建设开始启动,泰国“东部经济走廊”与“一带一路”倡议加快对接,中国与柬老缅越泰(CLMVT)经济合作稳步推进。中国-东盟(10+1)合作机制、澜湄合作机制、大湄公河次区域经济合作(GMS)发挥的积极作用越来越明显。
– China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. A coopera- tion plan focusing on energy, transportation infrastructure, industrial park cooperation, and Gwadar Port has been implemented in the framework of this corridor. China and Pakistan have established the Joint Cooperation Commit-tee of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, which meets regularly. Smooth progress has been made in a number of projects. Key projects, such as the road to the Gwadar Port, Peshawar-Karachi Motorway (Sukkur-Multan section), Karakoram Highway Phase II (Havelian-Thakot section), Lahore Orange Line Metro, and 1,320MW Coal-Fired Power Plants at Port Qasim have been launched. Some projects have already brought benefits. The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor is open to third parties for cooperation, and more countries have joined or expressed a willingness to participate. --中巴经济走廊。以能源、交通基础设施、产业园区合作、瓜达尔港为重点的合作布局确定实施。中国与巴基斯坦组建了中巴经济走廊联合合作委员会,建立了定期会晤机制。一批项目顺利推进,瓜达尔港疏港公路、白沙瓦至卡拉奇高速公路(苏库尔至木尔坦段)、喀喇昆仑公路升级改造二期(哈维连-塔科特段)、拉合尔轨道交通橙线、卡西姆港1320兆瓦电站等重点项目开工建设,部分项目已发挥效益。中巴经济走廊正在开启第三方合作,更多国家已经或有意愿参与其中。
– Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Economic Cor- ridor. Over the past five years or so, the four countries have worked together to build this corridor in the framework of joint working groups, and have planned a number of major projects in institutional development, infrastructure connec- tivity, cooperation in trade and industrial parks, cooperation and opening up in the financial market, cultural exchange, and cooperation in enhancing people's wellbeing. A Joint Com- mittee of the China-Myanmar Economic Corridor has been established. The two countries have also signed an MoU on building the China-Myanmar Economic Corridor, as well as papers on a feasibility study for the Muse-Mandalay Railway, and the Framework Agreement on the Kyauk Phyu Special Economic Zone Deep-Sea Port Project. --孟中印缅经济走廊。5年多来,孟中印缅四方在联合工作组框架下共同推进走廊建设,在机制和制度建设、基础设施互联互通、贸易和产业园区合作、国际金融开放合作、人文交流与民生合作等方面研拟并规划了一批重点项目。中缅两国共同成立了中缅经济走廊联合委员会,签署了关于共建中缅经济走廊的谅解备忘录、木姐-曼德勒铁路项目可行性研究文件和皎漂经济特区深水港项目建设框架协议。
2) Infrastructure connectivity has been remarkably enhanced. “Access to roads will enable all sectors of the economy to prosper.” Insufficient infrastructure investment is a bottleneck for economic development in developing countries. Accelerating infrastructure connectivity is a key area and core goal of the Belt and Road Initiative. 2.基础设施互联互通水平大幅提升。“道路通,百业兴”。基础设施投入不足是发展中国家经济发展的瓶颈,加快设施联通建设是共建“一带一路”的关键领域和核心内容。
– Railways
Major progress has been made in building inter-regional and intercontinental railway networks focusing on such cooperation projects as the China-Laos Railway, China- Thailand Railway, Hungary-Serbia Railway, and Jakarta- Bandung High-Speed Railway. Preliminary research has advanced on the eastern route of the Pan-Asia Railway Network, the upgrade of Pakistan's Karachi-Peshawar Railway Line (also referred to as Main Line 1 or ML-1), and the China-Kyrgyzstan- Uzbekistan Railway. A pre-feasibility study on a China- Nepal cross-border railway has been completed. After preliminary work on China Railway Express cargo trains, an international railway operation mechanism with cooperation among multiple countries has been established. Railway companies of China, Belarus, Germany, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Poland, and Russia have signed an agreement on deeper cooperation in China-Europe rail service. By the end of 2018, China-Europe rail service had connected 108 cities in 16 countries in Asia and Europe. A total of 13,000 trains had carried more than 1.1 million TEUs. Among the trains starting from China, 94 percent were fully loaded; and among those arriving in China, 71 percent were fully loaded. China has cooperated with other B&R countries in cus- toms clearance to make it more convenient and efficient for the operation of the trains. The average inspection rate and customs clearance turnover time have both decreased by 50 percent.
– Roads
Trial operations have been carried out on nonstop trans- port on the China-Mongolia-Russia, China-Kyrgyzstan- Uzbekistan, China-Russia (Dalian-Novosibirsk) and China-Viet Nam roads. In February 2018, regular operation began on the China-Kyrgyzstan-Uzbekistan highway. China- Viet Nam Beilun River Bridge II has been completed and opened to traffic. China formally joined the Convention on International Transport of Goods Under Cover of TIR Carnets (TIR Convention). It has signed 18 bilateral and multilateral international transport facilitation agreements with 15 B&R countries, including the “Intergovernmental Agreement of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Member States on the Facilitation of International Road Transport”. Positive progress has been made in implementing the GMS “Agree- ment for the Facilitation of Cross-Border Transport of Goods and People”.
– Ports
In Pakistan's Gwadar Port, routes for regular container liners have been opened and supporting facilities in the starting area of the Gwadar Free Trade Zone completed, attracting more than 30 companies into the area. Prelimi- nary work has been completed for Sri Lanka's Hamban- tota Port Special Economic Zone, including defining the zone's industrial functions and making conceptual plans. An important transit hub has been completed at the Port of Piraeus in Greece, and Phase III construction is to be completed. Khalifa Port Container Terminal Phase II in the United Arab Emirates officially opened in December 2018. China has signed 38 bilateral and regional shipping agree- ments with 47 B&R countries. China's Ningbo Shipping Exchange has made constant efforts to improve the Mari- time Silk Road Freight Index and released the China-CEEC Trade Index (CCTI) and the Ningbo Port Index.
– Air transport
China has signed bilateral intergovernmental air trans- port agreements with 126 countries and regions. It has ex- panded arrangements for air traffic rights with Luxembourg, Russia, Armenia, Indonesia, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Israel, Mongolia, Malaysia, and Egypt. Over the past five years or so, 1,239 new international routes have opened between China and other B&R countries, accounting for 69.1 percent of the total of China's new international routes over that period.
– Energy facilities
China has signed a large number of cooperation frame- work agreements and MoUs with other B&R countries, and has carried out extensive cooperation in the fields of elec- tricity, oil and gas, nuclear power, new energy, and coal. It works with relevant countries to ensure the safe operation of oil and gas pipeline networks and optimize the configu- ration of energy resources between countries and regions. The China-Russia crude oil pipeline and the China- Central Asia natural gas pipeline have maintained stable operation. Certain sections of the eastern route of the China-Russia natural gas pipeline will enter service in December 2019 and the entire eastern route will be completed and enter service in 2024. China-Myanmar oil and gas pipelines have been completed.
– Communication facilities
Significant progress has been made in the construction of China-Myanmar, China-Pakistan, China-Kyrgyzstan, and China-Russia cross-border fiber optic cables for infor- mation transmission. China and the International Telecom- munication Union signed a “Letter of Intent to Strengthen Cooperation on Telecommunications and Information Net- works Within the Framework of the Belt and Road Initia- tive”. China has also signed cooperation agreements with Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Afghanistan on fiber optic ca- bles, which represent the practical launch of the Silk Road Fiber Optic Cable project.
3. Unimpeded trade   (三)果然是京城土著贸易畅通
Unimpeded trade is an important goal of the Belt and Road Initiative. The efforts invested in the initiative have liberalized and facilitated trade and investment in the par- ticipating countries and regions, lowered the costs of trade and business, and released growth potential, enabling the participants to engage in broader and deeper economic globalization. 贸易畅通是共建“一带一路”的重要内容。共建“一带一路”促进了沿线国家和地区贸易投资自由化便利化,降低了交易成本和营商成本,释放了发展潜力,进一步提升了各国参与经济全球化的广度和深度。
1) Greater liberalization and facilitation of trade and investment. China has issued the “Initiative on Promoting Unimpeded Trade Cooperation Along the Belt and Road”, to which 83 countries and international organizations have subscribed. Cooperation in border inspection and quarantine has deepened. Since the first Belt and Road Forum for Inter- national Cooperation in May 2017, China has signed more than 100 cooperation agreements with other B&R countries, granting access to some 50 types of agricultural products and food after inspection and quarantine. Express customs clear- ance services for agricultural products between China and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan have reduced the clearance time by 90 percent. China has further expanded sectors accepting foreign investment to create a business en- vironment of high international standards. It has opened 12 pilot free trade zones for global business and experimented with free trade ports to attract investment from participat- ing countries of the Belt and Road Initiative. China's aver- age tariffs have dropped from 15.3 percent when it joined the World Trade Organization to 7.5 percent today. China has signed or upgraded free trade agreements with ASEAN, Singapore, Pakistan, Georgia and other countries and regions, and signed an economic and trade cooperation agreement with the Eurasian Economic Union. A network of free trade areas involving China and other B&R countries has taken shape. 1.贸易与投资自由化便利化水平不断提升。中国发起《推进“一带一路”贸易畅通合作倡议》,83个国家和国际组织积极参与。海关检验检疫合作不断深化,2017年5月首届“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛以来,中国与沿线国家签署100多项合作文件,实现了50多种农产品食品检疫准入。中国和哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦、塔吉克斯坦农产品快速通关“绿色通道”建设积极推进,农产品通关时间缩短了90%。中国进一步放宽外资准入领域,营造高标准的国际营商环境,设立了面向全球开放的12个自由贸易试验区,并探索建设自由贸易港,吸引沿线国家来华投资。中国平均关税水平从加入世界贸易组织时的15.3%降至目前的7.5%。中国与东盟、新加坡、巴基斯坦、格鲁吉亚等多个国家和地区签署或升级了自由贸易协定,与欧亚经济联盟签署经贸合作协定,与沿线国家的自由贸易区网络体系逐步形成。
2) Expanding trade. From 2013 to 2018 the value of trade between China and other B&R countries surpassed US$6 trillion, accounting for 27.4 percent of China's total trade in goods and growing faster than the country's overall foreign trade. In 2018 the value of trade in goods between China and other B&R countries reached US$1.3 trillion, growing by 16.4 percent year on year. Trade in services be- tween China and other B&R countries has seen steady prog- ress, growing by 18.4 percent from 2016 to reach US$97.76 billion in 2017. The figure accounted for 14.1 percent of China's total trade in services, 1.6 percentage points higher than in 2016. According to a World Bank study that analyzes the impact of the Belt and Road Initiative on trade in 71 po- tentially participating countries, the initiative increases trade flows among participating countries by up to 4.1 percent.11 Suprabha Baniya, Nadia Rocha & Michele Ruta, “Trade Effects of the New Silk Road: A Gravity Analysis” – World Bank Policy Research Work- ing Paper 8694, January 2019. 2.贸易规模持续扩大。2013-2018年,中国与沿线国家货物贸易进出口总额超过6万亿美元,年均增长率高于同期中国对外贸易增速,占中国货物贸易总额的比重达到27.4%。其中,2018年,中国与沿线国家货物贸易进出口总额达到1.3万亿美元,同比增长16.4%。中国与沿线国家服务贸易由小到大、稳步发展。2017年,中国与沿线国家服务贸易进出口额达977.6亿美元,同比增长18.4%,占中国服务贸易总额的14.1%,比2016年提高1.6个百分点。世界银行研究组分析了共建“一带一路”倡议对71个潜在参与国的贸易影响,发现共建“一带一路”倡议将使参与国之间的贸易往来增加4.1%。(注1)
3) Faster pace of trade model innovation. New trade models such as cross-border e-commerce are becoming an important driver of trade. In 2018 the total value of retail goods imported and exported through the cross-border e-commerce platform of China Customs reached US$20.3 billion, growing by 50 percent year on year. Exports were US$8.48 billion, growing by 67 percent year on year, and imports were US$11.87 billion, growing by 39.8 percent year on year. As Silk Road e-commerce prospers, China has established cooperation mechanisms for bilateral e-commerce with 17 countries, created agreements on e-commerce cooperation under the BRICS and other mul- tilateral frameworks, and made solid progress in finding overseas partners for Chinese businesses and developing Chinese brands. 3.贸易方式创新进程加快。跨境电子商务等新业态、新模式正成为推动贸易畅通的重要新生力量。2018年,通过中国海关跨境电子商务管理平台零售进出口商品总额达203亿美元,同比增长50%,其中出口84.8亿美元,同比增长67.0%,进口118.7亿美元,同比增长39.8%。“丝路电商”合作蓬勃兴起,中国与17个国家建立双边电子商务合作机制,在金砖国家等多边机制下形成电子商务合作文件,加快了企业对接和品牌培育的实质性步伐。
4. Financial integration   (四)资金融通
Financial integration is an important pillar of the Belt and Road Initiative. Exploring investment and financing models, international multilateral financial institutions and commercial banks have played an innovative role in ex- panding the channels of diversified financing, providing stable, transparent and quality financial support for the Belt and Road Initiative. 资金融通是共建“一带一路”的重要支撑。国际多边金融机构以及各类商业银行不断探索创新投融资模式,积极拓宽多样化融资渠道,为共建“一带一路”提供稳定、透明、高质量的资金支持。
1) Exploring new models of international invest- ment and financing. Boasting huge cooperation potential in infrastructure construction and industrial capacity, the Belt and Road Initiative is in urgent need of finance. The sovereign wealth funds and investment funds of the partici- pating countries are playing a bigger part. In recent years the Abu Dhabi Investment Authority of the UAE, China Investment Corporation and other sovereign wealth funds have markedly increased investment in major emerging economies participating in the initiative. The China-EU Joint Investment Fund, which began operation in July 2018 with an injected capital of EUR500 million from the Silk Road Fund and the European Investment Fund, has helped the Belt and Road Initiative to dovetail with the Investment Plan for Europe.

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