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China and the World Trade Organization

China and the World Trade Organization



(June 2018) (2018年6月)

The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室
Contents 目录
Foreword 前言
I. China Has Faithfully Fulfilled Its WTO Accession Commitments 一、中国切实履行加入世贸组织承诺
II. China Firmly Supports the Multilateral Trading System 二、中国坚定支持多边贸易体制
III. China's Significant Contribution to the World After Accession to the WTO 三、中国加入世贸组织后对世界作出重要贡献
IV. China Is Actively Advancing Opening-Up to a Higher Level 四、中国积极推动更高水平对外开放
Conclusion 结束语
Foreword 前言
In 1978, China started the historic process of reform and opening-up. This is a glorious chapter in the development epic of the country and the nation composed by the Chinese people, recording the great journey of common progress of China and the rest of the world. It has not only profoundly changed the country, but also greatly influenced the whole world. Over the past 40 years, China has been adhering to the fundamental national policy of reform and opening-up and pursuing development with its door wide open. A model of all-round, multi-level, and wide-ranging opening-up has gradually taken shape. China is closely connected with the outside world and has made a significant contribution to the noble cause of global peace and development. 1978年,中国开启了改革开放的历史进程。改革开放是中国人民用双手书写的国家和民族发展的壮丽史诗,是中国和世界共同发展进步的伟大历程,不仅深刻改变了中国,也深刻影响了世界。40年来,中国坚持对外开放基本国策,打开国门搞建设,逐步形成了全方位多层次宽领域的对外开放格局,极大促进了中国与外部世界的交流交融,为人类和平与发展的崇高事业作出了重要贡献。
In 2001, China acceded to the World Trade Organization (WTO). This was a milestone in China's integration into economic globalization, marking a new historic stage of reform and opening-up. Since its accession to the WTO, China has been a strong advocate for free trade. China has comprehensively fulfilled its commitments to the WTO, substantially opened its market to the world, and delivered mutually beneficial and win-win outcomes on a wider scale. Through these efforts, China has lived up to its responsibility as a major country. 2001年中国加入世界贸易组织,是中国深度参与经济全球化的里程碑,标志着中国改革开放进入历史新阶段。加入世贸组织以来,中国积极践行自由贸易理念,全面履行加入承诺,大幅开放市场,实现更广互利共赢,在对外开放中展现了大国担当。
The multilateral trading system, with the WTO at its core, is the cornerstone of international trade and underpins the sound and orderly development of global trade. China firmly observes and upholds the WTO rules, and supports the multilateral trading system that is open, transparent, inclusive and non-discriminatory. China has participated in all aspects of WTO work, made its voice heard and contributed its own proposals on improving global economic governance. China is an active participant, strong supporter and major contributor in the multilateral trading system. 以世贸组织为核心的多边贸易体制是国际贸易的基石,是全球贸易健康有序发展的支柱。中国坚定遵守和维护世贸组织规则,支持开放、透明、包容、非歧视的多边贸易体制,全面参与世贸组织工作,为共同完善全球经济治理发出中国声音、提出中国方案,是多边贸易体制的积极参与者、坚定维护者和重要贡献者。
Accession to the WTO has boosted China's development and benefited the rest of the world. Propelled by a new vision of development, the Chinese economy is transitioning from rapid growth to high-quality development. China has become a major stabilizer and driving force for the world economy. China stays committed to the strategy of opening-up for win-win results, vigorously promotes the Belt and Road Initiative, and shares opportunities and benefits with other countries and their people while developing China itself, enhancing global wellbeing and common prosperity. 中国加入世贸组织既发展了自己,也造福了世界。中国积极践行新发展理念,经济发展由高速度向高质量迈进,成为世界经济增长的主要稳定器和动力源。中国奉行互利共赢的开放战略,积极推动共建“一带一路”,在开放中分享机会和利益,在实现自身发展的同时惠及其他国家和人民,增进了全球福祉,促进了共同繁荣。
At the historic starting point of a new era, China's door of opening-up will not be closed and will only open even wider. Opening-up was key to China's economic growth over the past 40 years. In the same vein, high-quality development of China's economy in the future can only be achieved with greater openness. China will continue adhering to the fundamental national policy of reform and opening-up. China will more proactively embrace economic globalization, adopt policies to promote high-standard liberalization and facilitation of trade and investment, and work together with other countries to build a community of shared future with extensive converging interests and a high degree of interdependence. 站在新时代的历史起点上,中国开放的大门不会关闭,只会越开越大。中国过去40年的经济发展是在开放条件下取得的,未来中国经济实现高质量发展也将在更加开放条件下进行。中国将继续坚持对外开放基本国策,以更加积极的姿态融入经济全球化进程,实行高水平的贸易和投资自由化便利化政策,与各国构建利益高度融合、彼此相互依存的命运共同体。
The Chinese government is publishing this white paper to give a full account of China's fulfillment of its WTO commitments, to explain China's principles, stances, policies, and propositions regarding the multilateral trading system, and to describe China's vision and actions in advancing higher-level reform and opening-up. 为全面介绍中国履行加入世贸组织承诺的实践,阐释中国参与多边贸易体制建设的原则立场和政策主张,阐明中国推进更高水平对外开放的愿景与行动,中国政府特发表本白皮书。
I. China Has Faithfully Fulfilled Its WTO Accession Commitments   一、中国切实履行加入世贸组织承诺
Since China acceded to the World Trade Organization in 2001, it has made continued efforts to improve its socialist market economy system, further align its policies with multilateral trade rules in all areas, honor its commitments on opening trade in goods and services, and strengthen intellectual property rights (IPR) protection. Remarkable improvements have been made in enhancing the stability, transparency, and predictability of its opening-up policies. China has contributed significantly to the effective operation of the multilateral trading system. 2001年中国加入世贸组织①以来,不断完善社会主义市场经济体制,全面加强同多边贸易规则的对接,切实履行货物和服务开放承诺,强化知识产权保护,对外开放政策的稳定性、透明度、可预见性显著提高,为多边贸易体制有效运转作出了积极贡献。
1. Improving the socialist market economy and relevant legal system (一)完善社会主义市场经济体制和法律体系
Consistently reforming to develop the socialist market economy. China has accelerated efforts to improve the socialist market economy system and strengthen the market system. This has involved reorganizing the relationship between the government and the market, letting the market play the decisive role in resource allocation and the government play its role better. Education campaigns on WTO rules have been extensively rolled out, raising public awareness of the market, competition, rules and the concept of rule of law. 始终坚持社会主义市场经济改革方向。加快完善社会主义市场经济体制,健全市场体系,理顺政府和市场关系,使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用,更好发挥政府作用。广泛开展世贸组织规则宣传教育,市场意识、竞争意识、规则意识、法治观念深入人心。
Continuously improving the legal system of socialist market economy. Upholding the rule of law, China has faithfully observed and implemented WTO rules, improved its laws and regulations on market economy, and built up a legal system in line with multilateral trade rules. After its accession, China launched major efforts to review and revise relevant laws and regulations, involving 2,300 laws, regulations and departmental rules at central government level, and 190,000 policies and regulations at sub-central government levels, covering trade, investment, IPR protection, etc. In 2014, China issued an official document on furthering trade policy compliance with WTO rules, requiring government at all levels to assess proposed trade policies in accordance with WTO agreements and China's commitments. In 2016, China set up a legality review mechanism to examine normative documents, enhancing the transparency of and public participation in policy development. 不断健全社会主义市场经济法律体系。坚持依法治国,全面遵守和执行世贸组织规则,完善基于规则的市场经济法律法规,构建符合多边贸易规则的法律体系。加入世贸组织后,大规模开展法律法规清理修订工作,中央政府清理法律法规和部门规章2300多件,地方政府清理地方性政策法规19万多件,覆盖贸易、投资和知识产权保护等各个方面。2014年,制订进一步加强贸易政策合规工作的政策文件,要求各级政府在拟定贸易政策的过程中,对照世贸组织协定及中国加入承诺进行合规性评估。2016年,建立规范性文件合法性审查机制,进一步清理规范性文件,增强公共政策制定透明度和公众参与度。
2. Fulfilling commitments on trade in goods (二)履行货物贸易领域开放承诺
Substantively reducing import tariffs. By reducing import costs to boost trade, China has shared its development dividend and growing markets with the rest of the world. By 2010, China had fulfilled all of its tariff reduction commitments, reducing the average tariff level from 15.3 percent in 2001 to 9.8 percent. It lowered the average tariff rate of manufactured goods from 14.8 to 8.9 percent. It cut the average tariff rate of agricultural products from 23.2 to 15.2 percent, about one fourth of the global average and far lower than those imposed by the WTO's developing members (56 percent) and developed members (39 percent). China's maximum bound tariff rate of agricultural products is 65 percent, while the corresponding rates of the United States, the European Union and Japan are 440, 408 and 1,706 percent respectively. 大幅降低进口关税。减少进口成本,促进贸易发展,让世界各国更多分享中国经济增长、消费繁荣带来的红利。截至2010年,中国货物降税承诺全部履行完毕,关税总水平由2001年的15.3%降至9.8%。其中,工业品平均税率由14.8%降至8.9%;农产品平均税率由23.2%降至15.2%,约为世界农产品平均关税水平的四分之一,远低于发展中成员56%和发达成员39%的平均关税水平。农产品的最高约束关税为65%,而美国、欧盟、日本分别为440%、408%、1706%。
Significantly lowering non-tariff barriers. To increase transparency and facilitate trade, China has reduced unnecessary trade restrictions. By January 2005, in accordance with its commitments, China had eliminated import quotas, import licenses, specific import tendering requirements and other non-tariff measures with regard to 424 items such as automobiles, machinery and electronics products, and natural rubber. It introduced tariff rate quota administration for important bulk commodities, i.e. wheat, corn, rice, sugar, cotton, wool, wool top, and chemical fertilizers. 显著削减非关税壁垒。减少不必要的贸易限制,促进贸易透明畅通。截至2005年1月,中国已按加入承诺全部取消了进口配额、进口许可证和特定招标等非关税措施,涉及汽车、机电产品、天然橡胶等424个税号产品;对小麦、玉米、大米、食糖、棉花、羊毛、毛条和化肥等关系国计民生的大宗商品实行关税配额管理。
Liberalizing the right to trade. To diversify entities and stimulate their enthusiasm to engage in foreign trade, in July 2004 China replaced approval system with registration system for foreign trade authorization, releasing immense vigor of private businesses which has led to a surge of foreign trade in the private sector. With rapid growth and an increasing share of the market, private companies have become important actors in China's foreign trade. In 2017, foreign trade by private companies and foreign-invested enterprises (FIEs) accounted for 83.7 percent of the country's total trade volume, up from 57.5 percent in 2001. In 2017, Chinese private companies, which take the largest share of China's exports, contributed 46.6 percent of all goods and services exported. 全面放开外贸经营权。促进经营主体多元化,激发各类企业开展贸易的积极性。自2004年7月起,中国对企业的外贸经营权由审批制改为备案登记制,极大地释放了民营企业的外贸活力,民营企业进出口发展迅速,份额持续扩大,成为对外贸易的重要经营主体。民营企业和外商投资企业进出口占全国进出口总额的比重由2001年的57.5%上升到2017年的83.7%。2017年,作为第一大出口经营主体的民营企业出口占比达46.6%。
3. Fulfilling commitments on trade in services (三)履行服务贸易领域开放承诺
Extensively opening up the services market. China has striven to boost the services industry and increase its share of contribution to the economy. Of the 160 services sub-sectors under the 12-sector WTO classification, China committed to opening up 100 sub-sectors under 9 sectors, a level approximate to the average 108 sub-sectors committed by the developed members of the WTO. By 2007, China had honored all of its commitments on trade in services. 广泛开放服务市场。大力推动服务业各领域快速发展,提高服务业对国民经济的贡献。在世贸组织分类的12大类服务部门的160个分部门中,中国承诺开放9大类的100个分部门,接近发达成员平均承诺开放108个分部门的水平。截至2007年,中国服务贸易领域开放承诺已全部履行完毕。
Continuously reducing restrictions. China has step by step lowered the threshold for foreign investment to enter the services sectors in China, lifted geographical and quantitative restrictions on services according to schedule, and constantly broadened the business scope for foreign investment in the services sectors. China has permitted wholly foreign-owned enterprises in 54 sub-sectors such as courier, banking and property insurance services, allowed foreign majority ownership in 23 sub-sectors such as computer and environment services, and accorded national treatment to foreign capital in 80 sub-sectors such as telecommunication, rail transport, and tourism services. In 2010, foreign direct investment (FDI) flowing into China's services industry surpassed that into manufacturing industry for the first time. In 2017, FDI in the services industry made up 73 percent of all FDI in China. 持续减少限制措施。逐步降低服务领域外资准入门槛,按期取消服务领域的地域和数量限制,不断扩大允许外资从事服务领域的业务范围。其中,在快递、银行、财产保险等54个服务分部门允许设立外商独资企业,在计算机、环境等23个分部门允许外资控股,在电信、铁路运输、旅游等80个分部门给予外资国民待遇。2010年,中国服务业吸引外商直接投资额首次超过制造业,2017年吸引外商直接投资额占比达到73%。
4. Fulfilling commitments on IPR protection (四)履行知识产权保护承诺
Strengthening IPR protection on China's own initiative. Strengthening IPR protection is the centerpiece for improving the property rights protection system, and it would provide the biggest boost to the competitiveness of the Chinese economy. It not only serves China's own development needs, but also helps cultivate a business environment that is law-based, internationalized and business-friendly. China encourages technological exchanges and cooperation between Chinese and foreign enterprises, and protects the lawful IPR owned by foreign enterprises in China. At the same time, we hope foreign governments will also improve protection of Chinese IPR. 加强知识产权保护是中国的主动作为。加强知识产权保护是完善产权保护制度最重要的内容,也是提高中国经济竞争力最大的激励。中国推进知识产权保护,不仅符合自身发展需要,也有助于进一步完善法治化、国际化、便利化的营商环境。中国鼓励中外企业开展正常技术交流合作,依法保护在华外资企业合法知识产权,同时,希望外国政府加强对中国知识产权的保护。
Building a full-fledged legal system on IPR protection. Since acceding to the WTO, China has formulated and improved its laws and regulations on IPR protection, set up IPR working mechanisms with many countries, drawn upon advanced international legislative practices, and built an IPR legal system that conforms to WTO rules and suits national conditions of China. The amended Trademark Law sets up a system of punitive damages. The amended Anti-Unfair Competition Law improves the protection of trade secrets, identifies act of confusion, introduces the concept of sign and expands the scope of protection for sign. Currently China is working on amending the Patent Law and the Copyright Law. 构建完备的知识产权保护法律体系。加入世贸组织后,中国建立健全知识产权法律法规,与多个国家建立知识产权工作机制,积极吸收借鉴国际先进立法经验,构建起符合世贸组织规则和中国国情的知识产权法律体系。近年来,修订《商标法》,增加了惩罚性赔偿制度;修订《反不正当竞争法》,进一步完善了商业秘密的保护,同时明确市场混淆行为,引入标识的概念,拓宽对标识的保护范围。目前,正在加快推进《专利法》《著作权法》等法律修订。
Continuously strengthening law enforcement on IPR protection. China has enhanced the dominant role of the judiciary in IPR protection to significantly raise the cost for offenders and fully unlock the deterrent effect of relevant laws. The State Intellectual Property Office has been restructured to strengthen law enforcement. China has set up three IPR courts in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, and special judicial organs at 15 intermediate courts in Nanjing, Suzhou, Wuhan, Xi'an and other cities to handle cross-regional IPR cases, including those related to patents. China strengthened administrative law enforcement on intellectual property protection and launched special campaigns targeting outstanding problems, which effectively protected intellectual property rights. Such campaigns include “Convoy Campaign” for protecting patent rights, the “Sword-net Campaign” for combating online infringement and piracy, the “Sweeping Campaign” for cracking down pornography and illegal publication in the copyright field, the “Network Sword Campaign” for combating IPR infringements and counterfeits and the “Sword Actions on Quality Control” for cracking down counterfeits. 持续加强知识产权保护执法力度。强化知识产权保护司法主导作用,把违法成本显著提上去,把法律威慑作用充分发挥出来。重新组建国家知识产权局,完善执法力量,加大执法力度。在北京、上海、广州设立三家知识产权法院,在南京、苏州、武汉、西安等15个中级法院内设立专门审判机构,跨区域管辖专利等知识产权案件。加大行政执法力度,针对重点违法领域,开展专利“护航”行动、打击网络侵权盗版“剑网”行动、出版物版权“扫黄打非”和“秋风”行动、打击侵权假冒的“网剑行动”“质检利剑”打假行动等专项行动,有效保护了知识产权。
Attaining notable results in IPR protection. Since 2001, intellectual property royalties paid by China to foreign right holders has registered an annual growth of 17 percent, reaching USD28.6 billion in 2017. In 2017, China received 1.382 million invention patent applications, ranking the first in the world for the seventh consecutive year. Nearly 10 percent of the applicants were foreign entities and individuals. Invention patent applications filed by foreign entities and individuals in China reached 136,000, growing by threefold compared with 33,000 in 2001. According to the World Intellectual Property Organization, 51,000 patent applications filed from China through the Patent Cooperation Treaty were accepted in 2017, second only to the US. 知识产权保护效果明显。从2001年起,中国对外支付知识产权费年均增长17%,2017年达到286亿美元。2017年,中国发明专利申请量达到138.2万件,连续7年居世界首位,申请者中近10%为外国单位和个人;国外来华发明专利申请量达到13.6万件,较2001年3.3万件的申请量增长了3倍。世界知识产权组织日前公布,2017年,中国通过《专利合作条约》途径提交的专利申请受理量达5.1万件,仅次于美国,居全球第二位。
5. Fulfilling commitments on transparency (五)履行透明度义务
Providing a solid legal basis. The Legislation Law, the Regulations on Procedures for Formulation of Administrative Regulations, and the Regulations on Procedures for Formulation of Rules explicitly provide for the solicitation of public comments on draft laws, administrative regulations and rules. The legislative affairs commission of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress regularly publishes the Laws of the People's Republic of China (English edition); the State Council's legislative affairs organ regularly publishes the Laws and Regulations of the People's Republic of China Governing Foreign-Related Matters (Chinese and English bilingual edition); and the Ministry of Commerce regularly publishes trade policies in China Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation Gazette. 明确提供法律制度保障。《立法法》《行政法规制定程序条例》《规章制定程序条例》明确要求法律、行政法规和规章草案须按有关规定公开征求公众意见。全国人大常委会法工委定期出版《中华人民共和国法律》(英文版)。国务院法制机构定期出版《中华人民共和国涉外法规汇编》(中英文对照),商务部在《中国对外经济贸易文告》中定期发布贸易政策。
Comprehensively implementing the WTO notification obligations. China has submitted notifications to the WTO on a regular basis concerning the amendment, revision and implementation of relevant laws, regulations and measures as required by the WTO. By January 2018, China had submitted over one thousand notifications covering areas such as central and sub-central subsidy policies, agriculture, technical regulations, standards, conformity assessment procedures, state trading, trade in services, and IPR laws and regulations. 全面履行世贸组织通报义务。中国按照要求定期向世贸组织通报国内相关法律、法规和具体措施的修订调整和实施情况。截至2018年1月,中国提交的通报已达上千份,涉及中央和地方补贴政策、农业、技术法规、标准、合格评定程序、国营贸易、服务贸易、知识产权法律法规等诸多领域。
6. Making tremendous efforts to honor its commitments (六)为履行承诺付出巨大努力
China made extensive and profound commitments on opening up when entering the WTO. Domestic companies were confronted with international competition, and most industries faced great difficulties. Rising up to these challenges, Chinese companies took the initiative to promote structural readjustment, participated in the global value chains and significantly increased their international competitiveness. 中国在加入世贸组织时作出广泛而深入的开放承诺,国内企业直接面对国际竞争,多数产业面临较大困难。中国企业主动应对挑战,大力推进产业结构调整,积极参与全球价值链,国际竞争力明显提升。

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