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China and the World Trade Organization

China and the World Trade Organization



(June 2018) (2018年6月)

The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室
Contents 目录
Foreword 前言
I. China Has Faithfully Fulfilled Its WTO Accession Commitments 一、中国切实履行加入世贸组织承诺
II. China Firmly Supports the Multilateral Trading System 二、中国坚定支持多边贸易体制
III. China's Significant Contribution to the World After Accession to the WTO 三、中国加入世贸组织后对世界作出重要贡献
IV. China Is Actively Advancing Opening-Up to a Higher Level 四、中国积极推动更高水平对外开放
Conclusion 结束语
Foreword 前言
In 1978, China started the historic process of reform and opening-up. This is a glorious chapter in the development epic of the country and the nation composed by the Chinese people, recording the great journey of common progress of China and the rest of the world. It has not only profoundly changed the country, but also greatly influenced the whole world. Over the past 40 years, China has been adhering to the fundamental national policy of reform and opening-up and pursuing development with its door wide open. A model of all-round, multi-level, and wide-ranging opening-up has gradually taken shape. China is closely connected with the outside world and has made a significant contribution to the noble cause of global peace and development. 1978年,中国开启了改革开放的历史进程。改革开放是中国人民用双手书写的国家和民族发展的壮丽史诗,是中国和世界共同发展进步的伟大历程,不仅深刻改变了中国,也深刻影响了世界。40年来,中国坚持对外开放基本国策,打开国门搞建设,逐步形成了全方位多层次宽领域的对外开放格局,极大促进了中国与外部世界的交流交融,为人类和平与发展的崇高事业作出了重要贡献。
In 2001, China acceded to the World Trade Organization (WTO). This was a milestone in China's integration into economic globalization, marking a new historic stage of reform and opening-up. Since its accession to the WTO, China has been a strong advocate for free trade. China has comprehensively fulfilled its commitments to the WTO, substantially opened its market to the world, and delivered mutually beneficial and win-win outcomes on a wider scale. Through these efforts, China has lived up to its responsibility as a major country. 2001年中国加入世界贸易组织,是中国深度参与经济全球化的里程碑,标志着中国改革开放进入历史新阶段。加入世贸组织以来,中国积极践行自由贸易理念,全面履行加入承诺,大幅开放市场,实现更广互利共赢,在对外开放中展现了大国担当。
The multilateral trading system, with the WTO at its core, is the cornerstone of international trade and underpins the sound and orderly development of global trade. China firmly observes and upholds the WTO rules, and supports the multilateral trading system that is open, transparent, inclusive and non-discriminatory. China has participated in all aspects of WTO work, made its voice heard and contributed its own proposals on improving global economic governance. China is an active participant, strong supporter and major contributor in the multilateral trading system. 以世贸组织为核心的多边贸易体制是国际贸易的基石,是全球贸易健康有序发展的支柱。中国坚定遵守和维护世贸组织规则,支持开放、透明、包容、非歧视的多边贸易体制,全面参与世贸组织工作,为共同完善全球经济治理发出中国声音、提出中国方案,是多边贸易体制的积极参与者、坚定维护者和重要贡献者。
Accession to the WTO has boosted China's development and benefited the rest of the world. Propelled by a new vision of development, the Chinese economy is transitioning from rapid growth to high-quality development. China has become a major stabilizer and driving force for the world economy. China stays committed to the strategy of opening-up for win-win results, vigorously promotes the Belt and Road Initiative, and shares opportunities and benefits with other countries and their people while developing China itself, enhancing global wellbeing and common prosperity. 中国加入世贸组织既发展了自己,也造福了世界。中国积极践行新发展理念,经济发展由高速度向高质量迈进,成为世界经济增长的主要稳定器和动力源。中国奉行互利共赢的开放战略,积极推动共建“一带一路”,在开放中分享机会和利益,在实现自身发展的同时惠及其他国家和人民,增进了全球福祉,促进了共同繁荣。
At the historic starting point of a new era, China's door of opening-up will not be closed and will only open even wider. Opening-up was key to China's economic growth over the past 40 years. In the same vein, high-quality development of China's economy in the future can only be achieved with greater openness. China will continue adhering to the fundamental national policy of reform and opening-up. China will more proactively embrace economic globalization, adopt policies to promote high-standard liberalization and facilitation of trade and investment, and work together with other countries to build a community of shared future with extensive converging interests and a high degree of interdependence. 站在新时代的历史起点上,中国开放的大门不会关闭,只会越开越大。中国过去40年的经济发展是在开放条件下取得的,未来中国经济实现高质量发展也将在更加开放条件下进行。中国将继续坚持对外开放基本国策,以更加积极的姿态融入经济全球化进程,实行高水平的贸易和投资自由化便利化政策,与各国构建利益高度融合、彼此相互依存的命运共同体。
The Chinese government is publishing this white paper to give a full account of China's fulfillment of its WTO commitments, to explain China's principles, stances, policies, and propositions regarding the multilateral trading system, and to describe China's vision and actions in advancing higher-level reform and opening-up. 为全面介绍中国履行加入世贸组织承诺的实践,阐释中国参与多边贸易体制建设的原则立场和政策主张,阐明中国推进更高水平对外开放的愿景与行动,中国政府特发表本白皮书。
I. China Has Faithfully Fulfilled Its WTO Accession Commitments   一、中国切实履行加入世贸组织承诺
Since China acceded to the World Trade Organization in 2001, it has made continued efforts to improve its socialist market economy system, further align its policies with multilateral trade rules in all areas, honor its commitments on opening trade in goods and services, and strengthen intellectual property rights (IPR) protection. Remarkable improvements have been made in enhancing the stability, transparency, and predictability of its opening-up policies. China has contributed significantly to the effective operation of the multilateral trading system. 2001年中国加入世贸组织①以来,不断完善社会主义市场经济体制,全面加强同多边贸易规则的对接,切实履行货物和服务开放承诺,强化知识产权保护,对外开放政策的稳定性、透明度、可预见性显著提高,为多边贸易体制有效运转作出了积极贡献。
1. Improving the socialist market economy and relevant legal system (一)完善社会主义市场经济体制和法律体系
Consistently reforming to develop the socialist market economy. China has accelerated efforts to improve the socialist market economy system and strengthen the market system. This has involved reorganizing the relationship between the government and the market, letting the market play the decisive role in resource allocation and the government play its role better. Education campaigns on WTO rules have been extensively rolled out, raising public awareness of the market, competition, rules and the concept of rule of law. 始终坚持社会主义市场经济改革方向。加快完善社会主义市场经济体制,健全市场体系,理顺政府和市场关系,使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用,更好发挥政府作用。广泛开展世贸组织规则宣传教育,市场意识、竞争意识、规则意识、法治观念深入人心。
Continuously improving the legal system of socialist market economy. Upholding the rule of law, China has faithfully observed and implemented WTO rules, improved its laws and regulations on market economy, and built up a legal system in line with multilateral trade rules. After its accession, China launched major efforts to review and revise relevant laws and regulations, involving 2,300 laws, regulations and departmental rules at central government level, and 190,000 policies and regulations at sub-central government levels, covering trade, investment, IPR protection, etc. In 2014, China issued an official document on furthering trade policy compliance with WTO rules, requiring government at all levels to assess proposed trade policies in accordance with WTO agreements and China's commitments. In 2016, China set up a legality review mechanism to examine normative documents, enhancing the transparency of and public participation in policy development. 不断健全社会主义市场经济法律体系。坚持依法治国,全面遵守和执行世贸组织规则,完善基于规则的市场经济法律法规,构建符合多边贸易规则的法律体系。加入世贸组织后,大规模开展法律法规清理修订工作,中央政府清理法律法规和部门规章2300多件,地方政府清理地方性政策法规19万多件,覆盖贸易、投资和知识产权保护等各个方面。2014年,制订进一步加强贸易政策合规工作的政策文件,要求各级政府在拟定贸易政策的过程中,对照世贸组织协定及中国加入承诺进行合规性评估。2016年,建立规范性文件合法性审查机制,进一步清理规范性文件,增强公共政策制定透明度和公众参与度。
2. Fulfilling commitments on trade in goods (二)履行货物贸易领域开放承诺
Substantively reducing import tariffs. By reducing import costs to boost trade, China has shared its development dividend and growing markets with the rest of the world. By 2010, China had fulfilled all of its tariff reduction commitments, reducing the average tariff level from 15.3 percent in 2001 to 9.8 percent. It lowered the average tariff rate of manufactured goods from 14.8 to 8.9 percent. It cut the average tariff rate of agricultural products from 23.2 to 15.2 percent, about one fourth of the global average and far lower than those imposed by the WTO's developing members (56 percent) and developed members (39 percent). China's maximum bound tariff rate of agricultural products is 65 percent, while the corresponding rates of the United States, the European Union and Japan are 440, 408 and 1,706 percent respectively. 大幅降低进口关税。减少进口成本,促进贸易发展,让世界各国更多分享中国经济增长、消费繁荣带来的红利。截至2010年,中国货物降税承诺全部履行完毕,关税总水平由2001年的15.3%降至9.8%。其中,工业品平均税率由14.8%降至8.9%;农产品平均税率由23.2%降至15.2%,约为世界农产品平均关税水平的四分之一,远低于发展中成员56%和发达成员39%的平均关税水平。农产品的最高约束关税为65%,而美国、欧盟、日本分别为440%、408%、1706%。
Significantly lowering non-tariff barriers. To increase transparency and facilitate trade, China has reduced unnecessary trade restrictions. By January 2005, in accordance with its commitments, China had eliminated import quotas, import licenses, specific import tendering requirements and other non-tariff measures with regard to 424 items such as automobiles, machinery and electronics products, and natural rubber. It introduced tariff rate quota administration for important bulk commodities, i.e. wheat, corn, rice, sugar, cotton, wool, wool top, and chemical fertilizers. 显著削减非关税壁垒。减少不必要的贸易限制,促进贸易透明畅通。截至2005年1月,中国已按加入承诺全部取消了进口配额、进口许可证和特定招标等非关税措施,涉及汽车、机电产品、天然橡胶等424个税号产品;对小麦、玉米、大米、食糖、棉花、羊毛、毛条和化肥等关系国计民生的大宗商品实行关税配额管理。
Liberalizing the right to trade. To diversify entities and stimulate their enthusiasm to engage in foreign trade, in July 2004 China replaced approval system with registration system for foreign trade authorization, releasing immense vigor of private businesses which has led to a surge of foreign trade in the private sector. With rapid growth and an increasing share of the market, private companies have become important actors in China's foreign trade. In 2017, foreign trade by private companies and foreign-invested enterprises (FIEs) accounted for 83.7 percent of the country's total trade volume, up from 57.5 percent in 2001. In 2017, Chinese private companies, which take the largest share of China's exports, contributed 46.6 percent of all goods and services exported. 全面放开外贸经营权。促进经营主体多元化,激发各类企业开展贸易的积极性。自2004年7月起,中国对企业的外贸经营权由审批制改为备案登记制,极大地释放了民营企业的外贸活力,民营企业进出口发展迅速,份额持续扩大,成为对外贸易的重要经营主体。民营企业和外商投资企业进出口占全国进出口总额的比重由2001年的57.5%上升到2017年的83.7%。2017年,作为第一大出口经营主体的民营企业出口占比达46.6%。
3. Fulfilling commitments on trade in services (三)履行服务贸易领域开放承诺
Extensively opening up the services market. China has striven to boost the services industry and increase its share of contribution to the economy. Of the 160 services sub-sectors under the 12-sector WTO classification, China committed to opening up 100 sub-sectors under 9 sectors, a level approximate to the average 108 sub-sectors committed by the developed members of the WTO. By 2007, China had honored all of its commitments on trade in services. 广泛开放服务市场。大力推动服务业各领域快速发展,提高服务业对国民经济的贡献。在世贸组织分类的12大类服务部门的160个分部门中,中国承诺开放9大类的100个分部门,接近发达成员平均承诺开放108个分部门的水平。截至2007年,中国服务贸易领域开放承诺已全部履行完毕。
Continuously reducing restrictions. China has step by step lowered the threshold for foreign investment to enter the services sectors in China, lifted geographical and quantitative restrictions on services according to schedule, and constantly broadened the business scope for foreign investment in the services sectors. China has permitted wholly foreign-owned enterprises in 54 sub-sectors such as courier, banking and property insurance services, allowed foreign majority ownership in 23 sub-sectors such as computer and environment services, and accorded national treatment to foreign capital in 80 sub-sectors such as telecommunication, rail transport, and tourism services. In 2010, foreign direct investment (FDI) flowing into China's services industry surpassed that into manufacturing industry for the first time. In 2017, FDI in the services industry made up 73 percent of all FDI in China. 持续减少限制措施。逐步降低服务领域外资准入门槛,按期取消服务领域的地域和数量限制,不断扩大允许外资从事服务领域的业务范围。其中,在快递、银行、财产保险等54个服务分部门允许设立外商独资企业,在计算机、环境等23个分部门允许外资控股,在电信、铁路运输、旅游等80个分部门给予外资国民待遇。2010年,中国服务业吸引外商直接投资额首次超过制造业,2017年吸引外商直接投资额占比达到73%。
4. Fulfilling commitments on IPR protection (四)履行知识产权保护承诺
Strengthening IPR protection on China's own initiative. Strengthening IPR protection is the centerpiece for improving the property rights protection system, and it would provide the biggest boost to the competitiveness of the Chinese economy. It not only serves China's own development needs, but also helps cultivate a business environment that is law-based, internationalized and business-friendly. China encourages technological exchanges and cooperation between Chinese and foreign enterprises, and protects the lawful IPR owned by foreign enterprises in China. At the same time, we hope foreign governments will also improve protection of Chinese IPR. 加强知识产权保护是中国的主动作为。加强知识产权保护是完善产权保护制度最重要的内容,也是提高中国经济竞争力最大的激励。中国推进知识产权保护,不仅符合自身发展需要,也有助于进一步完善法治化、国际化、便利化的营商环境。中国鼓励中外企业开展正常技术交流合作,依法保护在华外资企业合法知识产权,同时,希望外国政府加强对中国知识产权的保护。
Building a full-fledged legal system on IPR protection. Since acceding to the WTO, China has formulated and improved its laws and regulations on IPR protection, set up IPR working mechanisms with many countries, drawn upon advanced international legislative practices, and built an IPR legal system that conforms to WTO rules and suits national conditions of China. The amended Trademark Law sets up a system of punitive damages. The amended Anti-Unfair Competition Law improves the protection of trade secrets, identifies act of confusion, introduces the concept of sign and expands the scope of protection for sign. Currently China is working on amending the Patent Law and the Copyright Law. 构建完备的知识产权保护法律体系。加入世贸组织后,中国建立健全知识产权法律法规,与多个国家建立知识产权工作机制,积极吸收借鉴国际先进立法经验,构建起符合世贸组织规则和中国国情的知识产权法律体系。近年来,修订《商标法》,增加了惩罚性赔偿制度;修订《反不正当竞争法》,进一步完善了商业秘密的保护,同时明确市场混淆行为,引入标识的概念,拓宽对标识的保护范围。目前,正在加快推进《专利法》《著作权法》等法律修订。
Continuously strengthening law enforcement on IPR protection. China has enhanced the dominant role of the judiciary in IPR protection to significantly raise the cost for offenders and fully unlock the deterrent effect of relevant laws. The State Intellectual Property Office has been restructured to strengthen law enforcement. China has set up three IPR courts in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, and special judicial organs at 15 intermediate courts in Nanjing, Suzhou, Wuhan, Xi'an and other cities to handle cross-regional IPR cases, including those related to patents. China strengthened administrative law enforcement on intellectual property protection and launched special campaigns targeting outstanding problems, which effectively protected intellectual property rights. Such campaigns include “Convoy Campaign” for protecting patent rights, the “Sword-net Campaign” for combating online infringement and piracy, the “Sweeping Campaign” for cracking down pornography and illegal publication in the copyright field, the “Network Sword Campaign” for combating IPR infringements and counterfeits and the “Sword Actions on Quality Control” for cracking down counterfeits. 持续加强知识产权保护执法力度。强化知识产权保护司法主导作用,把违法成本显著提上去,把法律威慑作用充分发挥出来。重新组建国家知识产权局,完善执法力量,加大执法力度。在北京、上海、广州设立三家知识产权法院,在南京、苏州、武汉、西安等15个中级法院内设立专门审判机构,跨区域管辖专利等知识产权案件。加大行政执法力度,针对重点违法领域,开展专利“护航”行动、打击网络侵权盗版“剑网”行动、出版物版权“扫黄打非”和“秋风”行动、打击侵权假冒的“网剑行动”“质检利剑”打假行动等专项行动,有效保护了知识产权。
Attaining notable results in IPR protection. Since 2001, intellectual property royalties paid by China to foreign right holders has registered an annual growth of 17 percent, reaching USD28.6 billion in 2017. In 2017, China received 1.382 million invention patent applications, ranking the first in the world for the seventh consecutive year. Nearly 10 percent of the applicants were foreign entities and individuals. Invention patent applications filed by foreign entities and individuals in China reached 136,000, growing by threefold compared with 33,000 in 2001. According to the World Intellectual Property Organization, 51,000 patent applications filed from China through the Patent Cooperation Treaty were accepted in 2017, second only to the US. 知识产权保护效果明显。从2001年起,中国对外支付知识产权费年均增长17%,2017年达到286亿美元。2017年,中国发明专利申请量达到138.2万件,连续7年居世界首位,申请者中近10%为外国单位和个人;国外来华发明专利申请量达到13.6万件,较2001年3.3万件的申请量增长了3倍。世界知识产权组织日前公布,2017年,中国通过《专利合作条约》途径提交的专利申请受理量达5.1万件,仅次于美国,居全球第二位。
5. Fulfilling commitments on transparency (五)履行透明度义务
Providing a solid legal basis. The Legislation Law, the Regulations on Procedures for Formulation of Administrative Regulations, and the Regulations on Procedures for Formulation of Rules explicitly provide for the solicitation of public comments on draft laws, administrative regulations and rules. The legislative affairs commission of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress regularly publishes the Laws of the People's Republic of China (English edition); the State Council's legislative affairs organ regularly publishes the Laws and Regulations of the People's Republic of China Governing Foreign-Related Matters (Chinese and English bilingual edition); and the Ministry of Commerce regularly publishes trade policies in China Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation Gazette. 明确提供法律制度保障。《立法法》《行政法规制定程序条例》《规章制定程序条例》明确要求法律、行政法规和规章草案须按有关规定公开征求公众意见。全国人大常委会法工委定期出版《中华人民共和国法律》(英文版)。国务院法制机构定期出版《中华人民共和国涉外法规汇编》(中英文对照),商务部在《中国对外经济贸易文告》中定期发布贸易政策。
Comprehensively implementing the WTO notification obligations. China has submitted notifications to the WTO on a regular basis concerning the amendment, revision and implementation of relevant laws, regulations and measures as required by the WTO. By January 2018, China had submitted over one thousand notifications covering areas such as central and sub-central subsidy policies, agriculture, technical regulations, standards, conformity assessment procedures, state trading, trade in services, and IPR laws and regulations. 全面履行世贸组织通报义务。中国按照要求定期向世贸组织通报国内相关法律、法规和具体措施的修订调整和实施情况。截至2018年1月,中国提交的通报已达上千份,涉及中央和地方补贴政策、农业、技术法规、标准、合格评定程序、国营贸易、服务贸易、知识产权法律法规等诸多领域。
6. Making tremendous efforts to honor its commitments (六)为履行承诺付出巨大努力
China made extensive and profound commitments on opening up when entering the WTO. Domestic companies were confronted with international competition, and most industries faced great difficulties. Rising up to these challenges, Chinese companies took the initiative to promote structural readjustment, participated in the global value chains and significantly increased their international competitiveness. 中国在加入世贸组织时作出广泛而深入的开放承诺,国内企业直接面对国际竞争,多数产业面临较大困难。中国企业主动应对挑战,大力推进产业结构调整,积极参与全球价值链,国际竞争力明显提升。
II. China Firmly Supports the Multilateral Trading System   二、中国坚定支持多边贸易体制
The multilateral trading system with the WTO at its core is the cornerstone of international trade, and has been playing a pivotal role in promoting global trade and building an open world economy. Since its accession to the WTO, China has firmly supported the multilateral trading system, participated in all aspects of WTO work. It called upon the WTO to focus more on the concerns of developing members, opposed unilateralism and protectionism, upheld the authority and efficacy of the multilateral trading system, and made concerted efforts with other members in supporting the WTO to play a greater role in economic globalization. 以世贸组织为核心的多边贸易体制是国际贸易的基石,为推动全球贸易发展、建设开放型世界经济发挥了中流砥柱作用。加入世贸组织以来,中国始终坚定支持多边贸易体制,全面参与世贸组织各项工作,推动世贸组织更加重视发展中成员的关切,反对单边主义和保护主义,维护多边贸易体制的权威性和有效性,与各成员共同推动世贸组织在经济全球化进程中发挥更大作用。
1. Liberalizing and facilitating trade and investment (一)积极推进贸易投资自由化便利化
Participating fully in the Doha Round negotiations. China has submitted or co-sponsored more than 100 negotiation proposals, helped secure agreement on trade facilitation and export competition in agricultural products, and promoted the continuous improvement of the multilateral trading system. In 2015, China became the 16th WTO member to ratify the Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA). During its G20 presidency in 2016, China encouraged a number of countries to complete their domestic ratification procedures of the TFA, prompting the agreement's entry into effect at an early date. 全面参与多哈回合各项议题谈判。中国提出和联署谈判建议百份以上,推动贸易便利化、农业出口竞争等多项议题达成协议,推动多边贸易体制不断完善。2015年,中国成为接受《贸易便利化协定》议定书的第16个世贸组织成员。2016年中国担任二十国集团主席国期间,推动多国完成《贸易便利化协定》的国内批准程序,为协定早日生效作出了积极贡献。
Promoting plurilateral trade liberalization. As a developing country, China has actively participated in plurilateral liberalization initiatives and made important contributions to relevant talks. It accepted the Information Technology Agreement (ITA) upon accession, subsequently participated in the negotiations to expand its coverage, and encouraged relevant parties to reach agreement on eliminating tariffs of 201 information technology products. As one of the initiators of the negotiations on the Environment Goods Agreement, China always participated in relevant discussions in a constructive manner, and contributed to the important consensus reached at the G20 Summit in Hangzhou. In 2007, China started the negotiation on its accession to the Agreement on Government Procurement and has been making great efforts ever since. 积极推动诸边贸易自由化进程。作为发展中成员,中国积极参与诸边自由化倡议,并为谈判作出了重要贡献。中国在加入世贸组织时参加了《信息技术协定》,在此基础上深入参与该协定扩围谈判,推动各方就取消201项信息技术产品的关税达成协议。中国是《环境产品协定》谈判的发起方之一,始终以积极建设性态度参与磋商,在二十国集团领导人杭州峰会期间推动谈判达成重要共识。中国于2007年启动加入《政府采购协定》谈判,为加入该协定作出了积极努力。
Mobilizing support for discussing new issues in the WTO. China has encouraged the WTO to respond to and discuss new topics of general interest to the members such as investment facilitation, micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs), and e-commerce. China initiated “Friends of Investment Facilitation for Development (FIFD)” and sponsored the Joint Ministerial Statement on Investment Facilitation for Development signed by over 70 members. China joined the “Friends of Micro, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises”, and shared with other members its proposals that support MSMEs. As an advocate of multilateral discussions on e-commerce in the WTO, China joined “Friends of E-commerce for Development (FED)”, shared its experiences and helped other developing members benefit from e-commerce. 有力促进世贸组织新议题讨论。中国推动世贸组织积极回应投资便利化、中小微企业、电子商务等世贸组织成员普遍关注的新议题并开展相关讨论。发起成立“投资便利化之友”,引导70多个成员达成《关于投资便利化的部长联合声明》。加入“中小微企业之友”,推介中国在世贸组织相关提案中关于支持中小微企业的内容。加入“电子商务发展之友”,积极推动世贸组织电子商务议题多边讨论,分享经验做法,帮助发展中成员从发展电子商务中受益。
Faithfully implementing the Trade Facilitation Agreement. As a developing member, China has actively promoted the implementation of TFA. It has set up the National Committee on Trade Facilitation to coordinate the efforts of relevant government agencies to enhance trade facilitation. By 2017, China's provinces (as well as autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) had all established a joint committee mechanism for trade facilitation in their respective jurisdictions. Regarding China's TFA commitments, 94.5 percent of all commitments fall into Category A (immediately implemented upon entry into force of the TFA), and only four items belong to Category B (implemented after a transitional period following the TFA's entry into force). China will honor its promise and implement all the Category B measures following a transitional period of three years after entry into force of the Agreement. 切实履行《贸易便利化协定》。作为发展中成员,中国积极推动实施《贸易便利化协定》。中国组建了国家贸易便利化委员会,各有关部门通力协作,提高贸易便利化水平。截至2017年,各省(自治区、直辖市)已经建立了贸易便利化工作联席会议制度,积极做好本地区贸易便利化相关工作。在履行该协定方面,中国的A类措施(协定生效后立即实施)所占比重达到94.5%,目前仅保留4项B类措施(协定生效后经过一定过渡期后实施)。中国将严格履行承诺,在3年过渡期后如期实施B类措施。
2. Safeguarding the dispute settlement mechanism (二)有效维护争端解决机制法律地位
Safeguarding the effective operation of the dispute settlement mechanism. The WTO dispute settlement mechanism has played a vital role in maintaining the predictability of international trade and the stability of the multilateral trading system. China has actively participated in the negotiations on improving the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes and supports the independence and impartiality of the WTO Appellate Body. Despite the attempt of certain WTO member to obstruct the appointment of members of the Appellate Body, China joined more than 60 members in submitting a proposal on starting the selection process at the earliest possible date. 积极维护争端解决机制有效运转。世贸组织争端解决机制为保障国际贸易可预见性、维护多边贸易体制稳定发挥了重要作用。中国积极参与改进争端解决程序的谈判,支持世贸组织上诉机构独立公正开展上诉审议工作。针对当前个别世贸组织成员阻挠上诉机构成员遴选,中国与60多个成员联署提案,努力推动尽快启动遴选程序。
Properly handling trade disputes with other WTO members. China supports WTO members to solve their trade disputes within the WTO dispute settlement mechanism. By April 2018, China had brought 17 disputes to the WTO, of which 8 had been concluded. Meanwhile, China had been complained against in 27 disputes, of which 23 had been concluded. By lodging complaints in the WTO, China redressed other members' violation of obligations under the covered agreements, and defended its own trade interests as well as the authority of WTO rules. China also actively defended the cases against it, respected the WTO rulings, and made adjustments to its measures according to WTO rules. Up to now, none of the complainants has requested for retaliation against China. 妥善处理与其他成员的贸易纠纷。中国主张通过世贸组织争端解决机制妥善解决贸易争端。按照事项统计,截至2018年4月,中国在世贸组织起诉案件17项,已结案8项;被诉案件27项,已结案23项。中国通过主动起诉,遏制了少数世贸组织成员的不公正做法,维护了自身贸易利益和世贸规则权威。中国积极应对被诉案件,尊重并认真执行世贸组织裁决,作出了符合世贸规则的调整,无一例被起诉方申请报复的情况。
3. Fully participating in trade policy review (三)深度参与贸易政策审议
Attaching great importance to trade policy monitoring by other WTO members. The WTO trade policy review (TPR) mechanism is effective in enhancing the transparency of the multilateral trading system. China places great emphasis on the TPR process. Having undergone six TPRs on itself, China is preparing for the seventh one in July 2018. In an open and frank manner, China has briefed the WTO membership on its macro-economic, trade and investment policies, and listened attentively to their comments and suggestions on China's reform and opening-up. Other WTO members applaud China's active participation and regard China as an impressive example in reinforcing the role of TPR in monitoring commitments, ensuring compliance and enhancing openness. 认真接受成员的贸易政策监督。世贸组织贸易政策审议机制有助于增加多边贸易体制的透明度。中国高度重视贸易政策审议,已接受世贸组织六次审议,并正在积极准备即将于2018年7月进行的世贸组织对中国的第七次贸易政策审议。中国始终以开放坦诚的姿态,介绍宏观经济和贸易投资政策发展情况,听取其他成员对中国改革开放的意见和建议。世贸组织成员赞赏中国参与审议的态度,认为中国履约、合规、开放的良好形象为发挥审议机制作用树立了典范。
Urging other WTO members to abide by multilateral trade agreements. Since its accession to the WTO, China has participated in nearly 300 TPRs on other members. It raised thousands of written questions and trade concerns to the members under review, urged them to abide by the WTO rules and their commitments, and played a positive role in safeguarding and strengthening the TPR mechanism. 敦促其他成员遵守多边贸易协定。加入世贸组织以来,中国参与世贸组织对其他成员审议近300次,向被审议成员提交书面问题和贸易关注数千项,敦促其他成员遵守世贸组织规则和有关承诺,为维护和强化审议机制功能发挥了积极作用。
4. Vigorously supporting the integration of developing members into the multilateral trading system (四)全力支持发展中国家融入多边贸易体制
Supporting the WTO to focus on development. An important objective of the WTO is to ensure that developing members, especially least-developed country members, benefit from international trade and boost their economic growth. As the largest developing country, China understands the difficulties of developing members to benefit from the global value chains and participate in international economic and trade governance. China worked hard to make trade an enabler of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. 支持世贸组织将发展作为工作重心。确保发展中国家尤其是最不发达国家从国际贸易中获益,进而实现经济增长是世贸组织宗旨之一。作为世界上最大的发展中国家,中国对发展中成员在参与全球价值链分工、参与国际经贸治理等方面面临的困难表示关切,努力推动贸易为实现2030年可持续发展议程作出积极贡献。
Providing pragmatic and effective support to other developing members. China has reinforced its aid to other developing members, especially least-developed country members, to bridge the South-North development gap. By March 2018, it had accorded zero tariff treatment on 97 percent of all tariff lines to 36 least-developed countries (LDCs) that have diplomatic relations with China and completed exchange of notes. Responding to the “Aid for Trade” initiative, China has contributed multilateral and bilateral resources to help other developing members, especially least-developed country members, with infrastructure construction, professionals training, productivity improvement, as well as trade and investment development. It has donated USD1 million to the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement Facility to assist the implementation of the TFA. The LDCs and Accessions Program, established by China in 2011, has helped six LDCs accede to the WTO. Since 2017, China has strengthened cooperation with the WTO and other international organizations under the South-South Cooperation Assistance Fund, and carried out cooperative projects in “Aid for Trade” to help other developing members benefit from global value chains. 向其他发展中成员提供务实有效的支持。加大对发展中成员特别是最不发达国家成员援助力度,促进缩小南北发展差距。截至2018年3月,已对36个建交且已完成换文手续的最不发达国家97%税目产品实施零关税。积极响应世贸组织“促贸援助”倡议,利用多双边援助资源帮助其他发展中成员特别是最不发达国家成员加强基础设施建设、培训经贸人员、提高生产能力、发展贸易投资。向世贸组织“贸易便利化协定基金”捐款100万美元,协助落实《贸易便利化协定》。2011年,中国设立“最不发达国家及加入世贸组织中国项目”,已帮助6个最不发达国家加入世贸组织。2017年起,中国在南南合作援助基金项下与世贸组织等国际组织加强合作,在“促贸援助”领域实施合作项目,帮助其他发展中成员提高从全球价值链中获益的能力。
5. Firmly opposing unilateralism and protectionism (五)坚决反对单边主义和保护主义
Unilateralism and protectionism run counter to the fundamental principles of the WTO. The multilateral trading system is a historic choice that follows the trend of global economic development. The WTO advocates the principles of rules, openness, transparency, inclusiveness and non-discrimination, and it will remain the main channel to address global trade issues. China explicitly opposes unilateralism and protectionism. Unilateralism goes against the law of the market and international rules, causes injury to others but ends up defeating oneself. Pursuing protectionism is like locking oneself in a dark room. While wind and rain may be kept outside, that dark room will also block light and air. Only through equal consultation and joint efforts can win-win results be achieved for all. 单边主义和保护主义与世贸组织基本原则背道而驰。多边贸易体制是顺应世界经济发展的历史选择。世贸组织倡导以规则为基础,秉持开放、透明、包容、非歧视等基本原则,其解决全球贸易问题主渠道的地位不会改变。中国旗帜鲜明反对单边主义和保护主义。搞单边主义不符合市场规律,不符合国际规则,最终必然损人害己。搞保护主义如同把自己关进黑屋子,看似躲过了风吹雨打,但也隔绝了阳光和空气。只有坚持平等协商、携手合作,才能实现共赢、多赢。
Pursuing free trade through platforms for multilateral cooperation. China advocates solving international trade problems through cooperation, dialogue and consultation on an equal footing. During the 22nd APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting, the G20 Hangzhou Summit, and the BRICS Xiamen Summit, all hosted by China, the country increased coordination with all parties concerned, and secured statements on opposing trade protectionism in the outcome documents of these summits. When attending the Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation, the Boao Forum for Asia, and the World Economic Forum, Chinese leaders repeatedly expressed their firm support for the multilateral trading system and an open world economy. In the WTO, the vast majority of members echoed China's opposition to unilateralism and protectionism. 利用多边合作平台倡导自由贸易。中国倡导通过加强合作、平等对话和协商谈判来解决国际贸易中的问题。中国主办亚太经合组织第二十二次领导人非正式会议、二十国集团领导人杭州峰会、金砖国家领导人第九次会晤期间,加强与各方协调,推动将反对贸易保护主义写入会议成果文件。中国领导人出席“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛、博鳌亚洲论坛、世界经济论坛等多边会议期间,多次阐明支持多边贸易体制、推动建设开放型世界经济的坚定立场。在世贸组织内中国积极倡议,与多数成员发出反对单边主义和保护主义的共同声音。
III. China's Significant Contribution to the World After Accession to the WTO   三、中国加入世贸组织后对世界作出重要贡献
China steadfastly pursues a mutually beneficial opening-up strategy, upholds the WTO's principle of free trade, and has lived up to its responsibilities as a major country in the process of opening-up. From its WTO accession in 2001 to the Belt and Road Initiative in 2013, China has embraced the world with open arms, made a significant contribution to promoting international trade and increasing global wellbeing, and become a key anchor and driver for the world economy. 中国坚定不移奉行互利共赢的对外开放战略,遵循世贸组织自由贸易理念,在对外开放中展现大国担当。从加入世贸组织到共建“一带一路”,中国开放胸襟、拥抱世界,为促进世界经济贸易发展、增加全球民众福祉作出了重大贡献,成为世界经济的主要稳定器和动力源。
1. Boosting world economic recovery and growth (一)拉动世界经济复苏和增长
Since its accession to the WTO, China has accelerated its reform and opening-up process and economic growth. China's development is a forceful driver of global economic growth. 加入世贸组织后,中国改革开放和经济发展进入加速期,中国的发展有力促进了世界经济发展。
In 2016, China's GDP accounted for 14.8 percent of the world total, up by 10.7 percentage points over 2001, calculated at exchange rates. Since 2002, China's contribution to global economic growth has approached 30 percent on average. The Chinese economy has become a major engine for global economic recovery and growth. 2016年,按照汇率法计算,中国国内生产总值占世界的比重达到14.8%,较2001年提高10.7个百分点。自2002年以来,中国对世界经济增长的平均贡献率接近30%,是拉动世界经济复苏和增长的重要引擎。
China has quickened its pace in promoting new industrialization, IT application, urbanization, and agricultural modernization, created enormous opportunities for consumption and investment, and generated more jobs for the world. According to a report released by the International Labor Organization, “Effects of China on the Quantity and Quality of Jobs in Latin America and the Caribbean”, China created 1.8 million jobs for Latin America and the Caribbean region from 1990 to 2016. 中国新型工业化、信息化、城镇化、农业现代化快速推进,形成巨大的消费和投资空间,为全球创造了更多就业。根据国际劳工组织发布的首份《中国与拉美和加勒比地区经贸关系报告》,1990-2016年,中国为拉美和加勒比地区创造了180万个就业岗位。
China's rapid development has made tremendous contributions to the cause of global poverty reduction. Over the past 40 years of reform and opening-up, the Chinese people have emerged from scarcity to abundance and from poverty to moderate prosperity. According to current UN standards, more than 700 million Chinese people have been lifted out of poverty, accounting for more than 70% of the global total over the same period. This represents the largest contribution to poverty reduction in the world. 中国的快速发展为全球减贫事业作出了巨大贡献。改革开放40年来,中国人民生活从短缺走向充裕、从贫困走向小康,现行联合国标准下的7亿多贫困人口成功脱贫,占同期全球减贫人口总数70%以上,为世界提供了最高的减贫贡献率。
2. Foreign trade development benefiting the world (二)对外贸易发展惠及全球
Since China's entry into the WTO, China's foreign trade has maintained sustained development, benefiting more than 1.3 billion Chinese and other peoples across the world. 加入世贸组织以来,中国对外贸易持续发展,惠及13亿多中国人民,也惠及世界各国人民。
Confronted with unprecedented difficulties and challenges including the global financial crisis in 2008, China has taken effective measures to stabilize and revitalize its foreign trade. According to WTO statistics, China's imports accounted for 10.2 percent of the world total merchandise import in 2017, and its exports 12.8 percent, making China a major trade partner of more than 120 countries and regions. China's exports have provided high-quality and inexpensive products to businesses and people around the world. From 2001 to 2017, China's imports increased by an annual average of 13.5 percent, 6.9 percentage points higher than the global average; and China has become the world's second largest importer. Since 2009, China has been the largest export market for the LDCs, and absorbed 20 percent of their exports. 面对国际金融危机等前所未有的困难和挑战,中国采取有效措施积极应对,努力促进对外贸易回稳向好。世贸组织数据显示,2017年,中国在全球货物贸易进口和出口总额中所占比重分别达到10.2%和12.8%,是120多个国家和地区的主要贸易伙伴。中国货物贸易出口为全球企业和民众提供了物美价优的商品;2001-2017年,中国货物贸易进口额年均增长13.5%,高出全球平均水平6.9个百分点,已成为全球第二大进口国。自2009年以来,中国一直是最不发达国家第一大出口市场,吸收了最不发达国家五分之一的出口。
China's services imports increased from USD39.3 billion in 2001 to USD467.6 billion in 2017, up by an annual average of 16.7 percent, and accounting for nearly 10 percent of the world total. Since 2013, China has been the world's second largest service importer, making significant contributions to stimulating consumption, creating jobs and boosting economic growth in the exporting countries. Taking tourism services as an example, China has been the world's largest source of outbound tourists for many years in a row. In 2017, outbound tourist trips made by Chinese citizens exceeded 130 million person-times, generating USD115.29 billion of overseas tourism spending. 2001-2017年,中国服务贸易进口从393亿美元增至4676亿美元,年均增长16.7%,占全球服务贸易进口总额的比重接近10%。自2013年起,中国成为全球第二大服务贸易进口国,为带动出口国当地消费、增加就业、促进经济增长作出了重要贡献。以旅游服务为例,中国连续多年保持世界第一大出境旅游客源国地位。2017年,中国公民出境旅游突破1.3亿人次,境外旅游消费达1152.9亿美元。
China's innovation in trade models has also given new impetus to world trade growth. Cross-border e-commerce and other new types and modes of foreign trade have flourished in China, providing an ever-expanding market to its trading partners. In 2017, the value of imported and exported goods in cross-border e-commerce checked and released by China Customs totaled RMB90.24 billion, up by 80.6 percent on yearly basis, of which imports stood at RMB56.59 billion, up by 120 percent compared with the previous year. 中国贸易模式的创新也为世界贸易的增长带来了新的动力。跨境电商等对外贸易新业态新模式快速发展,为贸易伙伴提供了更加广阔的市场。2017年中国海关验放的跨境电子商务进出口商品总额为902.4亿元人民币,同比增长80.6%,其中进口为565.9亿元人民币,同比增长高达120%。
3. Two-way investment benefiting all countries (三)双向投资造福世界各国
China has been promoting the establishment of a fair, equitable and transparent system of international trade and investment rules to boost the orderly flow of production factors, efficient resources allocation and full market integration. 中国推动构建公正、合理、透明的国际经贸投资规则体系,促进生产要素有序流动、资源高效配置、市场深度融合。
China has proactively attracted foreign institutions and individuals to invest and develop in China. Since 1992, China has consistently topped the list of FDI recipients among developing countries for 26 years consecutively. After China's accession to the WTO, its FDI increased from USD46.88 billion in 2001 to USD136.32 billion in 2017, up by an annual average of 6.9 percent. FIEs have shared the benefits of China's economic development, while helping improve the quality and performance of China's economy. According to the “2018 China Business Climate Survey Report” by the American Chamber of Commerce in China (AmCham China), nearly 60 percent of the interviewed enterprises ranked China as a top three investment priority; some 74 percent of the AmCham China member enterprises plan to expand their investments in China in 2018, the highest in recent years, and one third of the interviewed enterprises plan to increase their investments in China by over 10 percent. According to the “Business Confidence Survey 2018” by the European Union Chamber of Commerce in China, more than half of its member enterprises plan to expand their presence in China. In 2017, newly founded FIEs in China reached 35,652, registering an increase of 27.8 percent. 中国积极吸引外国机构和个人来华投资兴业,外商直接投资规模从1992年起连续26年居发展中国家首位。加入世贸组织后,外商直接投资规模从2001年的468.8亿美元增加到2017年的1363.2亿美元,年均增长6.9%。外商投资企业在提升中国经济增长质量和效益的同时,分享中国经济发展红利。中国美国商会《2018中国商务环境调查报告》显示,约60%的受访企业将中国列为全球三大投资目的地之一,74%的会员企业计划于2018年扩大在华投资,这一比例为近年来最高,其中三分之一的受访企业计划增加在华投资10%以上。中国欧盟商会《商业信心调查2018》报告显示,超过一半的会员企业计划扩大在华运营规模。2017年全国新设立外商投资企业35652家,同比增长27.8%。
China's outward investment cooperation has developed in a sustained, sound, and orderly way. In terms of annual flow of outward direct investment (ODI), China's world ranking rose from the 26th place after its accession to the WTO to the third in 2017. China's outward investment cooperation has accelerated technological progress in the host countries, advanced their economic development, improved their people's well-being and created many jobs. 中国对外投资合作持续健康规范发展,对外直接投资年度流量全球排名从加入世贸组织之初的第26位上升至2017年的第3位。中国对外投资合作加快了东道国当地技术进步步伐,促进其经济发展和民生改善,创造了大量就业机会。
4. Providing public goods to the world (四)为全球提供公共产品
China receives support from the international community in its own development process and stands ready to provide more public goods to the world. China is committed to building an open platform of cooperation, upholding and growing an open world economy, and working together with other countries to build a broad community of shared interests. 中国的发展得益于国际社会,也愿为国际社会提供更多公共产品。中国致力于打造开放型合作平台,维护和发展开放型世界经济,与其他国家共同构建广泛的利益共同体。
Proposing the Belt and Road Initiative. In the face of difficulties in world economic development, China put forward the Belt and Road Initiative in 2013. While the proposal was initiated by China, the opportunities and achievements belong to the world. The Belt and Road Initiative plays an important role in promoting in-depth cooperation and common development between countries and regions, upholding and growing an open world economy, making economic globalization open, inclusive, balanced, win-win and beneficial to all and advancing the building of a community with a shared future for mankind. 提出共建“一带一路”倡议。面对世界经济发展困境,中国提出共建“一带一路”倡议。“一带一路”倡议源于中国,但机会和成果属于世界,对于促进各个国家和地区之间深化合作和共同发展,维护和发展开放型世界经济,推动开放、包容、普惠、平衡、共赢的经济全球化,推动构建人类命运共同体发挥着重要作用。
Since 2013, more than 80 countries and international organizations have signed cooperation agreements with China. The in-depth and practical cooperation between China and relevant countries has achieved fruitful results. From 2013 to 2017, the total value of China's trade with other Belt and Road countries exceeded USD5 trillion, and total investment by Chinese enterprises in these countries exceeded USD70 billion. By the end of 2017, Chinese enterprises had set up 75 overseas economic and trade cooperation zones in relevant countries, contributed more than USD1.6 billion taxes to the host countries and created 220,000 local jobs. Within three years starting from 2018, China will provide RMB60 billion worth of aid to the developing countries and international organizations participating in the Belt and Road Initiative, with a view to developing more projects to improve people's lives. 共建“一带一路”倡议提出以来,已有80多个国家和国际组织同中国签署了合作协议。中国与相关国家深化务实合作,取得了丰硕成果。2013-2017年,中国同沿线国家贸易总额超过5万亿美元,中国企业在这些国家累计投资超过700亿美元。截至2017年底,中国企业在有关国家建设75个境外经贸合作区,上缴东道国税费超过16亿美元,为当地创造了22万个就业岗位。自2018年起,中国将在3年内向参与“一带一路”建设的发展中国家和国际组织提供600亿元人民币援助,建设更多民生项目。
Hosting the China International Import Expo. Initiated by China, the China International Import Expo (CIIE) will bring together multiple international organizations and more than 100 countries. It is an international public product that promotes inclusive and mutually beneficial development around the globe. The inaugural session of CIIE will be held in November 2018. Hosting the CIIE is an important decision made by China to promote a new round of high-level opening-up, a major policy measure of China to further open its market to the world, and a concrete action by China to support economic globalization and trade liberalization. In the coming 15 years, China is expected to import USD24 trillion worth of goods. The CIIE will provide new export opportunities for the world, build a new platform for other countries and regions to share China's development dividends, and bring more dynamism to world economic growth. 举办中国国际进口博览会。中国国际进口博览会是中国发起的、多个国际组织和100多个国家参与的国际博览会,是推动全球包容互惠发展的国际公共产品。首届中国国际进口博览会将于2018年11月举行。举办进口博览会是中国推进新一轮高水平对外开放的重大决策,是中国主动向世界开放市场的重大举措,是中国支持经济全球化和贸易自由化的实际行动。未来15年,中国预计将进口24万亿美元商品。中国国际进口博览会将为各国出口提供新机遇,为各国共享中国发展红利搭建新平台,为世界经济增长注入新动力。
IV. China Is Actively Advancing Opening-Up to a Higher Level   四、中国积极推动更高水平对外开放
Fulfilling China's WTO commitments has never been the end point of its opening-up. In the face of the overwhelming trend of economic globalization and its winding path, China keeps pace with the times, takes firm steps to expand opening-up, and makes continuous efforts to open up in a more comprehensive, profound and diversified way, with a view to achieving greater mutual benefit and win-win outcomes. 中国的对外开放不会止步于履行加入世贸组织承诺。面对汹涌澎湃但又充满曲折的经济全球化,中国顺应时代发展潮流和世界发展大势,坚定不移扩大对外开放,不断创造更全面、更深入、更多元的对外开放格局,实现更广泛的互利共赢。
1. Promoting balanced development of trade (一)促进贸易平衡发展
China pursues a trade strategy of mutual benefit, win-win, diversification and balanced development. It endeavors to raise the quality and added-value of its exports, proactively increase imports, and better integrate into the global value chains. China never deliberately pursues trade surplus in goods. At the same time, China takes an objective view towards existing trade deficit in services. The country always welcomes imports that diversify market supply, improve people's quality of life, and upgrade its industrial structure. In recent years, on top of its commitments to the WTO, China has self-initiated significant reductions to import tariffs on an interim basis for multiple times. According to the WTO, China's trade-weighted average import tariff rate had fallen to 4.4 percent in 2015, only 1.5 to 2 percentage points higher than those of developed economies such as the US and the EU. By the end of 2017, China had reduced tariffs on more than 900 tariff lines. At the 2018 Boao Forum for Asia Annual Conference, China announced plans to further reduce import tariffs and to import more high-quality, distinctive products that meet the strong demand of the Chinese people. 中国的贸易战略宗旨是互利共赢、多元平衡。中国注重提升出口质量和附加值,积极扩大进口,更好融入全球价值链。中国不刻意追求货物贸易顺差,客观看待目前服务贸易存在的逆差,支持有利于丰富市场供给、有利于提升人民生活品质、有利于促进产业结构升级的进口。在全面履行加入承诺的基础上,中国近年来又多次以暂定税率方式大幅自主降低进口关税税率。根据世贸组织统计,2015年中国的贸易加权平均关税已降至4.4%,与美国、欧盟等发达经济体相差1.5-2个百分点。截至2017年底,已调减900多个税目产品的税率。在博鳌亚洲论坛2018年年会上,中国宣布将进一步扩大降税范围,努力增加人民群众需求比较集中的特色优势产品进口。
2. Facilitating international trade (二)提高贸易便利化水平
China's efforts to implement the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement, which entered into force in February 2017, have resulted in impressive improvement in China's trade facilitation. The average time for customs clearance has been reduced to less than 20 hours for imports and less than two hours for exports. China has accelerated the establishment of a single window for international trade. By the end of 2017, the China International Trade Single Window had been connected to 11 authorities and agencies responsible for border control and covered basically all major import and export procedures. This one-stop system enables traders to use a single entry point to declare freight and taxes with a single submission of documents, and track the results after a single joint inspection by the participating authorities. It has accelerated the modernization of China's port management. China will further optimize supervision and management approaches, reform port administration regime and streamline procedures and reduce costs for import and export, to create a more business-friendly environment at the port. 世贸组织《贸易便利化协定》实施一年多以来,中国贸易便利化水平显著提升。目前,中国海关进口货物平均通关时间缩短至20小时以内,出口货物平均通关时间不到2小时。中国加快推进国际贸易“单一窗口”建设和推广。截至2017年底,中国国际贸易“单一窗口”已与11个口岸管理相关部门对接,基本覆盖大通关主要流程,实现企业一点接入、一次提交、一次查验、一键跟踪、一站办理,加速了口岸治理体系现代化建设进程。中国将继续优化监管方式方法,改革口岸管理体制,进一步压缩进出口环节和成本,不断优化口岸营商环境。
3. Substantially widening market access for foreign investment (三)大幅放宽外商投资准入
China has adopted a foreign investment administration model of pre-establishment national treatment plus negative list. This move marks an institutional reform in response to new developments in economic globalization and changes in international rules for investment. In September 2016, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress amended four laws including the Law on Foreign Invested Enterprises. For those foreign-invested enterprises not subject to the special administrative measures on access to foreign investment (the negative list), their establishment and changes are now administered by a “filing for record” approach instead of the examination and approval system. In the first half of 2018, revision of the negative list for foreign investment was completed and the “Notice of the State Council on Measures for Using Foreign Investment Actively and Effectively to Promote High-Quality Economic Development” was issued to further widen market access considerably. China is making efforts to steadily liberalize its financial sector, constantly open up the services industry, and deepen the opening-up of agricultural, mining and manufacturing sectors. 对外商投资实行准入前国民待遇加负面清单管理模式,是中国适应经济全球化新形势和国际投资规则变化的制度变革。2016年9月,全国人大常委会对《外资企业法》等4部法律进行了修订,将不涉及国家规定实施准入特别管理措施的外商投资企业设立及变更事项,由审批改为备案管理。2018年上半年,中国完成修订外商投资负面清单工作,出台《国务院关于积极有效利用外资推动经济高质量发展若干措施的通知》,进一步大幅度放宽市场准入,包括稳步扩大金融业开放,持续推进服务业开放,深化农业、采矿业、制造业开放。
As regards the shipbuilding industry, China will lift foreign equity caps for companies engaged in the design, manufacturing and repair of vessels in 2018. Moreover, China will lift foreign equity caps on airplane manufacturing of trunk airliners, regional jets, utility aircrafts, helicopters, drones and lighter-than-air aircrafts. In the automobile industry, China will remove foreign equity caps on manufacturing of special-purpose vehicles and new-energy vehicles, and phase out those on all automotive ventures over the next five years. 对于船舶行业,中国将于2018年取消外资股比限制,包括设计、制造、修理各环节。对于飞机制造行业,中国将取消外资股比限制,包括干线飞机、支线飞机、通用飞机、直升机、无人机、浮空器等。对于汽车行业,中国将取消专用车、新能源汽车外资股比限制,并将在未来5年内逐步取消汽车行业的全部股比限制。
4. Creating a more attractive environment for foreign investment (四)创造更有吸引力的投资环境
China makes efforts to create a favorable and orderly investment environment, ease market access for foreign investment, further simplify the administrative procedures on access to foreign investment, build pilot free-trade zones (FTZs) with high standards, and better promote and protect foreign investment. China works to improve an investment climate that conforms to international rules, facilitates foreign investment and is based on the rule of law, and to make its market more transparent and better regulated. These efforts will help attract more foreign investment into China and ensure its effective utilization. 中国积极营造宽松有序的投资环境,放宽外商投资准入,进一步简化外资准入管理程序,建设高标准自由贸易试验区,加强投资促进与投资保护,进一步提升外商投资环境法治化、国际化、便利化水平,让中国市场更加透明、更加规范,促进外资增长,提高利用外资质量。
By March 2018, all items for non-administrative license approval had been cancelled, and items for administrative approval had decreased by 44 percent as compared to March 2013. The number of investment projects by enterprises subject to verification of the central government had been reduced by 90 percent. China has comprehensively reformed its systems for business registration and registered capital, rolled out the subscribed capital registration system, and revoked 87 percent of the items subject to examination and approval preceding the industrial and commercial registration. The time for business establishment has been shortened by at least one third. In order to alleviate the burden on businesses, China is advancing the reform of the negative list for market access, promoting the concept of “everything that is not forbidden is allowed”, and reinforcing the impartiality of law enforcement. 截至2018年3月,中国全面取消非行政许可审批,与2013年3月相比,削减行政审批事项44%。中央政府层面核准的企业投资项目数量累计减少90%。全面改革工商登记、注册资本等商事制度,全面推行注册资本认缴登记制,工商登记前置审批事项压缩了87%,企业开办时间缩短三分之一以上。推进市场准入负面清单制度改革,推行“法无禁止即可为”,切实增强执法公正性,减轻企业负担。
China will continue with the reform to streamline administration, lower taxes, and reduce fees. China will further align its business environment with international economic and trade rules, enhance policy transparency, strengthen the protection of property rights, advance the rule of law, encourage competition and oppose monopoly. The enactment of the Law on Foreign Investment will be expedited to build a legal system for foreign investment that meets the needs of reform and opening-up in the new era, elevate opening-up to a higher level, push for deeper reform in the foreign investment administration system, and protect the legitimate rights and interests of foreign investment and foreign investors. The threshold will be lowered for foreign talents to work and start their own businesses in China. In addition, China will improve various development zones, build the pilot FTZs with high standard and good quality, and explore the construction of free-trade ports with Chinese characteristics. 中国将继续推进简政、降税、减费改革,继续加强同国际经贸规则对接,增强透明度,强化产权保护,坚持依法办事、鼓励竞争、反对垄断。加快制定出台《外国投资法》,构建符合新时代改革开放需要的外资法律体系,推进更高水平的对外开放和更深层次的外资管理体系改革,保护外商投资和外国投资者合法权益。降低外国人才来华就业、创业门槛。提升各类开发区发展水平,高标准高质量建设自由贸易试验区,探索建设中国特色自由贸易港。
5. Regulating outward investment (五)规范引导企业对外投资
China encourages its enterprises to abide by local laws, fulfill corporate social responsibilities and observe business principles and international practices when they do business in host countries and conduct outward investment cooperation. China will continue to promote the sustainable, reasonable, orderly and sound development of outward investment, and effectively prevent risks of all kinds. Meanwhile, in order to create a more equitable, transparent and predictable environment for foreign investment, China calls on host countries to refrain from abusing security review or adopting other restrictive practices to impose excessive limitations on foreign investment. 中国政府积极引导企业在海外守法经营、履行企业社会责任,支持企业按照商业原则和国际惯例开展对外投资合作。中国将继续积极推动境外投资持续合理有序健康发展,有效防范各类风险,同时,中国呼吁东道国避免滥用安全审查等限制性做法对投资进行过度限制,营造更加公平、透明、可预期的投资环境。
6. Advancing the Free Trade Area Strategy (六)加快实施自贸区战略
The multilateral trading system and regional trade arrangement are the two wheels driving economic globalization forward. China upholds the multilateral trading system and promotes free trade arrangements. By May 2018, China had signed 16 free trade agreements (FTA) with 24 countries and regions. In 2017, trade between China and its FTA partners (excluding Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Macao Special Administrative Region, and Taiwan Province) accounted for 25.9 percent of China's total foreign trade. In those free trade agreements, basically 90 percent of imported products enjoy duty free treatment, and approximately 120 service sectors have been opened to foreign suppliers, compared to 100 service sectors in China's commitments to the WTO at the time when China joined the organization. Committed to advancing economic globalization and safeguarding free trade, China is negotiating with relevant parties the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership for its early conclusion and implementation, and is accelerating the building of Free Trade Area of Asia-Pacific and East Asia Economic Community. With all these efforts, China will build a high standard network of free trade areas, focusing on the neighboring areas, radiating across the Belt and Road and open to the world. 多边贸易体制和区域贸易安排是驱动经济全球化向前发展的两个轮子。中国维护多边贸易体制,推动自由贸易区建设。截至2018年5月,中国已与24个国家和地区签署16个自贸协定。2017年,与自贸伙伴的贸易额(不含港澳台)占中国对外贸易总额的25.9%。已签署的自贸协定中,零关税覆盖的产品范围基本超过90%,承诺开放的服务部门已从加入世贸组织时的100个增至近120个。中国将继续坚定不移地推进经济全球化、维护自由贸易,与有关各方早日签署并实施《区域全面经济伙伴关系协定》,加快亚太自贸区和东亚经济共同体建设,构建立足周边、辐射“一带一路”、面向全球的高标准自由贸易区网络。
Conclusion 结束语
The world is undergoing a new round of major development, great change and profound readjustment. The mankind still faces growing uncertainties and destabilizing factors. Surging tides of anti-globalization in recent years, coupled with rising protectionism and unilateralism, have posed severe challenges to the multilateral trading system with the WTO at its core. 当今世界正在经历新一轮大发展大变革大调整,人类面临的不稳定不确定因素依然很多。近年来,逆全球化潮流涌动,保护主义和单边主义抬头,以世贸组织为核心的多边贸易体制遭遇挑战。
Economic globalization has powered global growth and is an irreversible trend of our times. China and the multilateral trading system stand together through thick and thin. China will continue to fulfill its commitments, comply with rules, actively participate in the improvement of the multilateral trading system, and give firm support to the WTO in playing a greater role in global economic governance. 经济全球化为世界经济增长提供了强劲动力,是不可逆转的时代潮流,中国与多边贸易体制休戚与共。中国将继续践行承诺、遵守规则,积极参与多边贸易体制建设,坚定支持世贸组织在全球经济治理中发挥更大作用。
China's economy has been transitioning from rapid growth to high-quality development. In this historic process, China will pursue with firmness the vision of innovative, coordinated, green, and open development that is for everyone, improve the socialist market economy system, and stimulate the vitality of various market entities. 中国经济已由高速增长转向高质量发展,在这一历史进程中,中国将坚定不移贯彻创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的发展理念,完善社会主义市场经济体制,充分激发各类市场主体活力。
China will take innovation as the primary driving force for development. China will adopt a more open attitude, strengthen the protection of innovation and intellectual property rights, and enhance international exchanges and cooperation. These efforts will ensure that technological development and innovation benefit not only China, but also the world, and its convenience readily accessible to more and more people. 中国将把创新作为引领发展的第一动力,以更加开放的态度,继续加强创新和知识产权保护,加强国际交流合作,使技术发展和创新不仅造福中国而且惠及世界,让越来越多的人享受科技发展带来的便利。
China calls on all countries to jointly shoulder the responsibilities of our times and believes that all countries should have equal access to development opportunities. As the largest developing country in the world, China looks forward to further cooperation and communication with other countries to jointly respond to global issues that emerge in the process of globalization, and to building a global economic governance system based on equality, equity and win-win cooperation. 中国主张各国共担时代责任、共享发展机遇。作为世界上最大的发展中国家,中国愿继续与各国共同应对经济全球化进程中出现的全球性问题,加强沟通、携手合作,推动全球经济治理朝着平等公正、合作共赢的方向发展。
China commits itself to opening up wider and deeper to promote common development across the world, providing other countries with more opportunities to share the benefits of China's development. China is willing to work hand-in-hand with its global trading partners to make economic globalization more open, inclusive, balanced and win-win with benefits to all so that different countries, different social strata and different groups of people all share in the benefits of economic globalization. 中国将以更大力度、更高水平的对外开放促进全球共同发展,为各国分享中国红利创造更多机会。中国愿与全球贸易伙伴一道,推动经济全球化朝着更加开放、包容、普惠、平衡、共赢的方向发展,让不同国家、不同阶层、不同人群共享经济全球化的好处。

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