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Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court and the Supreme People's Procuratorate on Several Issues concerning the Application of Law for Cases regarding Procuratorial Public Interest Litigation [Effective]
最高人民法院、最高人民检察院关于检察公益诉讼案件适用法律若干问题的解释 [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】

Announcement of the Supreme People's Court and the Supreme People's Procuratorate 

最高人民法院、最高人民检察院公告

The Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court and the Supreme People's Procuratorate on Several Issues concerning the Application of Law for Cases regarding Procuratorial Public Interest Litigation, as adopted at the 1,734th Session of the Judicial Committee of the Supreme February on February 23, 2018 and the 73rd Session of the Twelfth Procuratorial Committee of the Supreme People's Procuratorate on February 11, 2018, which is hereby issued, and shall come into force on March 2, 2018. 《最高人民法院、最高人民检察院关于检察公益诉讼案件适用法律若干问题的解释》已于2018年2月23日由最高人民法院审判委员会第1734次会议、2018年2月11日由最高人民检察院第十二届检察委员会第73次会议通过,现予公布,自2018年3月2日起施行。
Supreme People's Court 最高人民法院
Supreme People's Procuratorate 最高人民检察院
March 1, 2018 2018年3月1日
Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court and the Supreme People's Procuratorate on Several Issues concerning the Application of Law for Cases regarding Procuratorial Public Interest Litigation 最高人民法院、最高人民检察院关于检察公益诉讼案件适用法律若干问题的解释
(Interpretation No. 6 [2018] of the Supreme People's Court, as adopted at the 1,734th Session of the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court on February 23, 2018 and the 73rd Session of the Twelfth Procuratorial Committee of the Supreme People's Procuratorate on February 11, 2018 and coming into force on March 2, 2018) (2018年2月23日最高人民法院审判委员会第1734次会议、2018年2月11日最高人民检察院第十二届检察委员会第73次会议通过,自2018年3月2日起施行 法释〔2018〕6号)
I. General Provisions 

一、一般规定

Article 1 For the purpose of accurately applying the provisions of the Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China and the Administrative Litigation Law of the People's Republic of China on the system of filing public interest litigations by people's procuratorates, this Interpretation is developed in light of the actual circumstances of trial and procuratorial work. 
Article 2 The main tasks of people's courts and people's procuratorates for handling public interest litigation cases are to give full play to the functional roles of judicial trial and legal supervision, maintain the legal authority of the Constitution, safeguard the social fairness and justice, protect the state interests and public interests, urge eligible parties to exercise public interest litigation rights according to the law, and promote law-based administration and strict law enforcement.   第一条 为正确适用《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》《中华人民共和国行政诉讼法》关于人民检察院提起公益诉讼制度的规定,结合审判、检察工作实际,制定本解释。
Article 3 To handle a public interest litigation case, a people's court and a people's procuratorate shall observe the legal provisions of the Constitution, follow the principles of the litigation system, and abide by the operation rules of judicial authority and procuratorial authority. 
Article 4 Where a people's procuratorate files a public interest litigation as a public interest litigation prosecutor, it shall enjoy the corresponding litigation rights and perform the corresponding litigation obligations in accordance with the Civil Procedure Law and the Administrative Litigation Law, unless otherwise as provided for in laws and judicial interpretations.   第二条 人民法院、人民检察院办理公益诉讼案件主要任务是充分发挥司法审判、法律监督职能作用,维护宪法法律权威,维护社会公平正义,维护国家利益和社会公共利益,督促适格主体依法行使公益诉权,促进依法行政、严格执法。
Article 5 For a civil public interest litigation case of first instance filed by a people's procuratorate at the city (branch or prefecture) level, the intermediate people's court at the place where the infringement occurs or in the domicile of the defendant shall have jurisdiction over the case. 
For an administrative public interest litigation case of first instance filed by a basic-level people's procuratorate, the basic-level people's court at the place where the alleged administrative organ is located shall have jurisdiction over the case.   第三条 人民法院、人民检察院办理公益诉讼案件,应当遵守宪法法律规定,遵循诉讼制度的原则,遵循审判权、检察权运行规律。
Article 6 When handling a public interest litigation case, a people's procuratorate may investigate and collect evidentiary materials from the relevant administrative organs and other organizations and citizens; the relevant administrative organs and other organizations and citizens shall provide cooperation; where it is necessary to take evidence preservation measures, it shall be handled in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Civil Procedure Law and the Administrative Litigation Law. 
Article 7 When a people's court handles a public interest litigation case of first instance filed by a people's procuratorate, the system of people's assessors may apply.   第四条 人民检察院以公益诉讼起诉人身份提起公益诉讼,依照民事诉讼法行政诉讼法享有相应的诉讼权利,履行相应的诉讼义务,但法律、司法解释另有规定的除外。
Article 8 When a people's court holds a court session of a public interest litigation case filed by a people's procuratorate, the people's court shall, three days before the court session, serve a notice of appearance upon the people's procuratorate. 
The people's procuratorate shall assign prosecutors to appear in court and within three days upon receipt of the notice of appearance from the people's court, submit to the people's court a notice of assigning prosecutors to appear in court. The notice of assigning prosecutors to appear in court shall state the names and legal positions of procurators appearing in court as well as their specific duties to be performed after appearing in court.   第五条 市(分、州)人民检察院提起的第一审民事公益诉讼案件,由侵权行为地或者被告住所地中级人民法院管辖。

来自北大法宝

Article 9 The procurators appearing in court shall perform the following duties:
 基层人民检察院提起的第一审行政公益诉讼案件,由被诉行政机关所在地基层人民法院管辖。
(1) reading the indictment of public interest litigation; 
(2) presenting and explaining evidence investigated and collected by a people's procuratorate and conducting cross-examination of the relevant evidence;   第六条 人民检察院办理公益诉讼案件,可以向有关行政机关以及其他组织、公民调查收集证据材料;有关行政机关以及其他组织、公民应当配合;需要采取证据保全措施的,依照民事诉讼法行政诉讼法相关规定办理。
(3) participating in court investigation, carrying on debate, and presenting opinions; and 
(4) engaging in other litigation activities according to the law.   第七条聊五分钱的天吗 人民法院审理人民检察院提起的第一审公益诉讼案件,可以适用人民陪审制。
Article 10 Where a people's procuratorate refuses to accept the judgment or ruling entered by a people's court of first instance, it may appeal to the people's court at the next higher level. 
Article 11 When a people's court tries a case as a court of second instance, the people's procuratorate filing the public interest litigation may assign prosecutors to appear in court and the people's procuratorate at the next higher level may also assign prosecutors to attend the trial.   第八条 人民法院开庭审理人民检察院提起的公益诉讼案件,应当在开庭三日前向人民检察院送达出庭通知书。
Article 12 Where the judgment or ruling of a public interest litigation case filed by a people's procuratorate has become legally effective, but the defendant refuses to perform such judgment or ruling, a people's court shall conduct the transfer for enforcement. 人民检察院应当派员出庭,并应当自收到人民法院出庭通知书之日起三日内向人民法院提交派员出庭通知书。派员出庭通知书应当写明出庭人员的姓名、法律职务以及出庭履行的具体职责。
II. Civil Public Interest Litigation 
Article 13 Where, in the performance of its duties, a people's procuratorate identifies damages of ecological environment and resource protection, infringements upon the lawful rights and interests of numerous consumers in the food and drug safety field, and other acts of damaging the public interests and it is to file a public interest litigation, the people's procuratorate shall make a public announcement according to the law and the public announcement period shall be 30 days.   第九条 出庭检察人员履行以下职责:
Where, after the expiration of the public announcement period, the organ prescribed by law and the relevant organization does not file a lawsuit, a people's procuratorate may file a lawsuit with a people's court. (一)宣读公益诉讼起诉书;
Article 14 To file a civil public interest litigation, a people's procuratorate shall submit the following materials: (二)对人民检察院调查收集的证据予以出示和说明,对相关证据进行质证;
(1) the indictment of the civil public interest litigation, with duplicates in the number of defendants; (三)参加法庭调查,进行辩论并发表意见;
(2) the preliminary evidentiary materials that the act of the defendant has damaged the public interests; and (四)依法从事其他诉讼活动。
(3) the evidentiary materials that the procuratorial organ has performed the public announcement procedure. 
Article 15 Where a people's procuratorate files a civil public interest litigation in accordance with the provisions of subparagraph 2 of Article 55 of the Civil Procedure Law and the civil public interest litigation meets the prosecution conditions as prescribed in items (2), (3), and (4) of Article 119 of the Civil Procedure Law and this Interpretation, a people's court shall docket the case.   第十条 人民检察院不服人民法院第一审判决、裁定的,可以向上一级人民法院提起上诉。
Article 16 Where, in the civil public interest litigation case filed by a people's procuratorate, the defendant raises a claim in the form of counterclaim, a people's court shall not accept the claim. 
你怀了我的猴子 Article 17 After a people's court accepts the civil public interest litigation case filed by a people's procuratorate, the people's court shall, within five days after the date of case-docketing, serve the duplicate of the indictment upon the defendant.   第十一条 人民法院审理第二审案件,由提起公益诉讼的人民检察院派员出庭,上一级人民检察院也可以派员参加。
Where the people's procuratorate has performed the pre-litigation public announcement procedure, the people's court shall no longer make a public announcement after the case-docketing. 
Article 18 Where a people's court deems that the claims raised by a people's procuratorate are insufficient to safeguard the public interests, the people's court may interpret the change or increase in the claims of ceasing infringement and restoring the ecological environment to the original state to the people's procuratorate.   第十二条 人民检察院提起公益诉讼案件判决、裁定发生法律效力,被告不履行的,人民法院应当移送执行。
Article 19 Where, in the trial of a civil public interest litigation case, all claims of a people's procuratorate are realized and the people's procuratorate withdraws the lawsuit, a people's court shall permit such withdrawal. 

二、民事公益诉讼

Article 20 Where a people's procuratorate files a criminal public prosecution against damages of ecological environment and resource protection, infringements upon the lawful rights and interests of numerous consumers in the food and drug safety field, and other acts of damaging the public interests, the people's procuratorate may file with a people's court an incidental civil public interest litigation, which shall be tried by the same trial organization of the people's court. 
The incidental civil public interest litigation case filed by a people's procuratorate shall be under the jurisdiction of a people's court that tries criminal cases.   第十三条 人民检察院在履行职责中发现破坏生态环境和资源保护、食品药品安全领域侵害众多消费者合法权益等损害社会公共利益的行为,拟提起公益诉讼的,应当依法公告,公告期间为三十日。
III. Administrative Public Interest Litigation 公告期满,法律规定的机关和有关组织不提起诉讼的,人民检察院可以向人民法院提起诉讼。
Article 21 Where, in the performance of its duties, a people's procuratorate identifies any illegal exercise of functions and powers or nonfeasance of the administrative organ with the duties of supervision and administration in the fields including ecological environment and resource protection, food and drug safety, protection of state-owned properties, and transfer of state-owned land use rights, causing infringements upon the state interests or public interests, the people's procuratorate shall raise procuratorial proposals to the administrative organ and urge it to perform its duties according to the law. 
The administrative organ shall, within two months upon receipt of a written procuratorial proposal, perform its duties and make a written reply to the people's procuratorate. If there is such emergency situation where the damages of the state interests or public interests continue to expand, the administrative organ shall make a written reply within 15 days.   第十四条 人民检察院提起民事公益诉讼应当提交下列材料:
Where the administrative organ fails to perform its duties according to the law, the people's procuratorate shall file a lawsuit with a people's court. (一)民事公益诉讼起诉书,并按照被告人数提出副本;
Article 22 To file an administrative public interest litigation, a people's procuratorate shall submit the following materials: (二)被告的行为已经损害社会公共利益的初步证明材料;
(1) the indictment of the administrative public interest litigation, with duplicates in the number of defendants; (三)检察机关已经履行公告程序的证明材料。
(2) the evidentiary materials that the state interests or public interests are damaged due to the defendant's illegal exercise of functions and powers or nonfeasance; and 
(3) the evidentiary materials that the procuratorial organ has performed the pre-litigation procedure but the administrative organ still fails to perform its duties according to the law or correct its illegal act.   第十五条 人民检察院依据民事诉讼法五十五条第二款的规定提起民事公益诉讼,符合民事诉讼法一百一十九条第二项、第三项、第四项及本解释规定的起诉条件的,人民法院应当登记立案。
Article 23 Where a people's procuratorate files an administrative public interest litigation in accordance with the provisions of subparagraph 4 of Article 25 of the Administrative Litigation Law and the administrative public interest litigation meets the prosecution conditions as prescribed in items (2), (3), and (4) of Article 49 of the Administrative Litigation Law and this Interpretation, a people's court shall docket the case. 
Article 24 Where, in the trial of an administrative public interest litigation case, the defendant's correction of his or its illegal act or legal performance of his or its duties makes the realization of all claims of a people's procuratorate and the people's procuratorate withdraws the prosecution, a people's court shall rule to permit such withdrawal; and if the people's procuratorate alters its claims and requests for confirming the illegality of the original administrative action, the people's court shall rule to confirm such illegality.   第十六条 人民检察院提起的民事公益诉讼案件中,被告以反诉方式提出诉讼请求的,人民法院不予受理。
Article 25 A people's court shall enter a judgment of administrative public interest litigation under the following circumstances: 
(1) Where the alleged administrative action falls under any of circumstances as prescribed in Articles 74 and 75 of the Administrative Litigation Law, the people's court shall rule to confirm that such alleged administrative action is illegal or invalid and may simultaneously order the administrative organ to take remedial measures.   第十七条谁敢欺负我的人 人民法院受理人民检察院提起的民事公益诉讼案件后,应当在立案之日起五日内将起诉书副本送达被告。
(2) Where the alleged administrative action falls under any of circumstances as prescribed in Article 70 of the Administrative Litigation Law, the people's court shall rule to revoke or partially revoke such alleged administrative action and may rule that the alleged administrative organ should take an administrative action again. 人民检察院已履行诉前公告程序的,人民法院立案后不再进行公告。
(3) Where the alleged administrative organ fails to perform its statutory duties, the people's court shall rule that the alleged administrative organ should perform its statutory duties within a prescribed time limit. 
(4) Where the administrative penalty given by the alleged administrative organ is obviously improper or other administrative actions involving the determination and recognition of the amount of money were erroneous, the people's court shall rule to alter the administrative penalty and other administrative actions.   第十八条 人民法院认为人民检察院提出的诉讼请求不足以保护社会公共利益的,可以向其释明变更或者增加停止侵害、恢复原状等诉讼请求。
(5) Where the evidence for the alleged administrative action is irrefutable, the application of laws and regulations is correct, the alleged administrative action conforms to the statutory procedures, the alleged administrative organ does not act beyond competence or abuse power, there is no obvious inappropriateness, or the ground for the claim of a people's procuratorate that the alleged administrative organ should perform its statutory duties is untenable, the people's court shall rule to dismiss the claim. 
The people's court may notify the people's government to which the alleged administrative organ is affiliated or other relevant functional department of the results of judgment.   第十九条 民事公益诉讼案件审理过程中,人民检察院诉讼请求全部实现而撤回起诉的,人民法院应予准许。
IV. Supplementary Provisions 
Article 26 The provisions of the Civil Procedure Law, the Administrative Litigation Law, and relevant judicial interpretations shall apply to other matters not prescribed in this Interpretation.   第二十条 人民检察院对破坏生态环境和资源保护、食品药品安全领域侵害众多消费者合法权益等损害社会公共利益的犯罪行为提起刑事公诉时,可以向人民法院一并提起附带民事公益诉讼,由人民法院同一审判组织审理。
Article 27 This Interpretation shall come into force on March 2, 2018. 人民检察院提起的刑事附带民事公益诉讼案件由审理刑事案件的人民法院管辖。
Where the judicial interpretations and regulatory documents previously issued by the Supreme People's Court and the Supreme People's Procuratorate are inconsistent with this Interpretation, this Interpretation shall prevail. 

三、行政公益诉讼

   第二十一条 人民检察院在履行职责中发现生态环境和资源保护、食品药品安全、国有财产保护、国有土地使用权出让等领域负有监督管理职责的行政机关违法行使职权或者不作为,致使国家利益或者社会公共利益受到侵害的,应当向行政机关提出检察建议,督促其依法履行职责。
 行政机关应当在收到检察建议书之日起两个月内依法履行职责,并书面回复人民检察院。出现国家利益或者社会公共利益损害继续扩大等紧急情形的,行政机关应当在十五日内书面回复。
 行政机关不依法履行职责的,人民检察院依法向人民法院提起诉讼。
   第二十二条 人民检察院提起行政公益诉讼应当提交下列材料:
 (一)行政公益诉讼起诉书,并按照被告人数提出副本;
 (二)被告违法行使职权或者不作为,致使国家利益或者社会公共利益受到侵害的证明材料;
 (三)检察机关已经履行诉前程序,行政机关仍不依法履行职责或者纠正违法行为的证明材料。
   第二十三条 人民检察院依据行政诉讼法二十五条第四款的规定提起行政公益诉讼,符合行政诉讼法四十九条第二项、第三项、第四项及本解释规定的起诉条件的,人民法院应当登记立案。
   第二十四条 在行政公益诉讼案件审理过程中,被告纠正违法行为或者依法履行职责而使人民检察院的诉讼请求全部实现,人民检察院撤回起诉的,人民法院应当裁定准许;人民检察院变更诉讼请求,请求确认原行政行为违法的,人民法院应当判决确认违法。
   第二十五条 人民法院区分下列情形作出行政公益诉讼判决:
 (一)被诉行政行为具有行政诉讼法七十四条、第七十五条规定情形之一的,判决确认违法或者确认无效,并可以同时判决责令行政机关采取补救措施;
 (二)被诉行政行为具有行政诉讼法七十条规定情形之一的,判决撤销或者部分撤销,并可以判决被诉行政机关重新作出行政行为;
 (三)被诉行政机关不履行法定职责的,判决在一定期限内履行;
 (四)被诉行政机关作出的行政处罚明显不当,或者其他行政行为涉及对款额的确定、认定确有错误的,判决予以变更;
 (五)被诉行政行为证据确凿,适用法律、法规正确,符合法定程序,未超越职权,未滥用职权,无明显不当,或者人民检察院诉请被诉行政机关履行法定职责理由不成立的,判决驳回诉讼请求。
 人民法院可以将判决结果告知被诉行政机关所属的人民政府或者其他相关的职能部门。
 

四、附则

   第二十六条 本解释未规定的其他事项,适用民事诉讼法行政诉讼法以及相关司法解释的规定。
   第二十七条 本解释自2018年3月2日起施行。
 最高人民法院、最高人民检察院之前发布的司法解释和规范性文件与本解释不一致的,以本解释为准。
     
     
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