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Notice by the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security, and the Ministry of Justice of Issuing the Opinions on Several Issues of Handling Criminal Cases Involving Gangland Crimes Committed by Using Information Network [Effective]
最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部关于印发《关于办理利用信息网络实施黑恶势力犯罪刑事案件若干问题的意见》的通知 [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】

Notice by the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security, and the Ministry of Justice of Issuing the Opinions on Several Issues of Handling Criminal Cases Involving Gangland Crimes Committed by Using Information Network 

最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部关于印发《关于办理利用信息网络实施黑恶势力犯罪刑事案件若干问题的意见》的通知

The higher people's courts, people's procuratorates, public security departments (bureaus), and justice departments (bureaus) of all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government; the Military Court and Military Procuratorate of the People's Liberation Army; and the Production and Construction Corps Branch of the Higher People's Court of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and the People's Procuratorate, the Public Security Bureau, and the Justice Bureau of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps: 各省、自治区、直辖市高级人民法院、人民检察院、公安厅(局)、司法厅(局),解放军军事法院、军事检察院,新疆维吾尔自治区高级人民法院生产建设兵团分院、新疆生产建设兵团人民检察院、公安局、司法局:
For the purposes of earnestly fulfilling the requirements of the Central Government for combating organized criminal gangs, and correctly understanding and applying the Guiding Opinions on Several Issues of Handling Criminal Cases Involving Gangland Crimes issued by the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security, and the Ministry of Justice, the four government agencies have studied and developed the Opinions on Several Issues of Handling Criminal Cases Involving Gangland Crimes Committed by Using Information Network, which are hereby issued for your conscientious implementation. 为认真贯彻落实中央开展扫黑除恶专项斗争的部署要求,正确理解和适用最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部《关于办理黑恶势力犯罪案件若干问题的指导意见》,最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部研究制定了《关于办理利用信息网络实施黑恶势力犯罪刑事案件若干问题的意见》。现印发给你们,请认真贯彻执行。
The Supreme People's Court 最高人民法院
The Supreme People's Procuratorate 最高人民检察院
Ministry of Public Security 公安部
Ministry of Justice 司法部
July 23, 2019 2019年7月23日
Opinions of the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security, and the Ministry of Justice on Several Issues of Handling Criminal Cases Involving Gangland Crimes Committed by Using Information Network 最高人民法院 最高人民检察院 公安部 司法部关于办理利用信息网络实施黑恶势力犯罪刑事案件若干问题的意见
For the purposes of earnestly fulfilling the requirements of the Central Government for combating organized criminal gangs, and correctly understanding and applying the Guiding Opinions on Several Issues of Handling Criminal Cases Involving Gangland Crimes (No. 1 [2018], Supreme People's Court; hereinafter referred to as the “Guiding Opinions”) issued by the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security, and the Ministry of Justice, the opinions on several issues of handling criminal cases involving gangland crimes committed by using information network are hereby offered as follows in accordance with the provisions of the Criminal Law, the Criminal Procedure Law, the Cyber Security Law, and the relevant judicial interpretations and normative documents: 为认真贯彻中央关于开展扫黑除恶专项斗争的部署要求,正确理解和适用最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部《关于办理黑恶势力犯罪案件若干问题的指导意见》(法发〔2018〕1号,以下简称《指导意见》),根据刑法刑事诉讼法网络安全法及有关司法解释、规范性文件的规定,现对办理利用信息网络实施黑恶势力犯罪案件若干问题提出以下意见:
I. General requirements   一、总体要求
1. People's courts, people's procuratorates, public security organs, and judicial administrative organs at all levels shall consolidate law enforcement concept, improve law enforcement efficiency, remain committed to “cracking down on a crime at an early stage or when a crime is petty”, firmly and strictly punish gangland crimes committed by using information network, and effectively maintain cyber security and economic and social order. 1. 各级人民法院、人民检察院、公安机关及司法行政机关应当统一执法思想、提高执法效能,坚持“打早打小”,坚决依法严厉惩处利用信息网络实施的黑恶势力犯罪,有效维护网络安全和经济、社会生活秩序。
2. People's courts, people's procuratorates, public security organs, and judicial administrative organs at all levels shall correctly apply laws, handle cases according to law, continue to “crack down on crimes precisely and accurately”, earnestly implement the policy of combining leniency with severity, and ensure that justice and mercy are justified and that the punishment fits the crime, so as to consolidate the political, legal and social effects. 2. 各级人民法院、人民检察院、公安机关及司法行政机关应当正确运用法律,严格依法办案,坚持“打准打实”,认真贯彻落实宽严相济刑事政策,切实做到宽严有据、罚当其罪,实现政治效果、法律效果和社会效果的统一。
3. People's courts, people's procuratorates, public security organs, and judicial administrative organs at all levels shall work together based on the division of duties, cooperate with each other, check each other, strengthen collaboration with the relevant administrative departments, improve the risk prevention and control system, and actively create a new pattern of comprehensive social governance by online and offline means. 3. 各级人民法院、人民检察院、公安机关及司法行政机关应当分工负责,互相配合、互相制约,切实加强与相关行政管理部门的协作,健全完善风险防控机制,积极营造线上线下社会综合治理新格局。
II. Strictly punishing gangland crimes committed by using information network 
北京大学互联网法律中心
  二、依法严惩利用信息网络实施的黑恶势力犯罪
4. Whoever commits a gangland crime by releasing or deleting pejorative or false information, or sending offensive messages or images to threaten, blackmail, intimidate or annoy another person shall be accurately determined and punished according to law. 4. 对通过发布、删除负面或虚假信息,发送侮辱性信息、图片,以及利用信息、电话骚扰等方式,威胁、要挟、恐吓、滋扰他人,实施黑恶势力违法犯罪的,应当准确认定,依法严惩。
5. Whoever threatens another person and forces him or her to enter into a transaction by using information network shall be convicted of and published for the crime of forced transaction in accordance with the provisions of Article 226 of the Criminal Law. 5. 利用信息网络威胁他人,强迫交易,情节严重的,依照刑法二百二十六条的规定,以强迫交易罪定罪处罚。
6. Whoever threatens or blackmails another person by using information network, seeks public or private property with a relatively large amount, or repeatedly commits the aforesaid conduct shall be convicted of and punished for the crime of racketeering in accordance with the provisions of Article 274 of the Criminal Law. 6. 利用信息网络威胁、要挟他人,索取公私财物,数额较大,或者多次实施上述行为的,依照刑法二百七十四条的规定,以敲诈勒索罪定罪处罚。
7. Whoever reviles or intimidates another person by using information network shall, if the circumstances are execrable and social order is disrupted, be convicted of and punished for the crime of picking fights and troubles in accordance with item (2), paragraph 1 of Article 293 of the Criminal Law. 7. 利用信息网络辱骂、恐吓他人,情节恶劣,破坏社会秩序的,依照刑法二百九十三条第一款第二项的规定,以寻衅滋事罪定罪处罚。
Whoever fabricates and spreads information, or knowingly spreads fabricated information on information network, or organizes or instigates any person to spread fabricated information on information network to make trouble shall, if public order has been seriously disrupted, be convicted of and punished for the crime of picking fights and troubles in accordance with item (4), paragraph 1 of Article 293 of the Criminal Law. 编造虚假信息,或者明知是编造的虚假信息,在信息网络上散布,或者组织、指使人员在信息网络上散布,起哄闹事,造成公共秩序严重混乱的,依照刑法二百九十三条第一款第四项的规定,以寻衅滋事罪定罪处罚。
8. Where, in investigating or handling a case of illegal property accumulation such as forced transaction or racketeering by using information network, victim statements cannot be collected one by one indeed by reason of a large number of victims and the restrictions inflicted by other objective conditions, the number of victims, the amount of funds involved in the case, and other facts of the crime may be comprehensively determined based on the victim statements already collected, and the evidence verified to be true such as records of bank account transactions, records of third-party payment and settlement account transactions, call detail records, and electronic data. 8. 侦办利用信息网络实施的强迫交易、敲诈勒索等非法敛财类案件,确因被害人人数众多等客观条件的限制,无法逐一收集被害人陈述的,可以结合已收集的被害人陈述,以及经查证属实的银行账户交易记录、第三方支付结算账户交易记录、通话记录、电子数据等证据,综合认定被害人人数以及涉案资金数额等。
III. Accurately determining gangland criminals that commit a crime by using information network 卡在了奇怪的地方  三、准确认定利用信息网络实施犯罪的黑恶势力
9. Whoever commits a crime by using information network that complies with the organizational characteristics and determination criteria of evil forces, evil-force criminal gangs, organized criminal gangs as prescribed in the Criminal Law, the Guiding Opinions, and the Opinions on Several Issues of Handling Criminal Cases Involving Evil Forces issued by the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security, and the Ministry of Justice shall be determined as an evil force, an evil-force criminal gang, or an organized criminal gang. 9. 利用信息网络实施违法犯罪活动,符合刑法、《指导意见》以及最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部《关于办理恶势力刑事案件若干问题的意见》等规定的恶势力、恶势力犯罪集团、黑社会性质组织特征和认定标准的,应当依法认定为恶势力、恶势力犯罪集团、黑社会性质组织。
To determine an organized criminal gang that commits illegal or criminal activities by using information network, a comprehensive review and judgment shall be made in accordance with the “four characteristics” as prescribed in paragraph 5 of Article 294 of the Criminal Law; the internal relations between the “four characteristics” shall be analyzed; and the damages posed by the illegal or criminal activities committed in the cyber space and the real life to the citizens' personal, property and democratic rights as well as the economic and social order shall be accurately assessed and determined according to law. 认定利用信息网络实施违法犯罪活动的黑社会性质组织时,应当依照刑法二百九十四条第五款规定的“四个特征”进行综合审查判断,分析“四个特征”相互间的内在联系,根据在网络空间和现实社会中实施违法犯罪活动对公民人身、财产、民主权利和经济、社会生活秩序所造成的危害,准确评价,依法予以认定。
10. To determine the characteristics of an organization of a gangland nature that commits illegal or criminal activities by using information network, a comprehensive judgment shall be made according to the root causes and purposes of the activities, whether the organizer, planner, commander and participants of the activities remain relatively stable, whether the organization has continued its criminal activities ever since it is established, and whether the organization has a clear division of duties, a code of conducts, and a benefit distribution system. As the members of an organization of a gangland nature usually contact each other by means of information network such as instant messaging tools, communication groups, e-mails, and web disks, some of them may not see each other face to face or get to know each other very well when engaging in gangland criminal activities. However, this will not affect the determination of the organization's characteristics. 10. 认定利用信息网络实施违法犯罪的黑恶势力组织特征,要从违法犯罪的起因、目的,以及组织、策划、指挥、参与人员是否相对固定,组织形成后是否持续进行犯罪活动、是否有明确的职责分工、行为规范、利益分配机制等方面综合判断。利用信息网络实施违法犯罪的黑恶势力组织成员之间一般通过即时通讯工具、通讯群组、电子邮件、网盘等信息网络方式联络,对部分组织成员通过信息网络方式联络实施黑恶势力违法犯罪活动,即使相互未见面、彼此不熟识,不影响对组织特征的认定。
11. Whoever earns a certain amount of economic profits by committing illegal or criminal activities or other means through information network in an organized way, and uses the profits to commit more criminal activities or support the continuance and development of the organization shall be determined as matching the economic characteristics of an organized criminal gang as prescribed in item (2), paragraph 5 of Article 294 of the Criminal Law. 11. 利用信息网络有组织地通过实施违法犯罪活动或者其他手段获取一定数量的经济利益,用于违法犯罪活动或者支持该组织生存、发展的,应当认定为符合刑法二百九十四条第五款第二项规定的黑社会性质组织经济特征。
12. Whoever, by repeatedly organizing illegal or criminal activities using information network through online and offline means, encroaches upon the personal, property and democratic rights of an unspecified number of people, and undermines the economic and social order shall be determined as matching the behavioral characteristics of an organized criminal gang as prescribed in item (3), paragraph 5 of Article 294 of the Criminal Law. Illegal or criminal activities committed by online means only without doing anything evil, or bullying, cruelly injuring or killing people shall generally not be considered as the basis of determining the behavioral characteristics of an organized criminal gang. 12. 通过线上线下相结合的方式,有组织地多次利用信息网络实施违法犯罪活动,侵犯不特定多人的人身权利、民主权利、财产权利,破坏经济秩序、社会秩序的,应当认定为符合刑法二百九十四条第五款第三项规定的黑社会性质组织行为特征。单纯通过线上方式实施的违法犯罪活动,且不具有为非作恶、欺压残害群众特征的,一般不应作为黑社会性质组织行为特征的认定依据。
13. In “a certain area or sector” which is illegally controlled and influenced by gangland crimes committed by using information network, a comprehensive judgment shall be made according to the areas where dangerous acts occur or the concentration degree of dangerous sectors, and the extent to which a criminal suspect or defendant exerts control and influence in the cyber space or the real life. Where, though the areas in which dangerous acts occur or dangerous sectors are relatively disperse, a case-related criminal gang repeatedly commits such illegal or criminal activities such as forced transaction, picking fights and troubles, and racketeering, which exert significant impact in the cyber space and the real life, and seriously disrupt economic and social order, shall be determined as “forming an illegal control or significant influence in a certain area or sector”. 13. 对利用信息网络实施黑恶势力犯罪非法控制和影响的“一定区域或者行业”,应当结合危害行为发生地或者危害行业的相对集中程度,以及犯罪嫌疑人、被告人在网络空间和现实社会中的控制和影响程度综合判断。虽然危害行为发生地、危害的行业比较分散,但涉案犯罪组织利用信息网络多次实施强迫交易、寻衅滋事、敲诈勒索等违法犯罪活动,在网络空间和现实社会造成重大影响,严重破坏经济、社会生活秩序的,应当认定为“在一定区域或者行业内,形成非法控制或者重大影响”。
IV. Jurisdiction of cases involving gangland crimes committed by using information network   四、利用信息网络实施黑恶势力犯罪案件管辖
14. The jurisdiction of cases involving gangland crimes committed by using information network shall be determined in accordance with the Provisions on Several Issues of Handling Cases Involving Organized Criminal Gangs and the Opinions on Several Issues Concerning the Application of Criminal Procedures in the Handling of Cyber Crime Cases and by following the principle of taking the place where a crime is committed as the first choice and the place of the abode of the defendant as the second choice. 14. 利用信息网络实施的黑恶势力犯罪案件管辖依照《关于办理黑社会性质组织犯罪案件若干问题的规定》和《关于办理网络犯罪案件适用刑事诉讼程序若干问题的意见》的有关规定确定,坚持以犯罪地管辖为主、被告人居住地管辖为辅的原则。
15. A public security organ may combine for investigation the cases related to gangland crimes committed by using information network, or designate a public security organ at the lower level to investigate the cases. The public security organ that combines the cases for investigation or that is designated to investigate the cases shall carry out extensive investigations and collect evidences that can prove the facts of gangland crimes, and all case-related public security organs shall actively cooperate. The cases that are combined for investigation or the jurisdiction of which is designated by the upper-level public security organ shall, if there is a need to request an approval of arrest, transfer the cases for examination and prosecution, and institute a public prosecution, be accepted by the people's procuratorate and the people's court in the place where the public security organ that files the cases for investigation is located. 15. 公安机关可以依法对利用信息网络实施的黑恶势力犯罪相关案件并案侦查或者指定下级公安机关管辖,并案侦查或者由上级公安机关指定管辖的公安机关应当全面调查收集能够证明黑恶势力犯罪事实的证据,各涉案地公安机关应当积极配合。并案侦查或者由上级公安机关指定管辖的案件,需要提请批准逮捕、移送审查起诉、提起公诉的,由立案侦查的公安机关所在地的人民检察院、人民法院受理。
16. If, when a people's procuratorate handles a gangland criminal case committed by using information network for which a public security organ requests an approval of arrest and which is transferred for examination and prosecution, or when a people's court handles a gangland criminal case committed by using information network which is already under the trial procedures, the defendant and its defender raise a solid objection to the case's jurisdiction, or the case-handling entity finds that it has no jurisdiction, the people's procuratorate or the people's court accepting the case may, upon examination, submit a request to the common upper-level authority of all the competent people's procuratorates or competent people's courts for a designated jurisdiction, without having to transfer the case on its own. For a case the jurisdiction of which has been designated by the upper-level people's procuratorate at the stage of approval for arrest, the examination and prosecution work shall be accepted by the same people's procuratorate designated by the upper-level authority. If a people's procuratorate or a people's court deems that separate filing and hearing is required, the case may be handled separately according to law. 16. 人民检察院对于公安机关提请批准逮捕、移送审查起诉的利用信息网络实施的黑恶势力犯罪案件,人民法院对于已进入审判程序的利用信息网络实施的黑恶势力犯罪案件,被告人及其辩护人提出的管辖异议成立,或者办案单位发现没有管辖权的,受案人民检察院、人民法院经审查,可以依法报请与有管辖权的人民检察院、人民法院共同的上级人民检察院、人民法院指定管辖,不再自行移交。对于在审查批准逮捕阶段,上级检察机关已经指定管辖的案件,审查起诉工作由同一人民检察院受理。人民检察院、人民法院认为应当分案起诉、审理的,可以依法分案处理。
17. Where a public security organ decides to designate a lower-level public security organ to handle a gangland criminal case committed by using information network, the decision shall be concurrently copied to the people's procuratorate and the people's court at the same level. Where a people's procuratorate deems it necessary to designate jurisdiction for the trial of a case, it shall negotiate with the people's court at the same level to handle the issues concerning a designated jurisdiction. 17. 公安机关指定下级公安机关办理利用信息网络实施的黑恶势力犯罪案件的,应当同时抄送同级人民检察院、人民法院。人民检察院认为需要依法指定审判管辖的,应当协商同级人民法院办理指定管辖有关事宜。
18. The Opinions shall come into force on October 21, 2019. 法宝 18.本意见自2019年10月21日起施行。
     
     
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