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Organic Law of the People's Courts of the People's Republic of China (2018 Revision) [Effective]
中华人民共和国人民法院组织法(2018修订) [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】

Order of the President of the People's Republic of China 

中华人民共和国主席令

(No. 11) (第十一号)

The Organic Law of the People's Courts of the People's Republic of China, as revised and adopted at the 6th session of the Standing Committee of the Thirteenth National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on October 26, 2018, is hereby issued, and shall come into force on January 1, 2019. 中华人民共和国人民法院组织法》已由中华人民共和国第十三届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第六次会议于2018年10月26日修订通过,现将修订后的《中华人民共和国人民法院组织法》公布,自2019年1月1日起施行。
President of the People's Republic of China: Xi Jinping 中华人民共和国主席 习近平
October 26, 2018 2018年10月26日
Organic Law of the People's Courts of the People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国人民法院组织法
(Adopted at the 2nd session of the Fifth National People's Congress on July 1, 1979, amended for the first time according to the Decision of the 2nd Session of the Standing Committee of the Sixth National People's Congress on Amending the Organic Law of the People's Courts of the People's Republic of China on September 2, 1983; amended for the second time according to the Decision of the 18th Session of the Standing Committee of the Sixth National People's Congress on Amending the Organic Law of the Local People's Congresses at All Levels and Local People's Governments at All Levels of the People's Republic of China on December 2, 1986; amended for the third time according to the Decision of the 24th Session of the Standing Committee of the Tenth National People's Congress on Amending the Organic Law of the People's Courts of the People's Republic of China on October 31, 2006; and revised at the 6th session of the Standing Committee of the Thirteenth National People's Congress on October 26, 2018) (1979年7月1日第五届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过 根据1983年9月2日第六届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国人民法院组织法〉的决定》第一次修正 根据1986年12月2日第六届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十八次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国地方各级人民代表大会和地方各级人民政府组织法〉的决定》第二次修正 根据2006年10月31日第十届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十四次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国人民法院组织法〉的决定》第三次修正2018年10月26日第十三届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第六次会议修订)
Contents 目  录
Chapter I General Provisions 第一章 总  则
Chapter II Setup and Functions and Powers of the People's Courts 第二章 人民法院的设置和职权
Chapter III Trial Organization of the People's Courts 第三章 人民法院的审判组织
Chapter IV Personnel Composition of the People's Courts 第四章 人民法院的人员组成
Chapter V Guarantee for Exercise of Functions and Powers by the People's Courts 第五章 人民法院行使职权的保障
Chapter VI Supplementary Provisions 第六章 附  则
Chapter I General Provisions 

第一章 总  则

Article 1 For purposes of regulating the setup, organization and functions and powers of the people's courts, and guaranteeing the people's courts' lawful performance of duties, this Law is developed according to the Constitution.   第一条 为了规范人民法院的设置、组织和职权,保障人民法院依法履行职责,根据宪法,制定本法。
Article 2 The people's courts are the judicial organs of the state.   第二条 人民法院是国家的审判机关。
The people's courts shall, by trial of criminal cases, civil cases, administrative cases and other cases prescribed by law, punish criminals, protect innocent people from criminal investigation, resolve civil and administrative disputes, protect the lawful rights and interests of individuals and organizations, supervise administrative authorities' exercise of functions and powers according to the law, protect the state security and social order, safeguard social fairness and justice, protect the unity of the legal system, dignity and authority of the state, and ensure the smooth progress of the socialist construction with Chinese characteristics. 人民法院通过审判刑事案件、民事案件、行政案件以及法律规定的其他案件,惩罚犯罪,保障无罪的人不受刑事追究,解决民事、行政纠纷,保护个人和组织的合法权益,监督行政机关依法行使职权,维护国家安全和社会秩序,维护社会公平正义,维护国家法制统一、尊严和权威,保障中国特色社会主义建设的顺利进行。
Article 3 The people's courts shall be set up in accordance with the Constitution, the laws and the decisions of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.   第三条 人民法院依照宪法、法律和全国人民代表大会常务委员会的决定设置。
Article 4 The people's courts shall independently exercise the judicial power according to the law, and shall not be subject to interference by any administrative organ, social organization or individual.   第四条 人民法院依照法律规定独立行使审判权,不受行政机关、社会团体和个人的干涉。
Article 5 The trial of cases by the people's courts shall be equal in the application of law, no organization or individual shall have any privilege to transgress the law, and discrimination in any form shall be prohibited.   第五条 人民法院审判案件在适用法律上一律平等,不允许任何组织和个人有超越法律的特权,禁止任何形式的歧视。
Article 6 The people's courts shall uphold judicial justice, take facts as the basis and laws as the criterion, comply with the legal procedures, protect the litigation rights and other lawful rights and interests of individuals and organizations, and respect and protect human rights.   第六条 人民法院坚持司法公正,以事实为根据,以法律为准绳,遵守法定程序,依法保护个人和组织的诉讼权利和其他合法权益,尊重和保障人权。
Article 7 The people's courts shall implement judicial transparency, except as otherwise prescribed by law.   第七条 人民法院实行司法公开,法律另有规定的除外。
Article 8 The people's courts shall implement the judicial responsibility system, and establish and improve the judicial power operation mechanism with a unity of powers and responsibilities.   第八条 人民法院实行司法责任制,建立健全权责统一的司法权力运行机制。
Article 9 The Supreme People's Court (“SPC”) shall be responsible to and report its work to the National People's Congress and its Standing Committee. The local people's courts at all levels shall be responsible to and report their work to the people's congresses at the corresponding levels and their standing committees.   第九条 最高人民法院对全国人民代表大会及其常务委员会负责并报告工作。地方各级人民法院对本级人民代表大会及其常务委员会负责并报告工作。
The people's congresses at all levels and their standing committees shall supervise the work of the people's courts at the corresponding levels. 各级人民代表大会及其常务委员会对本级人民法院的工作实施监督。
Article 10 The SPC is the judicial organ at the highest level.   第十条 最高人民法院是最高审判机关。
The SPC shall supervise the trials of the local people's courts at all levels and the special people's courts, and the people's courts at higher levels shall supervise the trials of the people's courts at lower levels. 最高人民法院监督地方各级人民法院和专门人民法院的审判工作,上级人民法院监督下级人民法院的审判工作。
Article 11 The people's courts shall accept the supervision of the public and guarantee that the public has the right to know, participate in and supervise the work of the people's courts according to the law.   第十一条 人民法院应当接受人民群众监督,保障人民群众对人民法院工作依法享有知情权、参与权和监督权。
Chapter II Setup and Functions and Powers of the People's Courts 

第二章 人民法院的设置和职权

Article 12 The people's courts are divided into:   第十二条 人民法院分为:
(1) the SPC; (一)最高人民法院;
(2) the local people's courts at all levels; and (二)地方各级人民法院;
(3) the special people's courts. (三)专门人民法院。
Article 13 The local people's courts at various levels are divided into higher people's courts, intermediate people's courts and basic people's courts.   第十三条 地方各级人民法院分为高级人民法院、中级人民法院和基层人民法院。
Article 14 The organization, scope of jurisdiction of cases and appointment and dismissal of judges of the people's courts established at the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps shall be governed by the relevant provisions of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.   第十四条 在新疆生产建设兵团设立的人民法院的组织、案件管辖范围和法官任免,依照全国人民代表大会常务委员会的有关规定。
Article 15 Special people's courts include military courts, maritime courts, intellectual property courts, and financial courts, among others.   第十五条 专门人民法院包括军事法院和海事法院、知识产权法院、金融法院等。
The setup, organization, functions and powers, and appointment and dismissal of judges of special people's courts shall be prescribed by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress. 专门人民法院的设置、组织、职权和法官任免,由全国人民代表大会常务委员会规定。
Article 16 The SPC shall have jurisdiction over the following cases:   第十六条 最高人民法院审理下列案件:
(1) cases of first instance under its jurisdiction as prescribed by the law and deemed by itself to be under its jurisdiction; (一)法律规定由其管辖的和其认为应当由自己管辖的第一审案件;
(2) appellate cases judged and ruled by the higher people's courts; (二)对高级人民法院判决和裁定的上诉、抗诉案件;
(3) appellate cases filed in accordance with the provisions of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress; (三)按照全国人民代表大会常务委员会的规定提起的上诉、抗诉案件;
(4) retrial cases filed in accordance with the trial supervision procedures; and (四)按照审判监督程序提起的再审案件;
(5) death penalty cases for which requests are submitted by the higher people's courts for approval. (五)高级人民法院报请核准的死刑案件。
Article 17 For death penalties, except those judged by the SPC, requests shall be submitted to the SPC for approval.   第十七条 死刑除依法由最高人民法院判决的以外,应当报请最高人民法院核准。
Article 18 The SPC may explain the issues on the specific application of law in the trial work.   第十八条 最高人民法院可以对属于审判工作中具体应用法律的问题进行解释。
The SPC may issue guiding cases. 最高人民法院可以发布指导性案例。
Article 19 The SPC may set up circuit courts to try cases determined by the SPC according to the law.   第十九条 最高人民法院可以设巡回法庭,审理最高人民法院依法确定的案件。
A circuit court is an integral part of the SPC. The judgment and ruling of a circuit court shall be the judgment and ruling of the SPC. 巡回法庭是最高人民法院的组成部分。巡回法庭的判决和裁定即最高人民法院的判决和裁定。
Article 20 The higher people's courts include:   第二十条 高级人民法院包括:
(1) higher people's courts of provinces; (一)省高级人民法院;
(2) higher people's courts of autonomous regions; and (二)自治区高级人民法院;
(3) higher people's courts of municipalities directly under the Central Government. (三)直辖市高级人民法院。
Article 21 The higher people's courts shall have jurisdiction over the following cases:   第二十一条 高级人民法院审理下列案件:
(1) cases of first instance under their jurisdiction as prescribed by law; (一)法律规定由其管辖的第一审案件;
(2) cases of first instance for which requests are submitted by people's courts at lower levels for trial; (二)下级人民法院报请审理的第一审案件;
(3) cases of first instance of which the jurisdiction is designated by the SPC; (三)最高人民法院指定管辖的第一审案件;
(4) appellate cases judged and ruled by the intermediate people's courts; (四)对中级人民法院判决和裁定的上诉、抗诉案件;
(5) retrial cases filed in accordance with the trial supervision procedures; and (五)按照审判监督程序提起的再审案件;
(6) death penalty cases for which requests are submitted by the intermediate people's courts for approval. (六)中级人民法院报请复核的死刑案件。
Article 22 The intermediate people's courts include:   第二十二条 中级人民法院包括:
(1) intermediate people's courts of municipalities directly under the jurisdiction of provinces or autonomous regions; (一)省、自治区辖市的中级人民法院;
(2) intermediate people's courts established within municipalities directly under the Central Government; (二)在直辖市内设立的中级人民法院;
(3) intermediate people's courts of autonomous prefectures; and (三)自治州中级人民法院;
(4) intermediate people's courts established according to prefectures in provinces or autonomous regions. (四)在省、自治区内按地区设立的中级人民法院。
Article 23 The intermediate people's courts shall have jurisdiction over the following cases:   第二十三条 中级人民法院审理下列案件:
(1) cases of first instance under their jurisdiction as prescribed by law; (一)法律规定由其管辖的第一审案件;
(2) cases of first instance for which requests are submitted by basic people's courts for trial; (二)基层人民法院报请审理的第一审案件;
(3) cases of first instance of which the jurisdiction is designated by the people's courts at higher levels; (三)上级人民法院指定管辖的第一审案件;
(4) appellate cases judged and ruled by the basic people's courts; and (四)对基层人民法院判决和裁定的上诉、抗诉案件;
(5) retrial cases filed in accordance with the trial supervision procedures. (五)按照审判监督程序提起的再审案件。
Article 24 Basic people's courts include:   第二十四条 基层人民法院包括:
(1) people's courts of counties and autonomous counties; (一)县、自治县人民法院;
(2) people's courts in cities not divided into districts; and (二)不设区的市人民法院;
(3) people's courts of municipal districts. (三)市辖区人民法院。
Article 25 Basic people's courts shall try cases of first instance, except as otherwise prescribed by law.   第二十五条 基层人民法院审理第一审案件,法律另有规定的除外。
Basic people's courts shall offer business guidance for the mediation of the people's mediation committees. 基层人民法院对人民调解委员会的调解工作进行业务指导。
Article 26 A basic people's court may set up a number of people's tribunals according to the local conditions, population and cases.   第二十六条 基层人民法院根据地区、人口和案件情况,可以设立若干人民法庭。
A people's tribunal is an integral part of the basic people's court. The judgments and rulings of a people's tribunal shall be the judgments and rulings of a basic people's court. 人民法庭是基层人民法院的组成部分。人民法庭的判决和裁定即基层人民法院的判决和裁定。
Article 27 A people's court may set up necessary professional tribunals according to the needs of the trial work. Intermediate people's courts and basic people's courts with a small number of judges can set up comprehensive tribunals, or are not required to set up tribunals.   第二十七条 人民法院根据审判工作需要,可以设必要的专业审判庭。法官员额较少的中级人民法院和基层人民法院,可以设综合审判庭或者不设审判庭。
A people's court may set up a comprehensive business institution according to the needs of the trial work. Intermediate people's courts and basic people's courts with a small number of judges are not required to set up comprehensive business institutions. 人民法院根据审判工作需要,可以设综合业务机构。法官员额较少的中级人民法院和基层人民法院,可以不设综合业务机构。
Article 28 The people's courts may, according to the needs of the work, set up necessary trial supporting institutions and administrative institutions.   第二十八条 人民法院根据工作需要,可以设必要的审判辅助机构和行政管理机构。
Chapter III Trial Organizations of the People's Courts 

第三章 人民法院的审判组织

Article 29 When a people's court is to try a case, the case shall be tried by a collegial bench or sole judge.   第二十九条 人民法院审理案件,由合议庭或者法官一人独任审理。
The scope of cases to be tried by a collegial bench or sole judge shall be prescribed by law. 合议庭和法官独任审理的案件范围由法律规定。
Article 30 A collegial bench shall be composed of judges or judges and people's assessors. The members of a collegial bench shall be in an odd number and more than three.   第三十条 合议庭由法官组成,或者由法官和人民陪审员组成,成员为三人以上单数。
A judge shall serve as the presiding judge of a collegial bench. When participating in the trial of a case, a president of the court or divisional chief shall serve as the presiding judge. 合议庭由一名法官担任审判长。院长或者庭长参加审理案件时,由自己担任审判长。
A presiding judge shall preside over the trial, organize the deliberation of a case, and have the equal rights with other members of the collegial bench in the deliberation of a case. 审判长主持庭审、组织评议案件,评议案件时与合议庭其他成员权利平等。
Article 31 In the deliberation of a case, a collegial bench shall make a decision according to the opinions of the majority, and record the opinions of the minority in the transcript. All members of a collegial bench shall affix signatures to the transcript of deliberation of a case.   第三十一条 合议庭评议案件应当按照多数人的意见作出决定,少数人的意见应当记入笔录。评议案件笔录由合议庭全体组成人员签名。
Article 32 The judgment documents formed for a case tried by a collegial bench or sole judge shall, as signed by the members of the collegial bench or sole judge, be issued by the people's court.   第三十二条 合议庭或者法官独任审理案件形成的裁判文书,经合议庭组成人员或者独任法官签署,由人民法院发布。
Article 33 For a case tried by a collegial bench, the judges shall be responsible for the finding of facts and application of law in the case; and for a case tried by a sole judge, the sole judge shall be responsible for the finding of facts and application of law in the case.   第三十三条 合议庭审理案件,法官对案件的事实认定和法律适用负责;法官独任审理案件,独任法官对案件的事实认定和法律适用负责。
The people's courts shall strengthen internal supervision, and where there are illegal circumstances in the trial, conduct investigation and verification in a timely manner, and handle them in light of the circumstances according to the law. 人民法院应当加强内部监督,审判活动有违法情形的,应当及时调查核实,并根据违法情形依法处理。
Article 34 People's assessors shall, according to the law, participate in the collegial bench to try cases.   第三十四条 人民陪审员依照法律规定参加合议庭审理案件。
Article 35 The people's courts at or above the intermediate level shall set up compensation committees to try state compensation cases according to the law.   第三十五条 中级以上人民法院设赔偿委员会,依法审理国家赔偿案件。
A compensation committee shall be composed of more than three judges in an odd number, and make decisions in accordance with the opinions of the majority. 赔偿委员会由三名以上法官组成,成员应当为单数,按照多数人的意见作出决定。
Article 36 The people's courts at all levels shall set up judicial committees. A judicial committee shall be composed of members in an odd number, including a president, a vice president, and several senior judges.   第三十六条 各级人民法院设审判委员会。审判委员会由院长、副院长和若干资深法官组成,成员应当为单数。
Meetings of a judicial committee are divided into plenary meetings and meetings of professional committees. 审判委员会会议分为全体会议和专业委员会会议。
The people's courts at or above the intermediate level may, according to the needs of the trial work and on the basis of the professions and division of work of members of the judicial committees, hold criminal trials, civil administrative trials and other meetings of professional committees. 中级以上人民法院根据审判工作需要,可以按照审判委员会委员专业和工作分工,召开刑事审判、民事行政审判等专业委员会会议。
Article 37 A judicial committee shall perform the following duties:   第三十七条 审判委员会履行下列职能:
(1) Summing up the trial work experience. (一)总结审判工作经验;
(2) Deliberating and deciding on the application of laws in major, difficult and complicated cases. (二)讨论决定重大、疑难、复杂案件的法律适用;
(3) Deliberating and deciding whether the judgments, rulings and mediation documents of the court that have come into force should be re-tried. (三)讨论决定本院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定、调解书是否应当再审;
(4) Deliberating and deciding on other major issues relevant to trial. (四)讨论决定其他有关审判工作的重大问题。
The interpretations of the SPC on the issues concerning the specific application of law in the trial work shall be deliberated and adopted by the plenary meeting of the judicial committee; and the guiding cases issued can be deliberated and adopted by the meetings of the professional committee of the judicial committee. 最高人民法院对属于审判工作中具体应用法律的问题进行解释,应当由审判委员会全体会议讨论通过;发布指导性案例,可以由审判委员会专业委员会会议讨论通过。
Article 38 The plenary meetings and meetings of professional committees held by a judicial committee shall be attended by more than half of their members.   第三十八条 审判委员会召开全体会议和专业委员会会议,应当有其组成人员的过半数出席。
A meeting of a judicial committee shall be presided over by a president of the court or a vice president entrusted by the president. The judicial committee shall implement the democratic centralism. 审判委员会会议由院长或者院长委托的副院长主持。审判委员会实行民主集中制。
When a judicial committee holds a meeting, a president of a people's procuratorate at the same level or a deputy president entrusted by the president of a people's procuratorate may attend the meeting as a nonvoting delegate. 审判委员会举行会议时,同级人民检察院检察长或者检察长委托的副检察长可以列席。
Article 39 For a case deemed necessary by the collegial panel to be submitted to the judicial committee for deliberation and decision-making, an application shall be filed by the presiding judge and approved by the president.   第三十九条 合议庭认为案件需要提交审判委员会讨论决定的,由审判长提出申请,院长批准。
In the deliberation of a case by the judicial committee, the collegial bench shall be responsible for the facts reported by it, and the members of the judicial committee shall be responsible for the opinions issued by them and their voting. The decisions of the judicial committee shall be implemented by the collegial bench. 审判委员会讨论案件,合议庭对其汇报的事实负责,审判委员会委员对本人发表的意见和表决负责。审判委员会的决定,合议庭应当执行。
The decision of a judicial committee in the deliberation of a case and the reasons shall be disclosed in the written judgment, except as otherwise prescribed by law. 审判委员会讨论案件的决定及其理由应当在裁判文书中公开,法律规定不公开的除外。
Chapter IV Personnel Composition of the People's Courts 

第四章 人民法院的人员组成

Article 40 The judging personnel of a people's court shall include the president, vice president, members of the judicial committee and judges, among others.   第四十条 人民法院的审判人员由院长、副院长、审判委员会委员和审判员等人员组成。
Article 41 The president of a people's court shall be responsible for the comprehensive work of the court, supervising the trial work of the court, and administering the administrative affairs of the court. The vice presidents of a people's court shall assist the president in the work thereof.   第四十一条 人民法院院长负责本院全面工作,监督本院审判工作,管理本院行政事务。人民法院副院长协助院长工作。
Article 42 The president of the SPC shall be elected by the National People's Congress, and the president shall submit requests to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress for appointment and dismissal of vice presidents, members of the judicial committees, divisional chiefs, associate divisional chiefs, and judges.   第四十二条 最高人民法院院长由全国人民代表大会选举,副院长、审判委员会委员、庭长、副庭长和审判员由院长提请全国人民代表大会常务委员会任免。
The president of the SPC shall submit requests to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress for appointment and dismissal of the divisional chiefs and associate divisional chiefs of the circuit courts of the SPC. 最高人民法院巡回法庭庭长、副庭长,由最高人民法院院长提请全国人民代表大会常务委员会任免。
Article 43 The presidents of the local people's courts at all levels shall be elected by the people's congresses at the same levels, and the presidents shall submit requests to the standing committees of the people's congresses at the corresponding levels for appointment and dismissal of vice presidents, members of the judicial committees, divisional chiefs, associate divisional chiefs, and judges.   第四十三条 地方各级人民法院院长由本级人民代表大会选举,副院长、审判委员会委员、庭长、副庭长和审判员由院长提请本级人民代表大会常务委员会任免。
The appointment or dismissal of the presidents of the intermediate people's courts set up according to prefectures of the provinces or autonomous regions or within the municipalities directly under the Central Government shall be decided by the standing committees of the people's congresses of the provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities directly under the Central Government on the basis of the nominations made by the respective councils of chairmen. The vice presidents, members of the judicial committees, divisional chiefs, associate divisional chiefs, and judges shall be appointed or dismissed by the standing committees of the people's congresses of the provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities directly under the Central Government upon requests of the presidents of the higher people's courts. 在省、自治区内按地区设立的和在直辖市内设立的中级人民法院院长,由省、自治区、直辖市人民代表大会常务委员会根据主任会议的提名决定任免,副院长、审判委员会委员、庭长、副庭长和审判员由高级人民法院院长提请省、自治区、直辖市人民代表大会常务委员会任免。
Article 44 The term of office of a president of a people's court shall be the same as that of the people's congress at which the president is elected.   第四十四条 人民法院院长任期与产生它的人民代表大会每届任期相同。
The people's congresses at all levels shall have the power to dismiss the presidents of people's courts elected by them. When the local people's congress is not in session and the standing committee of the people's congress at the same level deems that the president of the people's court needs to be replaced, a request shall be submitted to the standing committee of the people's congress at a higher level for approval. 各级人民代表大会有权罢免由其选出的人民法院院长。在地方人民代表大会闭会期间,本级人民代表大会常务委员会认为人民法院院长需要撤换的,应当报请上级人民代表大会常务委员会批准。
Article 45 The judges, trial supportting personnel and administrative judicial personnel of the people's courts shall be subject to classified administration.   第四十五条 人民法院的法官、审判辅助人员和司法行政人员实行分类管理。
Article 46 Judges shall be subject to the personnel quota system. The judge quota shall be determined according to the number of cases, economic and social development situation, population size, level of trials of the people's courts and other factors.   第四十六条 法官实行员额制。法官员额根据案件数量、经济社会发展情况、人口数量和人民法院审级等因素确定。
The judge quota of the SPC shall be determined by the SPC upon consultations with the relevant departments. The judge quotas of the local people's courts at all levels shall be subject to total quantity control and dynamic management within the provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government. 最高人民法院法官员额由最高人民法院商有关部门确定。地方各级人民法院法官员额,在省、自治区、直辖市内实行总量控制、动态管理。
Article 47 Judges shall be selected from persons having obtained legal professional qualifications and meeting other conditions prescribed by law. A person to be appointed as a judge for the first time shall be subject to professional competence review by the judge selection committee. A judge of a people's court at a higher level shall, in general, be selected from judges of the people's courts at lower levels on a merit-and-competency-based basis.   第四十七条 法官从取得法律职业资格并且具备法律规定的其他条件的人员中选任。初任法官应当由法官遴选委员会进行专业能力审核。上级人民法院的法官一般从下级人民法院的法官中择优遴选。
A president shall have legal professional knowledge and legal professional experience. Vice presidents and members of the judicial committees shall be elected from judges, prosecutors or other personnel qualified for serving as judges and prosecutors. 院长应当具有法学专业知识和法律职业经历。副院长、审判委员会委员应当从法官、检察官或者其他具备法官、检察官条件的人员中产生。
The duties, management and guarantee of judges shall be governed by the provisions of the Judges Law of the People's Republic of China. 法官的职责、管理和保障,依照《中华人民共和国法官法》的规定。
Article 48 Judge assistants of the people's courts shall, under the guidance of judges, be responsible for examining the case materials, drafting the legal documents, and other auxiliary trial affairs.   第四十八条 人民法院的法官助理在法官指导下负责审查案件材料、草拟法律文书等审判辅助事务。
A judge assistant meeting the job qualifications for a judge may, upon selection, be appointed as judge in accordance with the procedures for the appointment and dismissal of judges. 符合法官任职条件的法官助理,经遴选后可以按照法官任免程序任命为法官。
Article 49 Clerks of the people's courts shall be responsible for keeping court records and other auxiliary trial affairs.   第四十九条 人民法院的书记员负责法庭审理记录等审判辅助事务。
Article 50 Judicial police officers of the people's courts shall be responsible for guard in courts, personnel escort and custody, and other police matters.   第五十条 人民法院的司法警察负责法庭警戒、人员押解和看管等警务事项。
Judicial police officers shall be administered in accordance with the People's Police Law of the People's Republic of China. 司法警察依照《中华人民共和国人民警察法》管理。
Article 51 A people's court may, according to the needs of the trial work, appoint judicial technicians to be responsible for the matters related to the trial work.   第五十一条 人民法院根据审判工作需要,可以设司法技术人员,负责与审判工作有关的事项。
Chapter V Guarantee for Exercise of Functions and Powers by the People's Courts 

第五章 人民法院行使职权的保障

Article 52 No entity or individual shall require any judge to engage in any matter beyond the scope of statutory functions.   第五十二条 任何单位或者个人不得要求法官从事超出法定职责范围的事务。
Where leading cadres and other personnel intervene in judicial activities and the handling of specific cases, or insiders of the people's courts interfere in cases, the case-handling personnel shall keep records and report them in a comprehensive and faithful manner; and in the event of violation of laws and regulations, the relevant organs shall hold the actors accountable in light of the seriousness of the cases. 对于领导干部等干预司法活动、插手具体案件处理,或者人民法院内部人员过问案件情况的,办案人员应当全面如实记录并报告;有违法违纪情形的,由有关机关根据情节轻重追究行为人的责任。
Article 53 The judgments, rulings and other effective legal documents rendered by the people's courts shall be performed by the obligors in accordance with the law; and obligors refusing to perform such documents shall be subject to legal liability according to the law.   第五十三条 人民法院作出的判决、裁定等生效法律文书,义务人应当依法履行;拒不履行的,依法追究法律责任。
Article 54 The people's courts shall take necessary measures to maintain the order of the courtrooms and the authority of trial. Those who commit illegal and criminal acts obstructing the people's courts from exercising their functions and powers according to the law shall be subject to legal liability according to the law.   第五十四条 人民法院采取必要措施,维护法庭秩序和审判权威。对妨碍人民法院依法行使职权的违法犯罪行为,依法追究法律责任。
Article 55 The people's courts shall implement the training system, and judges, trial supportting personnel and administrative judicial personnel shall accept theoretical and business training.   第五十五条 人民法院实行培训制度,法官、审判辅助人员和司法行政人员应当接受理论和业务培训。
Article 56 The staffing of people's courts shall be subject to special-purpose management.   第五十六条 人民法院人员编制实行专项管理。
Article 57 The funds of the people's courts shall be included in the financial budget under the principle of authorization clarification to guarantee the need of the trial work.   第五十七条 人民法院的经费按照事权划分的原则列入财政预算,保障审判工作需要。
Article 58 The people's courts shall strengthen the information construction, utilize the modern information technologies, advance the judicial publicity, and improve the work efficiency.   第五十八条 人民法院应当加强信息化建设,运用现代信息技术,促进司法公开,提高工作效率。
Chapter VI Supplementary Provisions 

第六章 附  则

Article 59 This Law shall come into force on January 1, 2019.   第五十九条 本法自2019年1月1日起施行。
     
     
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