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China's National Defense in the New Era
《新时代的中国国防》白皮书
【法宝引证码】

China's National Defense in the New Era

 

《新时代的中国国防》白皮书

(The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China July 2019) (中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室 2019年7月)

The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China issued the white paper, China's National Defense in the New Era on 24th, as follows: 国务院新闻办公室24日发表《新时代的中国国防》白皮书,全文如下:
Contents 目录
Preface 前言
I. International Security Situation 一、国际安全形势
II. China's Defensive National Defense Policy in the New Era 二、新时代中国防御性国防政策
III. Fulfilling the Missions and Tasks of China's Armed Forces in the New Era 三、履行新时代军队使命任务
IV. Reform in China's National Defense and Armed Forces 四、改革中的中国国防和军队
V. Reasonable and Appropriate Defense Expenditure 五、合理适度的国防开支
VI. Actively Contributing to Building a Community with a Shared Future for Mankind 六、积极服务构建人类命运共同体
Closing Remarks 结束语
Preface 前言
Today, with their interests and security intertwined, people across the world are becoming members of a community with a shared future. China is at a critical stage of completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects and embarking on the new journey of building a modernized socialist country in an all-round way. Socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era. 当今世界,人类日益成为利益交融、安危与共的命运共同体。当今中国,正处于全面建成小康社会、开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程的关键阶段,中国特色社会主义进入了新时代。
The Chinese government is issuing China's National Defense in the New Era to expound on China's defensive national defense policy and explain the practice, purposes and significance of China's efforts to build a fortified national defense and a strong military, with a view to helping the international community better understand China's national defense. 为宣示新时代中国防御性国防政策,介绍中国建设巩固国防和强大军队的实践、目的、意义,增进国际社会对中国国防的理解,中国政府发表《新时代的中国国防》白皮书。
I. International Security Situation   一、国际安全形势
The world today is undergoing profound changes unseen in a century. As economic globalization, the information society, and cultural diversification develop in an increasingly multi-polar world, peace, development and win-win cooperation remain the irreversible trends of the times. Nonetheless, there are prominent destabilizing factors and uncertainties in international security. The world is not yet a tranquil place. 当今世界正经历百年未有之大变局,世界多极化、经济全球化、社会信息化、文化多样化深入发展,和平、发展、合作、共赢的时代潮流不可逆转,但国际安全面临的不稳定性不确定性更加突出,世界并不太平。
The International Strategic Landscape Is Going Through Profound Changes 国际战略格局深刻演变
As the realignment of international powers accelerates and the strength of emerging markets and developing countries keeps growing, the configuration of strategic power is becoming more balanced. The pursuit of peace, stability and development has become a universal aspiration of the international community with forces for peace predominating over elements of war. However, international security system and order are undermined by growing hegemonism, power politics, unilateralism and constant regional conflicts and wars. 国际力量加快分化组合,新兴市场国家和发展中国家力量持续上升,战略力量对比此消彼长、更趋均衡,促和平、求稳定、谋发展已成为国际社会的普遍诉求,和平力量的上升远远超过战争因素的增长。但是,霸权主义、强权政治、单边主义时有抬头,地区冲突和局部战争持续不断,国际安全体系和秩序受到冲击。
International strategic competition is on the rise. The US has adjusted its national security and defense strategies, and adopted unilateral policies. It has provoked and intensified competition among major countries, significantly increased its defense expenditure, pushed for additional capacity in nuclear, outer space, cyber and missile defense, and undermined global strategic stability. NATO has continued its enlargement, stepped up military deployment in Central and Eastern Europe, and conducted frequent military exercises. Russia is strengthening its nuclear and non-nuclear capabilities for strategic containment, and striving to safeguard its strategic security space and interests. The European Union (EU) is accelerating its security and defense integration to be more independent in its own security. 国际战略竞争呈上升之势。美国调整国家安全战略和国防战略,奉行单边主义政策,挑起和加剧大国竞争,大幅增加军费投入,加快提升核、太空、网络、导弹防御等领域能力,损害全球战略稳定。北约持续扩员,加强在中东欧地区军事部署,频繁举行军事演习。俄罗斯强化核、非核战略遏制能力,努力维护战略安全空间和自身利益。欧盟独立维护自身安全的倾向增强,加快推进安全和防务一体化建设。
Global and regional security issues are on the increase. International arms control and disarmament efforts have suffered setbacks, with growing signs of arms races. The non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction remains problematic. The international non-proliferation regime is compromised by pragmatism and double standards, and hence faces new challenges. Extremism and terrorism keep spreading. Non-traditional security threats involving cyber security, bio-security and piracy are becoming more pronounced. The Iranian nuclear issue has taken an unexpected turn, and there is no easy political solution to the Syrian issue. The security of individual countries is becoming increasingly intertwined, interlinked and interactive. No country can respond alone or stand aloof. 全球和地区性安全问题持续增多。国际军控和裁军遭遇挫折,军备竞赛趋势显现。防止大规模杀伤性武器扩散形势错综复杂,国际防扩散机制受到实用主义和双重标准危害,面临新的挑战。极端主义、恐怖主义不断蔓延,网络安全、生物安全、海盗活动等非传统安全威胁日益凸显。伊朗核问题解决出现波折,叙利亚问题政治解决仍面临困难。各国安全的交融性、关联性、互动性不断增强,没有哪一个国家能够独立应对或独善其身。
The Asia-Pacific Security Situation Remains Generally Stable 亚太安全形势总体稳定
Asia-Pacific countries are increasingly aware that they are members of a community with shared destiny. Addressing differences and disputes through dialogue and consultation has become a preferred policy option for regional countries, making the region a stable part of the global landscape. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is forging a constructive partnership of non-alliance and non-confrontation that targets no third party, expanding security and defense cooperation and creating a new model for regional security cooperation. The China-ASEAN Defense Ministers' Informal Meeting and the ASEAN Defense Ministers' Meeting Plus (ADMM-Plus) play positive roles in enhancing trust among regional countries through military exchanges and cooperation. The situation of the South China Sea is generally stable and improving as regional countries are properly managing risks and differences. Steady progress has been made in building a coordinated counter-terrorism mechanism among the militaries of the regional countries. A balanced, stable, open and inclusive Asian security architecture continues to develop. 亚太各国命运共同体意识增强,通过对话协商处理分歧和争端成为主要政策取向,推动本地区成为全球格局中的稳定板块。上海合作组织构建不结盟、不对抗、不针对第三方的建设性伙伴关系,拓展防务安全领域合作,开创区域安全合作新模式。中国-东盟防长非正式会晤、东盟防长扩大会发挥积极作用,通过加强军事交流合作等途径促进相互信任。南海形势趋稳向好,域内国家妥善管控风险分歧。地区国家军队反恐协调机制等合作不断深化。均衡稳定、开放包容的亚洲特色安全架构不断发展。
As the world economic and strategic center continues to shift towards the Asia-Pacific, the region has become a focus of major country competition, bringing uncertainties to regional security. The US is strengthening its Asia-Pacific military alliances and reinforcing military deployment and intervention, adding complexity to regional security. The deployment of the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system in the Republic of Korea (ROK) by the US has severely undermined the regional strategic balance and the strategic security interests of regional countries. In an attempt to circumvent the post-war mechanism, Japan has adjusted its military and security policies and increased input accordingly, thus becoming more outward-looking in its military endeavors. Australia continues to strengthen its military alliance with the US and its military engagement in the Asia-Pacific, seeking a bigger role in security affairs. 世界经济和战略重心继续向亚太地区转移,亚太地区成为大国博弈的焦点,给地区安全带来不确定性。美国强化亚太军事同盟,加大军事部署和干预力度,给亚太安全增添复杂因素。美国在韩国部署“萨德”反导系统,严重破坏地区战略平衡,严重损害地区国家战略安全利益。日本调整军事安全政策,增加投入,谋求突破“战后体制”,军事外向性增强。澳大利亚持续巩固与美国的军事同盟,强化亚太地区军事参与力度,试图在安全事务中发挥更大作用。
Regional hotspots and disputes are yet to be resolved. Despite positive progress, the Korean Peninsula still faces uncertainty. South Asia is generally stable while conflicts between India and Pakistan flare up from time to time. Political reconciliation and reconstruction in Afghanistan is making progress in the face of difficulties. Problems still exist among regional countries, including disputes over territorial and maritime rights and interests, as well as discord for ethnic and religious reasons. Security hotspots rise from time to time in the region. 地区热点和争议问题依然存在。朝鲜半岛局势有所缓和但仍存在不确定因素,南亚形势总体稳定但印巴冲突不时发生,阿富汗国内政治和解和重建艰难推进。部分国家之间的领土和海洋权益争端、民族宗教矛盾等问题仍然存在,地区安全热点问题时起时伏。
China's Security Risks and Challenges Should Not Be Overlooked 国家安全面临的风险挑战不容忽视
China continues to enjoy political stability, ethnic unity and social stability. There has been a notable increase in China's overall national strength, global influence, and resilience to risks. China is still in an important period of strategic opportunity for development. Nevertheless, it also faces diverse and complex security threats and challenges. 中国继续保持政治安定、民族团结、社会稳定的良好局面,综合国力、国际影响力、抵御风险能力明显增强,仍处于发展的重要战略机遇期,同时也面临多元复杂的安全威胁和挑战。
The fight against separatists is becoming more acute. The Taiwan authorities, led by the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), stubbornly stick to “Taiwan independence” and refuse to recognize the 1992 Consensus, which embodies the one-China principle. They have gone further down the path of separatism by stepping up efforts to sever the connection with the mainland in favor of gradual independence, pushing for de jure independence, intensifying hostility and confrontation, and borrowing the strength of foreign influence. The “Taiwan independence” separatist forces and their actions remain the gravest immediate threat to peace and stability in the Taiwan Strait and the biggest barrier hindering the peaceful reunification of the country. External separatist forces for “Tibet independence” and the creation of “East Turkistan” launch frequent actions, posing threats to China's national security and social stability. 反分裂斗争形势更加严峻,民进党当局顽固坚持“台独”分裂立场,拒不承认体现一个中国原则的“九二共识”,加紧推行“去中国化”“渐进台独”,图谋推动“法理台独”,强化敌意对抗,挟洋自重,在分裂道路上越走越远。“台独”分裂势力及其活动始终是台海和平稳定的最大现实威胁,是祖国和平统一的最大障碍。境外“藏独”“东突”等分裂势力活动频繁,对国家安全和社会稳定构成威胁。
China's homeland security still faces threats. Land territorial disputes are yet to be completely resolved. Disputes still exist over the territorial sovereignty of some islands and reefs, as well as maritime demarcation. Countries from outside the region conduct frequent close-in reconnaissance on China by air and sea, and illegally enter China's territorial waters and the waters and airspace near China's islands and reefs, undermining China's national security. 国土安全依然面临威胁,陆地边界争议尚未彻底解决,岛屿领土问题和海洋划界争端依然存在,个别域外国家舰机对中国频繁实施抵近侦察,多次非法闯入中国领海及有关岛礁邻近海空域,危害中国国家安全。
China's overseas interests are endangered by immediate threats such as international and regional turmoil, terrorism, and piracy. Chinese diplomatic missions, enterprises and personnel around the world have been attacked on multiple occasions. Threats to outer space and cyber security loom large and the threat of non-traditional security issues posed by natural disasters and major epidemics is on the rise. 中国海外利益面临国际和地区动荡、恐怖主义、海盗活动等现实威胁,驻外机构、海外企业及人员多次遭到袭击。太空、网络安全威胁日益显现,自然灾害、重大疫情等非传统安全问题的危害上升。
Global Military Competition Is Intensifying 国际军事竞争日趋激烈
Major countries around the world are readjusting their security and military strategies and military organizational structures. They are developing new types of combat forces to seize the strategic commanding heights in military competition. The US is engaging in technological and institutional innovation in pursuit of absolute military superiority. Russia is advancing its New Look military reform. Meanwhile, the UK, France, Germany, Japan and India are rebalancing and optimizing the structure of their military forces. 世界各主要国家纷纷调整安全战略、军事战略,调整军队组织形态,发展新型作战力量,抢占军事竞争战略制高点。美国进行军事技术和体制创新,谋求绝对军事优势。俄罗斯深入推进“新面貌”军事改革,英国、法国、德国、日本、印度等国都在调整优化军事力量体系。
Driven by the new round of technological and industrial revolution, the application of cutting-edge technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI), quantum information, big data, cloud computing and the Internet of Things is gathering pace in the military field. International military competition is undergoing historic changes. New and high-tech military technologies based on IT are developing rapidly. There is a prevailing trend to develop long-range precision, intelligent, stealthy or unmanned weaponry and equipment. War is evolving in form towards informationized warfare, and intelligent warfare is on the horizon. 在新一轮科技革命和产业变革推动下,人工智能、量子信息、大数据、云计算、物联网等前沿科技加速应用于军事领域,国际军事竞争格局正在发生历史性变化。以信息技术为核心的军事高新技术日新月异,武器装备远程精确化、智能化、隐身化、无人化趋势更加明显,战争形态加速向信息化战争演变,智能化战争初现端倪。
Great progress has been made in the Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) with Chinese characteristics. However, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) has yet to complete the task of mechanization, and is in urgent need of improving its informationization. China's military security is confronted by risks from technology surprise and growing technological generation gap. Greater efforts have to be invested in military modernization to meet national security demands. The PLA still lags far behind the world's leading militaries. 中国特色军事变革取得重大进展,但机械化建设任务尚未完成,信息化水平亟待提高,军事安全面临技术突袭和技术代差被拉大的风险,军队现代化水平与国家安全需求相比差距还很大,与世界先进军事水平相比差距还很大。
II. China's Defensive National Defense Policy in the New Era   二、新时代中国防御性国防政策
The socialist system of China, the strategic decision to follow the path of peaceful development, the independent foreign policy of peace, and the best of cultural traditions – considering peace and harmony as fundamentals – determine that China will pursue a national defense policy that is defensive in nature. 中国的社会主义国家性质,走和平发展道路的战略抉择,独立自主的和平外交政策,“和为贵”的中华文化传统,决定了中国始终不渝奉行防御性国防政策。
Resolutely Safeguarding China's Sovereignty, Security and Development Interests 坚决捍卫国家主权、安全、发展利益
This is the fundamental goal of China's national defense in the new era. 这是新时代中国国防的根本目标。
China's national defense aims: 慑止和抵抗侵略,保卫国家政治安全、人民安全和社会稳定,反对和遏制“台独”,打击“藏独”“东突”等分裂势力,保卫国家主权、统一、领土完整和安全。维护国家海洋权益,维护国家在太空、电磁、网络空间等安全利益,维护国家海外利益,支撑国家可持续发展。
? to deter and resist aggression; 中国坚定维护国家主权和领土完整。南海诸岛、钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿是中国固有领土。中国在南海岛礁进行基础设施建设,部署必要的防御性力量,在东海钓鱼岛海域进行巡航,是依法行使国家主权。中国致力于同直接有关的当事国在尊重历史事实和国际法的基础上,通过谈判协商解决有关争议。中国坚持同地区国家一道维护和平稳定,坚定维护各国依据国际法所享有的航行和飞越自由,维护海上通道安全。
? to safeguard national political security, the people's security and social stability; 解决台湾问题,实现国家完全统一,是中华民族的根本利益,是实现中华民族伟大复兴的必然要求。中国坚持“和平统一、一国两制”方针,推动两岸关系和平发展,推进中国和平统一进程,坚决反对一切分裂中国的图谋和行径,坚决反对任何外国势力干涉。中国必须统一,也必然统一。中国有坚定决心和强大能力维护国家主权和领土完整,决不允许任何人、任何组织、任何政党、在任何时候、以任何形式、把任何一块中国领土从中国分裂出去。我们不承诺放弃使用武力,保留采取一切必要措施的选项,针对的是外部势力干涉和极少数“台独”分裂分子及其分裂活动,绝非针对台湾同胞。如果有人要把台湾从中国分裂出去,中国军队将不惜一切代价,坚决予以挫败,捍卫国家统一。
? to oppose and contain “Taiwan independence”; 坚持永不称霸、永不扩张、永不谋求势力范围
? to crack down on proponents of separatist movements such as “Tibet independence” and the creation of “East Turkistan”; 这是新时代中国国防的鲜明特征。
? to safeguard national sovereignty, unity, territorial integrity and security; 国虽大,好战必亡。中华民族历来爱好和平。近代以来,中国人民饱受侵略和战乱之苦,深感和平之珍贵、发展之迫切,决不会把自己经受过的悲惨遭遇强加于人。新中国成立70年来,中国没有主动挑起过任何一场战争和冲突。改革开放以来,中国致力于促进世界和平,主动裁减军队员额400余万。中国由积贫积弱发展成为世界第二大经济体,靠的不是别人的施舍,更不是军事扩张和殖民掠夺,而是人民勤劳、维护和平。中国既通过维护世界和平为自身发展创造有利条件,又通过自身发展促进世界和平,真诚希望所有国家都选择和平发展道路,共同防范冲突和战争。
? to safeguard China's maritime rights and interests; 中国坚持在和平共处五项原则基础上发展同各国的友好合作,尊重各国人民自主选择发展道路的权利,主张通过平等对话和谈判协商解决国际争端,反对干涉别国内政,反对恃强凌弱,反对把自己的意志强加于人。中国坚持结伴不结盟,不参加任何军事集团,反对侵略扩张,反对动辄使用武力或以武力相威胁。中国的国防建设和发展,始终着眼于满足自身安全的正当需要,始终是世界和平力量的增长。历史已经并将继续证明,中国决不走追逐霸权、“国强必霸”的老路。无论将来发展到哪一步,中国都不会威胁谁,都不会谋求建立势力范围。
? to safeguard China's security interests in outer space, electromagnetic space and cyberspace; 贯彻落实新时代军事战略方针
? to safeguard China's overseas interests; and 这是新时代中国国防的战略指导。
? to support the sustainable development of the country. 新时代军事战略方针,坚持防御、自卫、后发制人原则,实行积极防御,坚持“人不犯我、我不犯人,人若犯我、我必犯人”,强调遏制战争与打赢战争相统一,强调战略上防御与战役战斗上进攻相统一。
China resolutely safeguards its national sovereignty and territorial integrity. The South China Sea islands and Diaoyu Islands are inalienable parts of the Chinese territory. China exercises its national sovereignty to build infrastructure and deploy necessary defensive capabilities on the islands and reefs in the South China Sea, and to conduct patrols in the waters of Diaoyu Islands in the East China Sea. China is committed to resolving related disputes through negotiations with those states directly involved on the basis of respecting historical facts and international law. China continues to work with regional countries to jointly maintain peace and stability. It firmly upholds freedom of navigation and overflight by all countries in accordance with international law and safeguards the security of sea lines of communication (SLOCs). 贯彻落实新时代军事战略方针,服从服务党和国家战略全局,落实总体国家安全观,强化忧患意识、危机意识、打仗意识,积极适应战略竞争新格局、国家安全新需求、现代战争新形态,有效履行新时代军队使命任务。根据国家面临的安全威胁,扎实做好军事斗争准备,全面提高新时代备战打仗能力,构建立足防御、多域统筹、均衡稳定的新时代军事战略布局。坚持全民国防,创新人民战争的战略战术和内容方法,充分发挥人民战争整体威力。
To solve the Taiwan question and achieve complete reunification of the country is in the fundamental interests of the Chinese nation and essential to realizing national rejuvenation. China adheres to the principles of “peaceful reunification”, and “one country, two systems”, promotes peaceful development of cross-Strait relations, and advances peaceful reunification of the country. Meanwhile, China resolutely opposes any attempts or actions to split the country and any foreign interference to this end. China must be and will be reunited. China has the firm resolve and the ability to safeguard national sovereignty and territorial integrity, and will never allow the secession of any part of its territory by anyone, any organization or any political party by any means at any time. We make no promise to renounce the use of force, and reserve the option of taking all necessary measures. This is by no means targeted at our compatriots in Taiwan, but at the interference of external forces and the very small number of “Taiwan independence” separatists and their activities. The PLA will resolutely defeat anyone attempting to separate Taiwan from China and safeguard national unity at all costs. 中国始终奉行在任何时候和任何情况下都不首先使用核武器、无条件不对无核武器国家和无核武器区使用或威胁使用核武器的核政策,主张最终全面禁止和彻底销毁核武器,不会与任何国家进行核军备竞赛,始终把自身核力量维持在国家安全需要的最低水平。中国坚持自卫防御核战略,目的是遏制他国对中国使用或威胁使用核武器,确保国家战略安全。
Never Seeking Hegemony, Expansion or Spheres of Influence 坚持走中国特色强军之路
This is the distinctive feature of China's national defense in the new era. 这是新时代中国国防的发展路径。
Though a country may become strong, bellicosity will lead to its ruin. The Chinese nation has always loved peace. Since the beginning of modern times, the Chinese people have suffered from aggressions and wars, and have learned the value of peace and the pressing need for development. Therefore, China will never inflict such sufferings on any other country. Since its founding 70 years ago, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has never started any war or conflict. Since the introduction of reform and opening-up, China has been committed to promoting world peace, and has voluntarily downsized the PLA by over 4 million troops. China has grown from a poor and weak country to be the world's second largest economy neither by receiving handouts from others nor by engaging in military expansion or colonial plunder. Instead, it has developed through its people's hard work and its efforts to maintain peace. China has made every effort to create favorable conditions for its development through maintaining world peace, and has equally endeavored to promote world peace through its own development. China sincerely hopes that all countries will choose the path of peaceful development and jointly prevent conflicts and wars. 建设同国际地位相称、同国家安全和发展利益相适应的巩固国防和强大军队,是中国社会主义现代化建设的战略任务,是坚持走和平发展道路的安全保障,是总结历史经验的必然选择。
China is committed to developing friendly cooperation with all countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. It respects the rights of all peoples to independently choose their own development path, and stands for the settlement of international disputes through equal dialogue, negotiation and consultation. China is opposed to interference in the internal affairs of others, abuse of the weak by the strong, and any attempt to impose one's will on others. China advocates partnerships rather than alliances and does not join any military bloc. It stands against aggression and expansion, and opposes arbitrary use or threat of arms. The development of China's national defense aims to meet its rightful security needs and contribute to the growth of the world's peaceful forces. History proves and will continue to prove that China will never follow the beaten track of big powers in seeking hegemony. No matter how it might develop, China will never threaten any other country or seek any sphere of influence. 新时代中国国防和军队建设,深入贯彻习近平强军思想,深入贯彻习近平军事战略思想,坚持政治建军、改革强军、科技兴军、依法治军,聚焦能打仗、打胜仗,推动机械化信息化融合发展,加快军事智能化发展,构建中国特色现代军事力量体系,完善和发展中国特色社会主义军事制度,不断提高履行新时代使命任务的能力。
Implementing the Military Strategic Guideline for a New Era 新时代中国国防和军队建设的战略目标是,到2020年基本实现机械化,信息化建设取得重大进展,战略能力有大的提升。同国家现代化进程相一致,全面推进军事理论现代化、军队组织形态现代化、军事人员现代化、武器装备现代化,力争到2035年基本实现国防和军队现代化,到本世纪中叶把人民军队全面建成世界一流军队。
This is the strategic guidance for China's national defense in the new era. 服务构建人类命运共同体
The military strategic guideline for a new era adheres to the principles of defense, self-defense and post-strike response, and adopts active defense. It keeps to the stance that “we will not attack unless we are attacked, but we will surely counterattack if attacked”, places emphasis on both containing and winning wars, and underscores the unity of strategic defense and offense at operational and tactical levels. 这是新时代中国国防的世界意义。
Implementing the military strategic guideline for a new era, China's armed forces strive to keep in alignment with and contribute to the general strategies of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the country, adopt a holistic approach to national security, strengthen the awareness of potential dangers, crises and wars, and actively adapt to the new landscape of strategic competition, the new demands of national security, and new developments in modern warfare, so as to effectively fulfill their tasks and missions in the new era. To respond to the security threats facing the country, China's armed forces take solid steps to strengthen military preparedness and comprehensively enhance combat capabilities for the new era. Efforts have been made to build the military strategy into a balanced and stable one for the new era, which focuses on defense and coordinates multiple domains. Based on the idea that China's national defense is the responsibility of all Chinese people, China's armed forces give full play to the overall power of the people's war by innovating in its strategies, tactics and measures. 中国人民的梦想与世界人民的梦想息息相通。一个和平稳定繁荣的中国,是世界的机遇和福祉。一支强大的中国军队,是维护世界和平稳定、服务构建人类命运共同体的坚定力量。
China is always committed to a nuclear policy of no first use of nuclear weapons at any time and under any circumstances, and not using or threatening to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones unconditionally. China advocates the ultimate complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons. China does not engage in any nuclear arms race with any other country and keeps its nuclear capabilities at the minimum level required for national security. China pursues a nuclear strategy of self-defense, the goal of which is to maintain national strategic security by deterring other countries from using or threatening to use nuclear weapons against China. 中国军队坚持共同、综合、合作、可持续的安全观,秉持正确义利观,积极参与全球安全治理体系改革,深化双边和多边安全合作,促进不同安全机制间协调包容、互补合作,营造平等互信、公平正义、共建共享的安全格局。
Continuing to Strengthen the Military in the Chinese Way 中国军队坚持履行国际责任和义务,始终高举合作共赢的旗帜,在力所能及的范围内向国际社会提供更多公共安全产品,积极参加国际维和、海上护航、人道主义救援等行动,加强国际军控和防扩散合作,建设性参与热点问题的政治解决,共同维护国际通道安全,合力应对恐怖主义、网络安全、重大自然灾害等全球性挑战,积极为构建人类命运共同体贡献力量。
This is the path forward for China's national defense in the new era. 
Building a fortified national defense and a strong military commensurate with the country's international standing and its security and development interests is a strategic task for China's socialist modernization. Drawing lessons from history, China strengthens its national defense and military to provide security guarantee for its peaceful development. 
To strengthen China's national defense and military in the new era, it is imperative to comprehensively implement Xi Jinping's thinking on strengthening the military, thoroughly deliver on Xi Jinping's thinking on military strategy, continue to enhance the political loyalty of the armed forces, strengthen them through reform and technology, run them in accordance with the law, and focus on the capabilities to fight and win. Efforts will be made to advance the integrated development of mechanization and informationization, speed up the development of intelligent military, create a modernized military force structure with Chinese characteristics, improve and develop socialist military institutions with Chinese features, and constantly enhance the capabilities to fulfill the missions and tasks in the new era. 
The strategic goals for the development of China's national defense and military in the new era are: 
? to generally achieve mechanization by the year 2020 with significantly enhanced informationization and greatly improved strategic capabilities; 
? to comprehensively advance the modernization of military theory, organizational structure, military personnel, and weaponry and equipment in step with the modernization of the country and basically complete the modernization of national defense and the military by 2035; and 
? to fully transform the people's armed forces into world-class forces by the mid-21st century. 
In the Service of Building of a Community with a Shared Future for Mankind 
This is the global significance of China's national defense in the new era. 
The dream of the Chinese people is closely connected with the dreams of peoples around the world. Peace, stability and prosperity in China present opportunities and benefits to the rest of the world. A strong military of China is a staunch force for world peace, stability and the building of a community with a shared future for mankind. 
China's armed forces advocate common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security, uphold justice while pursuing shared interests, and actively participate in the reform of global security governance system. Efforts are made to deepen bilateral and multilateral security cooperation, promote a coordinated, inclusive and complementary cooperation among security mechanisms, and contribute to a security architecture featuring equality, mutual trust, fairness, justice, joint contribution and shared benefits. 
Committed to the principle of win-win cooperation, China's armed forces will fulfill their international responsibilities and obligations, and provide more public security goods to the international community to the best of their capacity. They actively participate in the UN peacekeeping operations (UNPKOs), vessel protection operations, and international efforts in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief (HADR), strengthen international cooperation in arms control and non-proliferation, play a constructive role in the political settlement of hotspot issues, jointly maintain the security of international passages, and make concerted efforts to respond to global challenges such as terrorism, cyber security and major natural disasters, thus making a positive contribution to building a community with a shared future for mankind. 
III. Fulfilling the Missions and Tasks of China's Armed Forces in the New Era   三、履行新时代军队使命任务
In the new era, to meet the strategic demands of national security and development, China's armed forces firmly implement the missions and tasks entrusted by the CPC and the people. They endeavor to provide strategic support for consolidating the leadership of the CPC and the socialist system, safeguarding national sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity, protecting China's overseas interests, and promoting world peace and development. 进入新时代,中国军队依据国家安全和发展战略要求,坚决履行党和人民赋予的使命任务,为巩固中国共产党领导和社会主义制度提供战略支撑,为捍卫国家主权、统一、领土完整提供战略支撑,为维护国家海外利益提供战略支撑,为促进世界和平与发展提供战略支撑。
Safeguarding National Territorial Sovereignty and Maritime Rights and Interests 维护国家领土主权和海洋权益
China has a land border of more than 22,000 km and a coastline of over 18,000 km, China surpasses most of countries in the number of neighboring countries, the length of land border, and the complexity of maritime security. Therefore, it is a daunting task for China to safeguard its territorial sovereignty, maritime rights and interests, and national unity. 中国拥有2.2万多千米陆地边界、1.8万多千米大陆海岸线,是世界上邻国最多、陆地边界最长、海上安全环境十分复杂的国家之一,维护领土主权、海洋权益和国家统一的任务艰巨繁重。
China's armed forces maintain a rigorous guard against encroachment, infiltration, sabotage or harassment so as to safeguard border security and stability. China has signed border cooperation agreements with 9 neighboring countries and set up border meeting mechanisms with 12 countries. China's armed forces have established mechanisms for exchanges with neighboring countries at three levels: national defense ministry, Theater Commands (TCs), and border troops. They conduct regular friendly mutual visits, working meetings, joint patrols and joint exercises targeting transnational crime with their foreign counterparts. They work together with Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan to implement the border disarmament treaty. They strive to promote stability and security along the border with India, and take effective measures to create favorable conditions for the peaceful resolution of the Donglang (Doklam) standoff. They enhance control along the border with Afghanistan to guard against the infiltration of terrorists. They strengthen security management along the border with Myanmar, so as to secure stability and public safety in the border areas. Since 2012, China's border troops have completed over 3,300 joint patrols and conducted over 8,100 border meetings with their foreign counterparts. They have cleared mines from 58 square kilometers of land, closed 25 square kilometers of landmine area, and disposed of 170,000 explosive devices such as landmines along the borders with Vietnam and Myanmar. 中国军队严密防范各类蚕食、渗透、破坏和袭扰活动,维护边防安全稳定。中国同周边9个国家签订边防合作协议,同12个国家建立边防会谈会晤机制,构建起国防部、战区、边防部队三级对外交往机制,常态化开展友好互访、工作会谈和联合巡逻执勤、联合打击跨境犯罪演练等活动。同哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦、俄罗斯、塔吉克斯坦开展边境裁军履约工作。加强中印方向稳边固防,采取有力措施为和平解决洞朗对峙事件创造有利条件。强化中阿边境管控,严防暴恐分子渗透。加强中缅方向安全管控,维护边境地区安宁和人民安全。2012年以来,中国边防部队同邻国军队共进行3300余次联合巡逻,举行8100余次边防会晤,在中越、中缅方向开展边境扫雷约58平方千米,封围雷场约25平方千米,排除地雷等爆炸物约17万枚。
...... 组织东海、南海、黄海等重要海区和岛礁警戒防卫,掌握周边海上态势,组织海上联合维权执法,妥善处置海空情况,坚决应对海上安全威胁和侵权挑衅行为。2012年以来,组织舰艇警戒巡逻4600余次和维权执法7.2万余次,维护海洋和平安宁和良好秩序。
 组织空防和对空侦察预警,监视国家领空及周边地区空中动态,组织空中警巡、战斗起飞,有效处置各种空中安全威胁和突发情况,维护空中秩序,维护空防安全。
 着眼捍卫国家统一,加强以海上方向为重点的军事斗争准备,组织舰机“绕岛巡航”,对“台独”分裂势力发出严正警告。
 保持常备不懈的战备状态
 军队保持战备状态,是有效应对安全威胁、履行使命任务的重要保证。中央军委和战区联合作战指挥机构严格落实战备值班制度,常态组织战备检查、战备拉动,保持随时能战状态,不断提高联合作战指挥能力,稳妥高效指挥处置各类突发情况,有效遂行各种急难险重任务。2018年,中央军委组织全军战备突击检查和部队整建制拉动,行动范围覆盖21个省、自治区、直辖市和东海、南海部分海域。
 解放军和武警部队强化战备观念,严格战备制度,加强战备值班执勤,扎实开展战备演练,建立正规战备秩序,保持良好战备状态,有效遂行战备(战斗)值班、巡逻执勤等任务。
 开展实战化军事训练
 军事训练是和平时期军队的基本实践活动。中国军队坚持把军事训练摆在重要位置,牢固树立战斗力这个唯一的根本的标准,完善军事训练法规和标准体系,建立健全训练监察体系,组织全军应急应战军事训练监察,落实练兵备战工作责任制,开展群众性练兵比武活动,不断提高实战化训练水平。
 全军兴起大抓实战化军事训练的热潮。2012年以来,全军部队广泛开展各战略方向使命课题针对性训练和各军兵种演训,师旅规模以上联合实兵演习80余场。
 各战区强化联合训练主体责任,扎实开展联合训练,结合各战略方向使命任务,组织“东部”“南部”“西部”“北部”“中部”系列联合实兵演习,努力提高联合作战能力。
 陆军广泛开展军事训练大比武,实施“跨越”“火力”等实兵实装实弹演习。海军拓展远海训练,航母编队首次在西太平洋海域开展远海作战演练,在南海海域和青岛附近海空域举行海上阅兵,组织“机动”系列实兵对抗演习和成体系全要素演习。空军加强体系化实案化全疆域训练,组织南海战巡、东海警巡、前出西太,常态化开展“红剑”等系列体系对抗演习。火箭军组织对抗性检验性训练、整旅整团实案化训练,强化联合火力打击训练,常态化开展“天剑”系列演习。战略支援部队积极融入联合作战体系,扎实开展新型领域对抗演练和应急应战训练。联勤保障部队推进融入联合作战体系,组织“联勤使命-2018”等系列演习演练。武警部队按照覆盖全国、高效联动、全域响应、多能一体的要求,实施“卫士”等系列演习。
 维护重大安全领域利益
 核力量是维护国家主权和安全的战略基石。中国军队严格核武器及相关设施安全管理,保持适度戒备状态,提高战略威慑能力,确保国家战略安全,维护国际战略稳定。
 太空是国际战略竞争制高点,太空安全是国家建设和社会发展的战略保障。着眼和平利用太空,中国积极参与国际太空合作,加快发展相应的技术和力量,统筹管理天基信息资源,跟踪掌握太空态势,保卫太空资产安全,提高安全进出、开放利用太空能力。
 网络空间是国家安全和经济社会发展的关键领域。网络安全是全球性挑战,也是中国面临的严峻安全威胁。中国军队加快网络空间力量建设,大力发展网络安全防御手段,建设与中国国际地位相称、与网络强国相适应的网络空间防护力量,筑牢国家网络边防,及时发现和抵御网络入侵,保障信息网络安全,坚决捍卫国家网络主权、信息安全和社会稳定。
 遂行反恐维稳
 中国坚决反对一切形式的恐怖主义、极端主义。中国武装力量依法参加维护社会秩序行动,防范和打击暴力恐怖活动,维护国家政治安全和社会大局稳定,保障人民群众安居乐业。
 武警部队执行重要目标守卫警戒、现场警卫、要道设卡和城市武装巡逻等任务,协同国家机关依法参加执法行动,打击违法犯罪团伙和恐怖主义活动,积极参与社会面防控,着力防范和处置各类危害国家政治安全、社会秩序的隐患,为“平安中国”建设作出重要贡献。2012年以来,每年均动用大量兵力担负执勤安保、反恐处突、海上维权执法等任务,参加二十国集团领导人峰会、亚太经合组织领导人非正式会议、“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛、金砖国家领导人会晤、上海合作组织青岛峰会等警卫安保任务近万起,参与处置劫持人质事件和严重暴力恐怖事件671起。2014年以来,协助新疆维吾尔自治区政府打掉暴力恐怖团伙1588个,抓获暴力恐怖人员12995人。
 ......

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