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Equality, Participation and Sharing: 70 Years of Protecting the Rights and Interests of Persons with Disabilities in the PRC
《平等、参与、共享:新中国残疾人权益保障70年》白皮书
【法宝引证码】

Equality, Participation and Sharing: 70 Years of Protecting the Rights and Interests of Persons with Disabilities in the PRC

 

《平等、参与、共享:新中国残疾人权益保障70年》白皮书

(The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China July 2019) (中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室 2019年7月)

The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China issued the white paper, Equality, Participation and Sharing: 70 Years of Protecting the Rights and Interests of Persons with Disabilities in the PRC as follows: 国务院新闻办公室25日发表《平等、参与、共享:新中国残疾人权益保障70年》白皮书。全文如下:
Equality, Participation and Sharing: 70 Years of Protecting the Rights and Interests of Persons with Disabilities in the PRC 平等、参与、共享:新中国残疾人权益保障70年
Contents 目录
Preamble 前言
I. Development of the Cause of Persons with Disabilities   一、残疾人事业发展历程
II. Mechanisms for the Protection of Rights and Interests of Persons with Disabilities 二、残疾人权益保障机制
III. Health and Rehabilitation 三、健康与康复
IV. Special Education and Inclusive Education 四、特殊教育与融合教育
V. Employment and Entrepreneurship 五、就业与创业
VI. Basic Life and Social Security 六、基本生活与社会保障
VII. Creating an Accessible Environment and Enabling Mobility 七、无障碍环境建设与个人行动能力
VIII. Personal Freedom and Non-Discrimination 八、人身自由与非歧视
IX. Creating a Good Social Environment 九、营造良好社会环境
X. International Exchanges and Cooperation   十、对外交流与国际合作
Conclusion 结束语
Preamble 前言
Persons with disabilities are equal members of the human family. It is a bounden duty of the state and an essential requirement of socialism with Chinese characteristics to respect and protect their human rights and dignity, and to offer them equal opportunities to participate in social life and enjoy the fruits of the country's material and cultural progress on an equal footing. 残疾人是人类大家庭的平等成员。尊重和保障残疾人的人权和人格尊严,使他们能以平等的地位和均等的机会充分参与社会生活,共享物质文明和精神文明成果,是国家义不容辞的责任,也是中国特色社会主义制度的必然要求。
China now has a population of 85 million persons with disabilities. Over the 70 years since the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, and especially in the process of building socialism with Chinese characteristics, the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Chinese government have always put the people first and provided care for the group with special difficulties. China respects the wishes of those with disabilities, protects their rights, attaches importance to their participation in social life, grants them real civil rights, and makes them participants in, contributors to, and beneficiaries of our social and economic development. 中国有8500万残疾人。新中国成立70年来,在建设中国特色社会主义伟大事业进程中,中国共产党和中国政府本着对人民负责的精神,坚持以人民为中心,关心特殊困难群体,尊重残疾人意愿,保障残疾人权利,注重残疾人的社会参与,推动残疾人真正成为权利主体,成为经济社会发展的参与者、贡献者和享有者。
Guided by Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, China has included the cause of persons with disabilities in the agenda for building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. It maintains that in promoting the interests of persons with disabilities the government should play the leading role, while soliciting the participation of the whole of society and giving full play to the functions of the market, and that the government should keep improving the wellbeing of those with disabilities and also encourage their self-improvement and self-reliance. By incorporating the programs of persons with disabilities in the national social and economic plan and human rights action plan, China has improved the institutions for protecting their rights and interests. It has also improved their social security and upgraded public services for them, so that they are feeling happier, safer, and more satisfied. China's achievements in championing this cause have won recognition throughout the world. 在习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想指引下,中国将残疾人事业发展作为全面建成小康社会的重要目标,坚持政府主导与社会参与、市场推动相结合,坚持增进残疾人福祉和促进残疾人自强自立相结合,将残疾人事业纳入国家经济社会发展总体规划和国家人权行动计划,残疾人权益保障的体制机制不断完善,残疾人社会保障制度和服务体系不断健全,残疾人获得感、幸福感、安全感持续提升,残疾人事业取得举世瞩目的历史性成就。
I. Development of the Cause of Persons with Disabilities   一、残疾人事业发展历程
In the 70 years since it was founded, the PRC has taken into full consideration its realities and actual conditions, and developed its own strategy for protecting the rights and interests of persons with disabilities. It has worked tirelessly to promote the rights of persons with disabilities, protect their dignity, and ensure they participate equally in the nation's politics, economy, and social and cultural life. 中华人民共和国成立70年来,中国从国情和实际出发,努力促进和保护残疾人权利和尊严,保障残疾人平等参与经济、政治、社会和文化生活,走出了一条具有中国特色的残疾人事业发展道路。
Equal status for persons with disabilities. After the founding of the PRC, persons with disabilities got equal status with others politically, with the same lawful rights and obligations as all other citizens. The state promulgated the Provisional Regulations on Pensions and Preferential Treatments for Service Veterans with Disabilities, giving special guarantees to disabled service veterans in terms of rehabilitation, medical treatment, and their life, education, and employment. Welfare and mental institutions were established to take in persons with severe disabilities and without family, orphans with disabilities, elderly persons with disabilities, persons with mental disabilities, and disabled servicemen. With the introduction of special education schools for children with visual and hearing impairments and speech disorders, the government included special education for persons with disabilities in the national educational system. In rural areas, eligible disabled persons without the ability to work began to be guaranteed food, clothing, housing, medical care, burial services or education by collective economic organizations. In cities, persons with disabilities were provided with jobs at welfare factories and other similar units. China explored the socialized management of the affairs of persons with disabilities, establishing the China Blind Persons' Welfare Society in 1953, the China Deaf-mutes Welfare Society in 1956, and the China Association of the Blind and Deaf in 1960. Most provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government set up local associations and community-level organizations for persons with disabilities, who began to manage their own affairs. In both urban and rural areas, more persons with disabilities got jobs; they became more involved in cultural and sports activities, and their life began to improve. 残疾人获得平等地位。新中国成立以后,残疾人在政治上获得了和其他人一样的地位,享受应有的公民权利和义务。中国政府公布实施《革命残废军人优待抚恤暂行条例》等法规,对伤残军人等伤残人员的休养、治疗、生活、学习、工作给予特殊保障;建立福利机构和精神病院,收养或安置无依无靠的重度残疾人、残疾孤儿、残疾老人、精神残疾人和残疾军人;兴办了盲童学校、聋哑学校等特殊教育学校,确立了特殊教育在国民教育体系中的地位。在农村,对符合条件的失去劳动能力的残疾人由集体经济组织给予“五保”待遇(即保吃、保穿、保住、保医、保葬或保教);在城市,兴办福利工厂、福利生产单位安排残疾人就业。探索社会化管理方式,1953年成立中国盲人福利会,1956年成立中国聋哑人福利会,1960年在此基础上成立中国盲人聋哑人协会。大部分省、自治区、直辖市也建立起地方协会和基层组织,残疾人开始参与自身事务的管理。全国城乡劳动就业的残疾人增多,文化体育活动有所开展,残疾人生活初步改善。
Championing the programs of persons with disabilities since reform and opening up. Since reform and opening up was initiated in 1978, the CPC and the Chinese government have introduced a series of major measures to champion the programs of persons with disabilities and improve their lives. These include: founding of the China Foundation for Disabled Persons in 1984, the first national sample survey on disability in 1987, founding of the China Disabled Persons' Federation (CDPF) in 1988, and promulgation of the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities and the first five-year program for China's cause of these people in 1991. Entering the 21st century, as the country moved faster toward a moderately prosperous society, the cause of persons with disabilities also advanced in all respects. In 2008, the “Directives of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on Promoting the Cause of Persons with Disabilities” was issued, and the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities was revised. Promoting the interests of persons with disabilities, from being part of social welfare in the form of relief in the late 1970s and early 1980s, has evolved into an encompassing network covering rehabilitation, education, employment, poverty alleviation, social security, rights protection, culture, sports, accessible environment, and disability prevention. The environment has improved for persons with disabilities to join in social life, and their political, economic, cultural and social rights are respected and guaranteed. There has been a fundamental change in the life and work of persons with disabilities, who have evolved from recipients of relief in the past to a main body involved in relevant activities, and an important force for social and economic progress. In the course of reform and development, many persons with disabilities, for example Zhang Haidi, have become role models who embody the spirit of the Chinese nation and of the times. 残疾人事业在改革开放中兴起。改革开放以来,中国共产党和中国政府实施了一系列发展残疾人事业、改善残疾人状况的重大举措。1984年成立中国残疾人福利基金会,1987年开展第一次全国残疾人抽样调查,1988年成立中国残疾人联合会(简称“中国残联”),1991年颁布实施《中华人民共和国残疾人保障法》并第一次制定实施中国残疾人事业五年计划纲要。进入21世纪,国家加快推进全面小康社会建设,残疾人事业全面提升。2008年出台《中共中央 国务院关于促进残疾人事业发展的意见》,同年修订《中华人民共和国残疾人保障法》。残疾人事业由改革开放初期以救济为主的社会福利工作,逐步发展成为包括康复、教育、就业、扶贫、社会保障、维权、文化、体育、无障碍环境建设、残疾预防等领域的综合性社会事业。残疾人参与社会生活的环境大为改善,残疾人的经济、政治、文化和社会权利得到尊重和保障;残疾人的面貌发生根本性变化,由被动的受助者变为积极参与的主体,成为经济社会发展的一支重要力量,在改革和发展中涌现出一大批像张海迪那样的体现民族精神和时代风貌的优秀残疾人。
New progress in the cause of persons with disabilities. Since the 18th National Congress of the CPC in 2012, the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping as its core has given more care and attention to persons with disabilities. In 2014 and 2019 Xi met with representatives from model units for helping persons with disabilities, and with individual role models of self-reliance and hard work, pointing the direction for China's work for persons with disabilities. In 2014, in his letter to congratulate the China Foundation for Disabled Persons on its 30th anniversary, Xi said that persons with disabilities were a special group in need of extra care and attention. In 2017, in his congratulatory letter to the High-level Intergovernmental Meeting on the Midpoint Review of the Asian and Pacific Decade of Persons with Disabilities, 2013-2022, Xi said that China would continue to champion the cause of persons with disabilities, so that they could develop in an all-round way and achieve common prosperity. In 2016, during an inspection trip to Tangshan, Hebei Province, he said that in the course of completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects by 2020, not a single person with disabilities should be left behind. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, work related to persons with disabilities has become an important part of the Five-point Strategy (promoting economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological progress) and the Four-pronged Strategy (to complete a moderately prosperous society in all respects, to further reform, to advance the rule of law, and to strengthen Party discipline). The state has established a special welfare system for tens of millions of persons with disabilities, including living subsidies, nursing subsidies, and subsidies for children's rehabilitation. Persons with disabilities from poor households in rural areas, numbering in the millions, have become a focus in the final fight against poverty, and we should accurately apply policies and give them special assistance. In the Healthy China initiative, we should pay particular attention to each individual with disabilities and make sure everyone has access to health services. Public services for persons with disabilities have been included in the national system of basic public services, and efforts will continue to provide basic public services to them, improve weaker links, and enhance service quality. As all trades and walks of life strive to eliminate barriers, more and more persons with disabilities are receiving better education, which enable them to find jobs, start businesses, and participate in social life more equally. As the whole nation works to achieve the goals of “equality, participation and sharing” for persons with disabilities, Chinese society is more readily available to care for and help them. The cause of persons with disabilities is picking up speed, and these people are enjoying a greater sense of gain, happiness, and security. 残疾人事业迈上新台阶。中共十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央对残疾人格外关心、格外关注。2014年、2019年习近平两次会见全国自强模范暨助残先进集体和个人表彰大会受表彰代表,为我国残疾人事业发展指明方向,2014年向中国残疾人福利基金会成立30周年发去贺信提出“残疾人是一个特殊困难的群体,需要格外关心、格外关注”,2017年向2013-2022年亚太残疾人十年中期审查高级别政府间会议致贺信提出“中国将进一步发展残疾人事业,促进残疾人全面发展和共同富裕”,2016年在河北省唐山市考察时提出“2020年全面建成小康社会,残疾人一个也不能少”的任务目标。自中共十八大以来,残疾人工作成为“五位一体”总体布局和“四个全面”战略布局的重要内容。在国家层面建立起覆盖数千万残疾人口,包含生活补贴、护理补贴、儿童康复补贴等内容的残疾人专项福利制度;在全国范围内将数百万农村贫困残疾人脱贫作为打赢脱贫攻坚战的重点,精准施策、特别扶助;在实施“健康中国”战略中高度重视和关注每个残疾人的健康问题,加快实现“人人享有健康服务”目标;将残疾人基本公共服务纳入国家基本公共服务体系,持续推进残疾人基本公共服务托底补短工作,不断提高残疾人基本公共服务供给水平;各行各业、社会各个方面都在努力消除障碍,越来越多的残疾人接受更好教育、实现就业创业、平等参与社会。残疾人“平等、参与、共享”的目标得到更好实现,关心帮助残疾人的社会氛围更加浓厚,残疾人事业发展进入了快车道,残疾人获得感、幸福感、安全感持续提升,残疾人事业整体发展水平迈上一个新台阶。
II. Mechanisms for the Protection of Rights and Interests of Persons with Disabilities   二、残疾人权益保障机制
China will continue to include the programs of persons with disabilities into the national development strategy, and strengthen the legal protection of their rights and interests, and improve the support system for them and the mechanisms for ensuring their rights and interests. 中国坚持将残疾人事业纳入国家发展战略,加强残疾人权益法治保障,健全残疾人工作体制,残疾人权益保障机制不断完善。
Integrating the programs of persons with disabilities into the national development strategy. Since 1991, programs of persons with disabilities have been included into the overall plan for national economic and social development. From the 11th to the 13th five-year plans, there have been special sections titled “protecting the rights and interests of persons with disabilities”, “accelerating the programs of persons with disabilities”, and “improving services to and protection of persons with disabilities” in these plans. The State Council has released seven five-year development plans for persons with disabilities, making overall arrangements for the protection of their rights and interests. To further define the tasks and responsibility list for the protection of persons with disabilities, China has issued “Instructions of the State Council on Accelerating the Process Toward Prosperity for Persons with Disabilities”, “Outline for Accelerating the Process Toward Prosperity for Persons with Disabilities in the 13th Five-year Plan Period”, “Plan for Promoting Equal Access to Basic Public Services in the 13th Five-year Plan Period”, “The National Disability Prevention Program (2016-2020)”, and two documents of “Special Education Promotion Plan”, for 2014-2016 and 2017-2020 respectively. Launched in 2009, the three documents of the “National Human Rights Action Plan” for 2009-2010, 2011-2015, and 2016-2020 specified the tasks and goals of this mission. 残疾人事业纳入国家发展战略。自1991年开始,残疾人事业被纳入国民经济和社会发展总体规划,“十一五”至“十三五”国民经济和社会发展规划中分别设立“保障残疾人权益”“加快残疾人事业发展”“提升残疾人服务保障水平”专节。国务院先后颁布7个残疾人事业五年发展规划,对残疾人权益保障工作作出总体部署;发布《国务院关于加快推进残疾人小康进程的意见》《“十三五”加快残疾人小康进程规划纲要》《“十三五”推进基本公共服务均等化规划》《国家残疾预防行动计划(2016-2020年)》和两期《特殊教育提升计划》等一批专项规划,进一步细化残疾人事业发展的工作任务和责任清单;自2009年开始施行的三期国家人权行动计划均规定了残疾人权益保障的任务要求和完成指标。
Law-based protection of rights and interests of persons with disabilities. A legal system is now in place in China with the Constitution of the People's Republic of China as basis, the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities as its mainstay. It is taken to a further level of detail in the Regulations on Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities, Regulations on the Education of Persons with Disabilities, Regulations on the Employment of Persons with Disabilities, and Regulations on the Building of an Accessible Environment. By April 2018, more than 80 laws and 50 administrative regulations had been passed concerning the protection of the rights and interests of persons with disabilities. The Constitution of the People's Republic of China explicitly specifies that all citizens, including persons with disabilities, have the right to vote and to stand for election in accordance with the law. The Law on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities provides that persons with disabilities shall enjoy the same economic, political, cultural, social and family rights as other citizens. The Electoral Law of the National People's Congress and Local People's Congresses contains special provisions concerning the election rights of persons with disabilities, requiring that assistance be provided to facilitate their participation in elections. In 2018, over 5,000 persons with disabilities, relatives of this group, and personnel working for them were deputies to the people's congresses and members of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) above the county level. The state has taken measures to ensure the equal rights of persons with disabilities to participate in public affairs. The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) has carried out inspections on the implementation of the Law on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities to improve the protection of their lawful rights and interests. The CPPCC National Committee has held various consultative conferences for the same goal. The Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, and the CDPF have built a joint working mechanism to this end. The Ministry of Public Security has acted with resolution against illegal criminal acts infringing upon the legal rights and interests of persons with disabilities. The 12385 service hotline for persons with disabilities has been launched nationwide, and an online petition platform is also available to expand the channels for these people to express their concerns. 残疾人权益保障法治化。中国已形成以《中华人民共和国宪法》为核心,以《中华人民共和国残疾人保障法》为主干,以《残疾预防和残疾人康复条例》《残疾人教育条例》《残疾人就业条例》《无障碍环境建设条例》等为重要支撑的残疾人权益保障法律法规体系。截至2018年4月,直接涉及残疾人权益保障的法律有80多部,行政法规有50多部。《中华人民共和国宪法》明确规定包括残疾人在内的所有公民都依法享有选举权和被选举权,《中华人民共和国残疾人保障法》规定残疾人在经济、政治、文化、社会和家庭生活等方面享有同其他公民平等的权利,《中华人民共和国选举法》对残疾人行使选举权作出特殊规定,要求为残疾人参加选举提供便利。2018年,共有5000多名残疾人、残疾人亲友和残疾人工作者担任县级以上人大代表和政协委员。国家采取多种措施保障残疾人参与公共事务的平等权利。全国人大常委会多次开展《中华人民共和国残疾人保障法》实施情况的执法检查,持续推动残疾人合法权益保障工作不断改进,全国政协通过开展多种形式的协商议政活动持续推进残疾人的权益保护,最高人民法院、最高人民检察院与中国残联建立协调工作机制,公安部依法严厉打击侵犯残疾人合法权益的违法犯罪行为。全国普遍开通12385残疾人服务热线,建成残疾人信访工作网上服务平台,拓宽残疾人利益诉求渠道。
Prioritizing a public legal service system for persons with disabilities. The Supreme People's Court and eight other departments have jointly issued the “Directives on Strengthening Legal Aid for Persons with Disabilities”, and set up a leading group to guide local departments in building legal aid centers. The Supreme People's Court requires that people's courts at all levels open up green channels for persons with disabilities, give them priority, provide them with convenient legal services, and create barrier-free facilities in courts. The Ministry of Justice released the “Directives on Improving Public Legal Services for Persons with Disabilities in the 13th Five-year Plan Period” to expand the scope of these services, including legal aid, and to strengthen criminal legal aid for these people. By 2018, more than 2,600 legal aid centers and more than 2,600 service windows for persons with disabilities had been set up across the nation. And 1,814 legal aid stations had been built by disabled persons' federations at all levels. From 2014 to 2018, a total of 312,000 persons with disabilities benefited from legal aid services, and 1,242,000 received legal advice from legal aid organizations. 残疾人公共法律服务体系优先建设。最高人民法院等九部门联合印发《关于加强残疾人法律救助工作的意见》,成立了残疾人法律救助工作协调领导小组,指导地方设立残疾人法律救助工作站。最高人民法院要求各级人民法院为残疾人开辟绿色通道,提供优先服务;同时要求为残疾人提供司法便民服务,为残疾人参加庭审活动提供无障碍设施。司法部发布《关于“十三五”加强残疾人公共法律服务的意见》,拓展了残疾人公共法律服务领域,扩大了残疾人法律援助范围,加强了残疾人刑事法律援助。截至2018年,全国设立残疾人法律援助工作站2600余个,建成法律援助便民服务窗口2600余个,各级残疾人联合会(简称“残联”)建立残疾人法律救助工作站1814个。2014年至2018年,共为31.2万残疾人提供法律援助,法律援助机构组织为残疾人提供法律咨询共计124.2万人次。
Improving the support system for persons with disabilities. To provide better protection to persons with disabilities, we have formed a support system in which the CPC Party committees take the lead, the government takes responsibilities, the public gives support, and disabled persons' organizations play an important role. In March 2008, the “Directives of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on Promoting the Cause of Persons with Disabilities” was released, which stipulates the general requirements for this work. The State Council Working Committee on Disability was set up by leaders from 34 ministries, departments and organizations to coordinate the formulation and implementation of guidelines, policies, regulations and programs made by the State Council in relation to persons with disabilities, and to address major problems in this regard. The member units of this committee are assigned duties to meet this goal. The people's governments above the county level have set up their own committees to develop programs of persons with disabilities. As the bridge and the bond between the Party, the government, and persons with disabilities, the CDPF and its local branches employ to the full their capacity to represent, manage and serve the interests of this group. The Labor Union, the Communist Youth League, the Women's Federation, and the Association for the Elderly apply their strength to safeguard the lawful rights and interests of workers, youth, women, children and the elderly with disabilities. The Red Cross Society, Charity Society, and China Foundation for Disabled Persons help to raise money and collect donations for those with disabilities. Enterprises and public institutions shoulder their responsibilities to play their part in helping these people. 残疾人工作体制逐步健全。在推进残疾人事业的工作实践中,形成了党委领导、政府负责、社会参与、残疾人组织充分发挥作用的中国残疾人工作体制。2008年3月发布《中共中央 国务院关于促进残疾人事业发展的意见》,明确了残疾人事业发展的总体要求。成立由34个部委和机构负责人组成的国务院残疾人工作委员会(简称“国务院残工委”),协调国务院有关残疾人事业方针、政策、法规、规划的制定与实施,解决残疾人工作中的重大问题。国务院残工委各成员单位按照部门分工履行残疾人事业有关职责,推动有关残疾人政策的制定与落实。全国县级以上人民政府均成立了残疾人工作委员会。中国残联及地方各级残联充分发挥代表、服务、管理职能,成为党和政府联系残疾人的桥梁和纽带。工会、共青团、妇联等人民团体和老龄协会等社会组织发挥各自优势,维护残疾职工、残疾青年、残疾妇女、残疾儿童和残疾老人的合法权益。红十字会、慈善会、残疾人福利基金会等慈善组织为残疾人事业筹集善款,开展爱心捐助活动。企事业单位承担社会责任,为残疾人事业发展贡献力量。
Full development of disabled persons' federations. The CDPF is a legitimate organization approved by the State Council. It is composed of persons with disabilities, their relatives, and personnel working for them. It represents and safeguards the legitimate rights and interests of persons with disabilities, and aims to unite, help and serve them. It performs duties assigned by law, undertakes tasks entrusted by the government, and manages and develops programs of persons with disabilities. The highest authority of the CDPF is the National Congress, which is held every five years. By 2018, a total of 42,000 disabled persons' federations had been set up across the nation (with the exception of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps and Heilongjiang Reclamation Area). The CDPF takes leadership over the China Association of Persons with Visual Disabilities, the China Association of Persons with Hearing Disabilities, the China Association of Persons with Physical Disabilities, the China Association of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities and Their Relatives, and the China Association of Persons with Psychiatric Disabilities and Their Relatives. By 2018, a total of 16,000 branches of these associations at provincial, prefectural (municipal) and county levels were in place. 残疾人组织得到充分发展。中国残联是国家法律确认、国务院批准的由残疾人及其亲友和残疾人工作者组成的人民团体,它代表残疾人共同利益,维护残疾人合法权益;团结帮助残疾人,为残疾人服务;履行法律赋予的职责,承担政府委托的任务,管理和发展残疾人事业。中国残联的最高权力机构是全国代表大会,每五年举行一次。截至2018年,全国(除新疆生产建设兵团、黑龙江垦区外)共成立残联组织4.2万个。中国残联领导盲人协会、聋人协会、肢残人协会、智力残疾人及亲友协会、精神残疾人及亲友协会等专门协会。截至2018年,全国共建立省、地(市)、县三级五类残疾人专门协会1.6万个。
Improving data collection and census mechanisms for persons with disabilities. In order to optimize management and fine-tune services, China has strengthened processes for gathering data on persons with disabilities, and for regulating and improving the statistical indicators for the protection of their rights and interests. It has established systems for monitoring disability at the national and provincial levels, for gathering data and monitoring indicators, and for collecting comprehensive statistical forms from all departments and all regions and having them submitted regularly to higher-level authorities for review. Two national surveys on disability in 1987 and 2006 gave us a clearer picture of this group and of the protection of their human rights. Since 2015, surveys have been carried out on their basic services and demands, and on public services available to them at the community level. Databases have been built, and data shared among relevant departments of the government. In 2018, dynamic information on the services accessible to and demands of 33.08 million persons with disability certificates, and information on service facilities for persons with disabilities in 690,000 villages (communities) was gathered. 残疾人数据收集和统计机制不断完善。加强残疾人事业统计调查,规范和完善残疾人权益保障的统计指标,实现残疾人权益保障精细化管理、精准化服务。逐步建立国家和省(区、市)残疾人状况监测体系,制定统计监测指标体系,建立各地区各部门综合统计报表和定期报送审评制度。1987年和2006年开展了两次全国残疾人抽样调查,掌握了残疾人及其人权保障的基本状况。自2015年开始,每年开展全国残疾人基本服务状况和需求调查,统计全国残疾人的基本服务状况、需求信息以及社区残疾人基本公共服务状况信息,建立残疾人基础数据库,实现与政府有关部门数据共享。2018年收集全国3308万持有中华人民共和国残疾人证的残疾人基本服务状况和需求的动态信息,以及近69万个村(社区)的残疾人服务设施状况信息。
A marked increase in financial support to programs of persons with disabilities. 残疾人事业财政支持大幅增长。“十一五”期间全国残联系统用于残疾人事业发展的财政资金为573.59亿元,“十二五”期间财政资金投入1451.24亿元,比“十一五”期间增长153%。2016年,全国残联系统用于“十三五”期间残疾人事业发展的财政资金共计416.69亿元,比“十二五”同期(2011年)增加241.54亿元,增长138%。2013年至2017年各级财政专门用于残疾人事业的资金投入超过1800亿元,比上一个五年增长123%。2018年已竣工残疾人服务设施达到4069个。
? Disabled persons' federations across the nation spent RMB57.36 billion on programs for helping these people during the 11th Five-year Plan period (2006-2010). 
? The figure grew to RMB145.12 billion during the 12th Five-year Plan period (2011-2015), an increase of 153 percent. 
? The investment was RMB41.67 billion in 2016, the first year of the 13th Five-year Plan period (2016-2020), an increase of RMB24.15 billion, or 138 percent, compared with the first year (2011) during the 12th Five-year Plan period. 
? From 2013 to 2017, the fiscal allocations from all levels of the government for persons with disabilities added up to over RMB180 billion, up by 123 percent over the prior five years. 
? In 2018, 4,069 service facilities were in place. 
III. Health and Rehabilitation   三、健康与康复
China attaches great importance to ensuring the right to health for persons with disabilities. It makes comprehensive efforts in preventing disability, and works hard to improve rehabilitation services, in pursuit of the goal that “everyone in need has access to rehabilitation services.” 中国高度重视残疾人健康权利保障,全面开展残疾预防,大力推进康复服务,努力实现残疾人“人人享有康复服务”的目标。
Policies for ensuring health services for people with disabilities are pragmatic and comprehensive. The “Outline of Healthy China 2030”, the “Plan for Health in the 13th Five-year Plan Period”, and the “Plan for Deepening Medical and Healthcare Reform in the 13th Five-year Plan Period” have raised explicit requirements for ensuring healthcare for persons with disabilities, and improving the ability of community-level institutions to deliver medical and rehabilitation services. The Regulations on Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities have been enacted and implemented. A subsidy system for nursing persons with severe disabilities has been established. Persons with disabilities are provided with special medical services, and they are also priority targets in family doctors' contracting services. Local governments are encouraged to incorporate basic rehabilitation services into personalized contracts with family doctors. Exercise therapy and 28 other medical rehabilitation items are covered by basic medical insurance. Since the 1990s, the Chinese government and various sectors of the society have funded surgeries for cataract patients, and more than 10 million people have recovered eyesight through this campaign. Special attention has been paid to medical and healthcare services for impoverished people with disabilities in rural areas. The government has issued the “Guiding Opinions on Programs of Poverty Alleviation Through Healthcare”, “Action Plan for Three Groups of People in Programs of Poverty Alleviation Through Healthcare”, “Implementation Plan for Addressing the Difficulties of Poor Households Caused by Disabilities”, and the “Three-year Action Plan for Poverty Alleviation Through Medical Security (2018-2020)”. In rural areas, poor people with disabilities are now covered by basic medical insurance, serious disease insurance, and medical assistance, all of which play an effective role in securing comprehensive healthcare for them. Medical insurance benefits for registered poor people with disabilities have been improved. More efforts have been made to build county-level rehabilitation service centers for persons with disabilities, with the goal of improving the capabilities of community-level institutions in providing rehabilitation services. A working mechanism has been established to coordinate medical institutions and professional rehabilitation institutions for persons with disabilities. 残疾人健康保障政策务实全面。《“健康中国2030”规划纲要》《“十三五”卫生与健康规划》《“十三五”深化医药卫生体制改革规划》等对维护残疾人健康、加强基层医疗康复能力建设等提出明确要求。《残疾预防和残疾人康复条例》颁布实施。建立重度残疾人护理补贴制度,向残疾人提供残疾特需医疗卫生服务,将残疾人作为家庭医生签约服务的优先对象,鼓励各地将基本康复服务纳入个性化签约范围。运动疗法等29项医疗康复项目纳入基本医疗保险支付范围。自20世纪90年代以来,中国政府和社会各界出资,对白内障患者开展手术治疗,累计使1000余万人复明。特别关注农村贫困残疾人医疗卫生服务状况,制定发布《关于实施健康扶贫工程的指导意见》《健康扶贫工程“三个一批”行动计划》《着力解决因残致贫家庭突出困难的实施方案》和《医疗保障扶贫三年行动实施方案(2018-2020年)》,将农村贫困残疾人纳入基本医保、大病保险、医疗救助范围,充分发挥三项制度综合保障作用,切实提高建档立卡贫困残疾人医疗保障受益水平,加强县级残疾人康复服务中心建设,提升基层康复服务能力,建立医疗机构与残疾人专业康复机构协调配合的工作机制。
...... 残疾预防工作取得积极成效。制定发布《国家残疾预防行动计划(2016-2020年)》,采取有效措施减少和控制残疾发生。在全国开展残疾预防综合试验区试点工作,探索完善残疾筛查、评定、报告及干预一体化工作机制。实施国家免疫规划,加强婚前孕前健康检查、孕产妇产前筛查诊断以及新生儿和儿童残疾筛查。制定《0-6岁儿童残疾筛查工作规范(试行)》,实现5类儿童残疾的早筛早诊早治。加强传染病、地方病、慢性病等疾病防治,实施食盐加碘、增补叶酸等重点预防工程,基本消除了脊髓灰质炎、碘缺乏病等致残因素。加强安全举措,减少意外伤害致残因素。科技部积极推进残疾预防技术攻关,通过“生殖健康及重大出生缺陷防控研究”和“重大慢性非传染性疾病防控研究”重点专项,部署开展出生缺陷防控和主要致残性重大慢性疾病防控技术研究,有效减少因病致残的发生。2017年国务院正式批准将每年8月25日设立为“残疾预防日”,在“残疾预防日”、爱耳日、防治碘缺乏病日、爱眼日、预防出生缺陷日、精神卫生日等节点开展宣传活动,提高公众残疾预防意识。截至2016年,全国共为8091万名农村围孕期妇女提供免费补服叶酸服务,为97.8万对夫妇免费提供地中海贫血筛查服务,为469万名新生儿提供免费先天性疾病筛查。
 残疾人康复条件逐步完善。残疾人康复机构从无到有,专业队伍建设不断加强,工作体系、业务格局、运行机制逐步建立,服务能力日益提高。截至2018年,全国已竣工的省、市、县三级康复设施914个,总建筑面积344.9万平方米;全国残疾人专业康复服务机构9036个,在岗人员25万人,2750个县(市、区)开展社区康复服务。康复工作内容由三项抢救性康复项目发展成为覆盖多学科领域、满足各类别残疾人需要、预防与康复并重的服务体系。2018年,全国621所中等、高等职业技术学校和普通本专科院校开设康复专业,毕业生人数为29334人。为进一步加强康复专业人才培养,建设中国康复大学已纳入“十三五”规划和《“十三五”加快残疾人小康进程规划纲要》,筹建工作正式启动。大力开展社区康复服务,提升社区康复能力。截至2018年,开展社区康复服务的市辖区为1001个,县(市)为1749个,有社区康复协调员47.8万人。建立残疾儿童康复救助制度,为残疾儿童接受基本康复救助提供制度性保障。全国9个省(区、市)建立了残疾人辅助器具补贴制度,减轻了残疾人家庭经济负担。实施残疾人精准康复服务行动,为残疾儿童和持证残疾人提供康复医疗、康复训练、支持性服务、辅助器具适配等基本康复服务。科技部着力推进助残、惠残产品研发,通过“主动健康和老龄化科技应对”和“生物医用材料研发与组织器官修复替代”重点专项,部署开展康复辅助器具、人工组织器官修复材料等研发。完善工伤康复制度,提高伤残抚恤标准。2006年至2016年,2178.1万残疾人次得到不同程度康复。2018年,1074.7万名残疾儿童及持证残疾人得到基本康复服务,残疾人康复服务覆盖率达到79.8%。
 残疾儿童健康得到特别关注。遵循儿童利益最大化原则,高度关注残疾儿童健康。第二次全国残疾人抽样调查数据显示,0-14岁残疾儿童占残疾人总人数的4.69%,比1987年第一次全国残疾人抽样调查数据下降11.21个百分点。优先开展0-6岁残疾儿童抢救性治疗和康复,实施精准康复服务。2018年,15.7万名0-6岁残疾儿童得到基本康复服务。为更全面更可持续地保障残疾儿童的基本康复权利,国务院2018年6月发布《关于建立残疾儿童康复救助制度的意见》,正式建立残疾儿童康复救助制度。推进残疾儿童康复救助项目,对患有脑瘫、弱视、听障等重大疾病儿童进行救助。建立包括残疾孤儿在内的孤儿基本生活保障制度,实施“儿童福利机构建设蓝天计划”和“全国残疾孤儿手术康复明天计划”。截至2018年6月,“全国残疾孤儿手术康复明天计划”已为12.5万名手术适应症残疾孤儿、弃婴实施了手术矫治和康复训练。
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