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Report on the Trial of Financial Cases and Ten Noteworthy Financial Cases in Shanghai Courts 2018
2018年度上海法院金融商事审判情况通报及十大案例
【法宝引证码】

Report on the Trial of Financial Cases and Ten Noteworthy Financial Cases in Shanghai Courts 2018

 

2018年度上海法院金融商事审判情况通报及十大案例

(July 29, 2019) (2019年7月29日)

Report on the Trial of Financial Cases in Shanghai Courts 2018.pdf

 2018年度上海法院金融商事审判情况通报
Ten Noteworthy Financial Cases in Shanghai Courts of 2018 

  2018年度上海法院金融商事审判十大案例

 

Contents 目 录

1. Financial Institutions Have the Obligation to Timely Correct Erroneous Credit Information 一、金融机构有义务及时更正错误征信信息
2. Issuing Bank May Adjust Credit Limit Based on Cardholder's Credit Standing Pursuant to Contract 二、发卡行有权依约根据持卡人资信状况调整信用卡额度
3. Principles of Judicial Discretion on The Apparent Examination Obligation of Advising Banks under UCP600 三、UCP600下信用证通知行表面审核义务的司法裁量原则
4. Banks shall Reach Agreement with Customers on Payment Limits of Electronic Ciphers and Disclose to Customers Relevant Risks 四、银行应与客户约定电子密码器支付限额并进行风险揭示
5. The Agreement between Parties cannot be Relied on to Defend against the Record in the Electronic Commercial Draft System 五、当事人的约定不能对抗电子商业汇票系统中的记载
6. Invalid Sales Contract does not Necessarily Invalidate the Short-term Export Credit Insurance Contract 六、短期出口信用综合险中销售合同无效并不导致保险合同无效
7. A Cargo Carrier may Rely on the Agreed Limit of Liability to Defend Against a Tort Claim by an Insurer 七、货物承运人有权以合同约定的责任限额对抗保险人侵权赔偿请求权
8. The Admission of the Appraiser's Opinion on Disability in Dispute over Life Insurance 八、人身保险纠纷中伤残鉴定意见的认证规则
9. Agreements executed by Commercial Factoring Companies on Lending through P2P Platforms are Void and Invalid 九、商业保理公司通过P2P平台放贷为无效合同
10. Entrusted Shareholding Agreement in Listed Companies is Held Invalid 十、上市公司股权隐名代持行为应认定无效
Case No.1 案例一
Financial Institutions Have the Obligation to Timely Correct Erroneous Credit Information 

金融机构有义务及时更正错误征信信息

- a case of Chen A v. Bank A on disputes over tort liability --陈某与甲银行侵权责任纠纷案

[Gist] 【裁判要旨】
A person's credit standing denotes the society's evaluation on his/her economic status, specifically on his/her economic reliability and ability to pay. Violation of a person's credit interests does not necessarily imply widespread dissemination of his/her erroneous credit information. Banks or other financial institutions which, in violation of relevant regulatory provisions, fail to correct erroneous credit information in time, shall be held liable for any losses thus caused. 信用是社会成员对民事主体经济上的评价,以其经济生活中的可靠性或支付能力为内容。侵犯个人信用利益,并不以错误信用信息的广泛传播为构成要件。银行等金融机构违反监管规定,不及时更改错误征信信息,造成相对方损失的,应承担相应赔偿责任。
[Facts] 【基本事实】
On March 12, 2013, Bank A and Chen A signed a Loan Contract (the “Loan Contract”), according which, on March 13, 2013, Bank A granted Chen a loan of RMB 4.22 million. The term of the loan was 12 months. However, when the loan matured, Chen failed to repay the principal and interest as agreed. On May 28, 2014, the two parties reached a Settlement Agreement (the “Settlement Agreement”), in which they renewed their agreement on the repayable principal, interest, fees and the repayment term. In June, July and August 2014, Chen made repayments in accordance with the Settlement Agreement. By the end of September 2014, Chen still had some overdue interest and legal fees left unrepaid, but was notified by Bank A that such legal fees and penalty interest could be waived. As of September 30, 2014, the status of the account was “Cleared”. On October 17, 2014, Bank A deregistered relevant mortgage right on the ground that “the underlying loan has been fully repaid”. 甲银行与陈某于2013年3月12日签订《借款合同》。根据合同约定,甲银行于2013年3月13日向陈某发放贷款人民币422万元(以下币种同),借款期限为12个月。涉案贷款到期时,陈某未按时偿还本息。双方于2014年5月28日达成《和解协议》,就涉案贷款的本金、利息、费用等还款金额及还款期限重新作出约定。陈某在2014年6月、7月、8月均按此《和解协议》偿还了欠款。至2014年9月底,陈某尚欠部分逾期利息、律师费,但甲银行告知其可以减免部分律师费和罚息。2014年9月30日,账户状态为“结清”。2014年10月17日,甲银行以“贷款还清”为由注销涉案抵押权。
On October 22, 2015, Bank B checked credit status of Chen as the loan applicant with the Credit Reference System. The result showed that Chen still had an overdue loan of RMB79,353. Chen requested Bank A to correct the credit information, but Bank A failed to do so. Thereafter, Chen brought an action against Bank A, requesting the latter to correct the credit information and claiming damages for infringement upon his right to reputation. Bank A corrected the credit information during the action, but argued that its act did not constitute a tort because the erroneous information had not been widely disseminated and so not infringed upon Chen's personal reputation. 2015年10月22日,因办理贷款业务,乙银行向征信系统查询了陈某的征信信息,查询的结果显示陈某仍有79,353元贷款逾期未还。陈某要求甲银行更正其征信信息,但甲银行未予更正。陈某遂起诉请求甲银行变更其征信信息,并要求其承担损害赔偿责任。甲银行在诉讼期间更正了征信信息,但认为该错误信息没有得到广泛传播,并未侵犯其个人名誉,故不构成侵权。
[Judgement] 【裁判结果】
On July 30,2018, the Shanghai High People's Court (the “Court”) delivered a Civil Retrial Judgment ([2018] Hu Min Zai No.13), awarding Chen damages of RMB10,000 to be paid by Bank A. 上海市高级人民法院于2018年7月30日作出(2018)沪民再13号民事判决:甲银行赔偿陈某1万元。
[Reasoning] 【裁判理由】
The Court held that, a person's credit standing denotes the society's evaluation on his/her economic status, specifically on his/her economic reliability and ability to pay. Like the right to reputation, credit is also a kind of social evaluation, but the two differs in the scope of protection and constitutive elements. According to Article 40 of the Regulation on the Administration of Credit Investigation Industry, if an institution that provides information to the Basic Database of Financial Credit Information violates relevant rules by failing to resolve the dispute or to correct the erroneous and/or omitted data according to the regulation, it shall be held liable for compensating losses thus caused to relevant data subjects. According to this article, holding an information provider liable is not conditioned upon widespread dissemination of false information. Hence, there is no legal basis for the argument made by Bank A that its act did not constitute a tort because the false information had not been widely disseminated. Meanwhile, Chen the retrial petitioner, to eliminate the adverse influence of the infringement and safeguard his legal rights, incurred economic losses by filing lawsuits. There was a direct causality between such losses suffered by Chen and the failure by Bank A to timely correct the erroneous information, and Bank A should compensate for such losses. Therefore, the Court discretionarily awarded a compensation of RMB10,000. 法院认为,信用是社会其他成员对民事主体经济上的评价,是以经济生活中的可靠性或支付能力为内容。与名誉权相比,信用虽然也是一种社会上的评价,但两者的保护范畴不同,在其构成要件上也存在差异。我国《征信业管理条例》第四十条规定,向金融信用信息基础数据库提供或者查询信息的机构未按照规定处理异议或者对确有错误、遗漏的信息不予更正,给信息主体造成损失的,应依法承担民事责任。该条规定并未将错误信息的广泛传播作为责任构成要件。甲银行以错误信息未广泛传播为由主张不构成侵权的理由,欠缺法律依据。再审申请人为排除侵权行为,历经自行维权和诉讼,产生多项费用,其损失与甲银行未及时更正错误信息的行为之间存在相当因果关系,甲银行应予赔偿。法院酌情确定赔偿金额为1万元。
[Significance] 【裁判意义】
The modern economy is in essence credit economy, good credit has become an important condition for enterprises and individuals to develop their economic life normally. For individuals, credit information has a direct impact on their access to loans, credit cards and other financial services, and even on their education, employment, going abroad and many other aspects. As important providers of personal credit information, banks and other financial institutions should, in strict accordance with relevant regulatory provisions, report credit information truly, accurately and timely, and avoid any possible violation of personal rights and interests. The judgment of this case has made it clear that if a financial institution fails to correct erroneous credit information in a timely manner as required by relevant regulations and rules, it should be held liable for compensating losses thus caused to the information subject. This will help regulate the industry and safeguard the credit interests of parties concerned. 现代经济是信用经济,良好的信用已经成为企业及个人正常开展经济生活的重要条件。就个人而言,征信信息直接影响其获得贷款、申领信用卡等金融服务,甚至对其求学、就业、出国等越来越多的领域产生影响。银行等金融机构作为个人征信信息的重要提供者,应当严格遵守相关监管规定,真实、准确、及时地报送征信信息,避免因信息错误侵犯个人权益。本案判决明确金融机构违反相关规定,不及时更改错误征信信息,造成相对方损失的,应承担相应赔偿责任,将有利于规范行业行为,维护当事人信用利益。
Case No.2 案例二
Issuing Bank May Adjust Credit Limit Based on Cardholder's Credit Standing Pursuant to Contract 

发卡行有权依约根据持卡人资信状况调整信用卡额度

...... --邱某与甲信用卡中心信用卡纠纷案

 【裁判要旨】
 信用卡领用合约中,当事人关于发卡行有权根据持卡人资信状况变化调整信用卡额度的约定有效。持卡人是否发生约定的“资信状况变化”,可以从案涉信用卡逾期还款次数、逾期还款金额和时间以及持卡人其他信用卡还款情况等方面,综合予以判定。
 【基本案情】
 2012年9月6日,邱某(乙方)向甲信用卡中心(甲方)申请办理信用卡并填写申请表。申请表上,邱某手写“本人已阅读全部申请材料,充分了解并清楚知晓该信用卡产品的相关信息,愿意遵守领用合同的各项规则”,并且签名确认。关于信用额度调整,《领用合约》第二条第一款约定:“甲方有权根据乙方资信状况的变化随时调整其信用额度并以电话、书面或其他方式通知乙方。该调整一经甲方作出即对乙方具有约束力。”合同签订后,甲信用卡中心向邱某发放信用卡,信用额度为2万元。2012年11月,2013年3月、6月、9月,2014年2月、3月,2017年5月、6月,2018年3月,案涉信用卡均发生逾期还款。原告持有的其他四家银行信用卡也在2017年存在多次逾期还款。2018年3月29日,甲信用卡中心以短信方式通知邱某调减信用额度至1万元。邱某遂诉至法院,要求恢复案涉信用卡原有信用额度2万元。
 【裁判结果】
 上海市浦东新区人民法院于2019年1月10日作出(2018)沪0115民初52721号民事判决:驳回邱某的诉讼请求。判决后,双方当事人均未上诉,判决已发生法律效力。
 【裁判理由】
 法院认为:首先,《领用合约》第二条第一款符合《商业银行信用卡业务监督管理办法》第五十二条的规定。虽然上述约定和法律规定未明确资信状况的具体标准,但是就本案而言,邱某出现的案涉信用卡还款逾期以及其他银行信用卡还款逾期,显然属于“资信状况变化”的通常理解范围。其次,甲信用卡中心由此调减邱某信用额度,固然在一定程度上限制了邱某持卡交易的权利,但亦相应地减少了邱某在资信状况恶化情况下、继续持卡交易后无力还款的信用风险,同时该调减也限制了甲信用卡中心的利息收益,故该调减对邱某而言并未显失公平。第三,《领用合约》第二条第一款约定的信用额度调整涉及的是发卡银行承担垫付义务的范围,而非发卡银行的责任限制或者免除,并且该调整既包括调减也包括调高,故法院对邱某提出的甲信用卡中心对免责格式条款未提示和说明的理由亦不予支持。综上,甲信用卡中心有权依据《领用合约》的约定单方调减邱某案涉信用卡的信用额度。
 【裁判意义】
 随着信贷政策变化以及金融消费者维权意识的增强,持卡人要求恢复信用卡授信额度的案件持续增多。从行政监管、风险防控角度而言,案涉调整授信额度条款并未违规。针对“资信状况”的解释问题,法院以诚信为价值导向,从还款逾期次数、逾期金额和时间、还款方式等角度,判断资信状况是否发生变化,提供了“资信状况变化”的审查判断参考标准。本判决体现了信用卡交易的诚信原则和契约精神,有利于提高金融消费者的守约意识和信用意识,规范金融交易行为。
 案例三
 

UCP600下信用证通知行表面审核义务的司法裁量原则

 --甲公司诉乙银行信用证纠纷案

 【裁判要旨】
 根据《跟单信用证统一惯例》(UCP600),通知行仍负有审核信用证表面真实性的义务,其确认表面真实性应基于合理理由。以密押SWIFT电文(环球同业银行金融电讯协会的电文系统)向开证行求证属于合理有效的审核方式。SWIFT电文内容有歧义时,应当根据电文发送背景和目的判断通知行的理解是否合理。交单行、议付行对同一电文内容的理解可用于横向比较通知行的理解是否合理。
 【基本案情】
 乙银行(通知行)向受益人甲公司通知了一份由美国某银行(开证行)开立的不可撤销跟单信用证。甲公司与乙银行先后收到邮件寄送的修改件,为核实修改件的真实性,乙银行向开证行发送SWFIT电文进行询问。开证行在回复中确认系争两份信用证(原文用语为“L/C'S”)的真实性,并请通知行尽快通知到受益人。之后,乙银行向甲公司通知了修改件。甲公司根据修改后的信用证办理货物出口运输手续并委托丙银行(交单行)向开证行交单请付。开证行以单证不符为由拒付,并表示未对信用证进行过修改。甲公司出口的货物因信用证遭拒付被滞留目的港,无法办理退运或转港手续,后诉至法院,请求判令乙银行对其货款损失承担赔偿责任。
 【裁判结果】
 上海市第一中级人民法院于2017年9月24日作出(2017)沪01民初227号民事判决:驳回甲公司的诉讼请求。宣判后,甲公司提出上诉。上海市高级人民法院于2018年12月3日作出(2017)沪民终408号民事判决:驳回上诉,维持原判。
 【裁判理由】
 法院认为:《跟单信用证统一惯例》(UCP600)第九条规定,通知行通知信用证及修改的行为表示其已确信其表面真实性,由此可见,通知行负有审核信用证表面真实性的义务。与前一版本即UCP500相比,UCP600未使用“通知行应合理审慎地审核信用证表面真实性”这一表述,是为避免“合理审慎”这一弹性较大的用语在不同国家和地区产生不同理解,但毫无疑问,通知行“确信信用证表面真实性”仍应基于合理理由。
 通知行对信用证及修改的审核限于表面真实性,审核方式应符合国际银行实务惯例,以一个理性银行信用证业务人员运用与其专业知识及普通常识能够做到的注意和谨慎为参考,以密押SWIFT电文向开证行求证属于合理有效的审核方式。本案争议的主要内容是SWIFT电文中“L/C'S”的含义,究竟是指信用证还是信用证的修改件。“L/C”是信用证(Letter of Credit)的缩写,但在系争SWIFT电文中,“L/C”有时也指信用证的修改件。另外,“L/C'S”中的“'S”有时表示所属关系,有时表示复数。当SWIFT电文内容有歧义时,应当根据电文发送的背景和目的来判断通知行的理解是否合理。乙银行已将信用证通知甲公司,并明确要求开证行确认信用证修改件的真实性,而开证行回复内容中对信用证有无修改、是否邮寄过信用证修改件均未作出否定表示,而是确认两份“L/C'S”的真实性并请乙银行尽快将两份“L/C'S”通知到受益人。在此情况下,乙银行有理由相信开证行的上述回复电文确认了信用证修改件的真实性。作为交单行的丙银行对上述电文作出了与乙银行相同的理解,可以横向比较乙银行在审核信用证修改件时不存在重大过错。综上,乙银行确认系争信用证修改件的表面真实性具有合理的理由,其向甲公司通知该修改件并无不当。
 【裁判意义】
 随着一带一路倡议持续推进以及我国对外开放步伐不断加快,作为跨境交易支付重要手段的国际信用证业务,将伴随跨境交易规模的扩大而增多。相较UCP500而言,UCP600就信用证通知不再使用“合理审慎”的表述,在实践中引发了“通知行是否仍需审核以及如何审核信用证表面真实性”的争论,本案即为其中的典型代表。由于UCP600要求通知行“确信表面真实性”基于合理理由,因此其仍负有相应的审核义务,审核的方式应当符合行业惯例,同时尽到“一个理性银行信用证业务人员运用与其专业知识及普通常识能够做到的注意和谨慎”。SWIFT电文系统是国际银行间数据交换的标准语言,也是电开信用证的最主要方式,因此以加密SWIFT电文求证信用证的真实性属于合理的审核方式。电文传输常使用省略语,难免会发生歧义,此时需以通知行视角为出发点,结合发文目的和背景作合理解释。同一信用证业务中的其他银行对同一电文的理解,可以横向比较通知行的理解是否合理。本案裁判所阐释的司法裁量原则,回应了信用证实务中关于通知行审核义务的争论,为通知行规范审核行为提供了有益借鉴,为国际信用证业务的健康发展提供了良好的司法保障。
 案例四
 

银行应与客户约定电子密码器支付限额并进行风险揭示

 --施某诉甲银行储蓄存款合同纠纷案

 【裁判要旨】
 电子银行业务因缺乏柜台操作监控环节,存在资金非正常划转的高风险。客户具有账号信息和密码保管义务,在银行已经尽到各技术环节审核提示义务后,因自行泄露密码导致损失的,由客户自担。同时,金融机构在为客户开通电子银行业务时,应明示手机银行、网上银行的风险与区别,告知并赋予客户对外支付限额选择权,特别提示电子密码器高额转账风险。金融机构就影响客户资金安全的重要内容未协商或披露不充分的,需承担相应责任。
 ......

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