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Notice by the Supreme People's Court of Strengthening and Regulating the Online Litigation Work during the Period of Prevention and Control of the COVID-19 Outbreak [Effective]
最高人民法院关于新冠肺炎疫情防控期间加强和规范在线诉讼工作的通知 [现行有效]

Notice by the Supreme People's Court of Strengthening and Regulating the Online Litigation Work during the Period of Prevention and Control of the COVID-19 Outbreak 


(No. 49 [2020] of the Supreme People's Court) (法〔2020〕49号)

The higher people's courts of all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government; the Military Court of the People's Liberation Army; and the Production and Construction Corps Branch of the Higher People's Court of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Regions: 各省、自治区、直辖市高级人民法院,解放军军事法院,新疆维吾尔自治区高级人民法院生产建设兵团分院:
For the purposes of thoroughly implementing the spirit of the series of important instructions of General Secretary Xi Jinping for the prevention and control of the COVID-19 outbreak, resolutely implementing the policies and deployments of the CPC Central Committee, effectively preventing and controlling the COVID-19 outbreak, effectively safeguarding the life safety and health of the public, protecting litigants' lawful rights and interests, providing strong judicial guarantee for the epidemic prevention and control through the implementation of online litigation, and ensuring regulated and orderly online litigation activities, the work concerning the effective completion of online litigation by people's courts during the period of the epidemic prevention and control is hereby notified as follows. 为深入贯彻习近平总书记关于新冠肺炎疫情防控工作的系列重要指示精神,坚决贯彻落实党中央决策部署,有效防控新冠肺炎疫情,切实保障人民群众生命安全和身体健康,维护当事人合法权益,通过推行在线诉讼为疫情防控提供有力司法保障,确保在线诉讼活动规范有序,现就做好疫情防控期间人民法院在线诉讼相关工作通知如下。
I. The people's courts at all levels shall improve their political stance, fully understand the significance and severe situation of the epidemic prevention and control, effectively enhance their sense of responsibility and urgency, base on the trial functions, and strive to serve and guarantee the overall situation of the epidemic prevention and control. They shall regard further promotion of online litigation as an important measure for resolutely winning the battle of the people, the overall battle, and the battle of blocking for epidemic prevention and control, and comprehensively carry out online litigation activities including online case-filing, mediation, evidence exchange, court trial, judgment pronouncement and service by actively relying on such online litigation platforms as the China Mobile Micro Court, litigation service website, and 12368 litigation service hotline, to effectively meet the judicial needs of the public during the period of the epidemic prevention and control, and ensure the smooth and orderly operation of the trial work of people's courts.   一、各级人民法院要提高政治站位,充分认识疫情防控的重要意义和严峻形势,切实增强责任感和紧迫感,立足审判职能,努力服务和保障疫情防控工作大局。要将深入推进在线诉讼作为坚决打赢防控疫情的人民战争、总体战、阻击战的重要举措,积极依托中国移动微法院、诉讼服务网、12368诉讼服务热线等在线诉讼平台,全面开展网上立案、调解、证据交换、庭审、宣判、送达等在线诉讼活动,有效满足疫情防控期间人民群众司法需求,确保人民法院审判工作平稳有序运行。
II. In the promotion of online litigation, the people's courts at all levels shall not only sufficiently consider the case types, difficulty, priority and other factors, but also effectively protect litigants' lawful litigation rights and interests, respect litigants' right to choose modes of handling cases, and comprehensively notify them of the rights and obligations, and legal consequences of online litigation. Litigants agreeing with online case handling shall confirm and leave traces in the information system, to ensure the legal effect of the relevant litigation activities. Where litigants disagree with online case handling and apply for trial postponement according to the law, the people's courts shall grant permission and shall not compulsorily apply online litigation. For a case complying with the relevant provisions of the procedural law on suspension of trial, the people's court may suspend the litigation.   二、各级人民法院推进在线诉讼,既要充分考虑案件类型、难易程度、轻重缓急等因素,又要切实维护当事人合法诉讼权益,尊重当事人对案件办理模式的选择权,全面告知在线诉讼的权利义务和法律后果。当事人同意案件在线办理的,应当在信息系统确认、留痕,确保相关诉讼活动的法律效力。当事人不同意案件在线办理,依法申请延期审理的,人民法院应当准许,不得强制适用在线诉讼。案件符合诉讼法律关于中止审理有关规定的,人民法院可以中止诉讼。
III. The people's courts at all levels shall actively direct all subjects of litigation to lawfully carry out online litigation activities in an orderly manner, vigorously improve the online handling procedures and online litigation procedures, and develop and issue convenient and feasible online litigation operating guidelines with comprehensive contents and clear guidelines. However, the relevant contents shall not violate the laws or judicial interpretations currently in force. The courts implementing the pilot program of reforming the separation of complicated cases from simple ones in civil procedure shall, within the scope authorized by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, promote the online litigation work in strict accordance with the Measures of the Supreme People's Court for the Implementation of the Pilot Program of the Reform of Separation of Complicated Cases from Simple Ones in Civil Procedure (No. 11 [2020], SPC, hereinafter referred to as the “Measures for the Implementation of the Pilot Program”). All higher people's courts shall comprehensively examine the notifications of rights and obligations of online litigation, procedures for online litigation, and guidelines for the operation of online litigation, among others, developed by the courts within their jurisdictions to ensure the legality, accuracy and operability of the relevant contents.   三、各级人民法院要积极引导各方诉讼主体依法有序开展在线诉讼活动,大力完善在线办理流程和在线诉讼规程,制定发布内容全面、指引清晰、简便易行的在线诉讼操作指南,相关内容不得突破现行法律和司法解释规定。开展民事诉讼程序繁简分流改革试点工作的法院,应当在全国人大常委会授权范围内,严格按照《最高人民法院关于民事诉讼程序繁简分流改革试点实施办法》(法〔2020〕11号,以下简称《试点实施办法》)推进在线诉讼工作。各高级人民法院要对辖区内法院制定的在线诉讼权利义务告知书、在线诉讼规程、在线诉讼操作指南等进行全面审核,确保相关内容合法、准确、可操作。
IV. The people's courts at all levels shall, when handling cases online, ensure the authenticity of the identity of all litigation participants, complete identity authentication online by contrast of certificate and license, biometric features recognition, correlation of real-name mobile phone numbers, and other methods, and provide dedicated accounts of all litigation participants on the litigation platform, to realize matching and consistency of “person, case and account.”   四、各级人民法院在线办理案件,要确保各方诉讼参与人身份真实性,通过证件证照比对、生物特征识别、实名手机号码关联等方式在线完成身份认证,提供各方诉讼参与人诉讼平台专用账号,实现“人、案、账号”匹配一致。
V. Where a litigant and his litigation representative file an application for online case-filing, the people's court shall, within seven days upon receipt, examine the application materials, and shall conduct registration and case-filing, where the conditions for initiating a prosecution as prescribed by law are met; where the materials submitted fail to satisfy the requirements, the people's court shall, through the online litigation platform, request supplement and correction, notify the contents of and the deadline for supplement and correction at one time, and return the materials for initiating a prosecution, where no supplement or correction has been made within the prescribed time limit; and where the conditions for initiating a prosecution are not met, and the plaintiff insists on initiating a prosecution despite of the interpretation by the people's court, the people's court shall rule or decide not to accept or file the case. 光宗耀祖支撑着我去教室  五、当事人及其诉讼代理人通过在线方式提交立案申请的,人民法院应当在收到起诉材料后七日内进行审核,符合法律规定起诉条件的,应当登记立案;提交材料不符合要求的,人民法院应当通过在线诉讼平台及时要求补正,并一次性告知应当补正的内容和期限,逾期未补正的,起诉材料作退回处理;不符合起诉条件,经人民法院释明后,原告坚持继续起诉的,裁定或者决定不予受理、不予立案。
A litigant and his litigation representative with definite difficulty in submitting case-filing materials on line may choose to submit the case-filing materials at a near court. The relevant people's court shall, under the working mechanism and procedures for cross-region case-filing, undergo the case-filing formalities in a timely manner. 当事人及其诉讼代理人在线提交立案材料确有困难的,可以选择就近一家法院提交立案材料。相关人民法院应当按照跨域立案的工作机制和程序,及时办理立案手续。
VI. The people's courts at all levels shall intensify the resolution of conflicts and disputes during the period of the epidemic prevention and control, strengthen coordination and cooperation with judicial administrations, lawyers associations and other relevant entities by relying on the online platforms for the diversified mediation of conflicts and disputes, and further integrate and gather the dispute resolution forces of people's mediation, administrative mediation, industry mediation, lawyer's mediation, and other various parties, to effectively promote the online resolution of conflicts and disputes. They shall actively improve the mechanism for litigation-mediation connection, and intensify the judicial guarantee for diversified dispute resolution online. Where an application for judicial confirmation of a mediation agreement reached online filed by a litigant complies with the laws, the people's court shall conduct confirmation in a timely manner according to the law.   六、各级人民法院要加大疫情防控期间矛盾纠纷化解力度,依托在线矛盾纠纷多元化调解平台,加强与司法行政部门、律师协会等相关单位的协调配合,进一步整合汇聚人民调解、行政调解、行业调解、律师调解等各方纠纷解决力量,有效促进矛盾纠纷在线化解。要积极完善诉调对接机制,加大对在线纠纷多元化解的司法保障力度。当事人对在线达成的调解协议提出的司法确认申请,符合法律规定的,人民法院应当及时依法确认。
VII. A litigant and his litigation representative submitting litigation materials and evidence materials by electronic means are no longer requested to submit the original paper documents, after passing the examination of the people's court. Where a litigant and his litigation representative submit paper materials by mail and other methods, the people's court shall scan and enter them in the case handling system in a timely manner. The original paper materials submitted shall be archived in a timely manner. The people's court shall actively direct the litigant and his litigation representative to submit electronic materials, to provide platform support and technical convenience therefor.   七、当事人及其诉讼代理人通过电子化方式提交诉讼材料和证据材料的,经人民法院审核通过后,可以不再提交纸质原件。当事人及其诉讼代理人采取邮寄等方式提交纸质材料的,人民法院应当及时扫描录入案件办理系统。对提交的纸质原件材料,要及时立卷归档。人民法院应当积极引导当事人及其诉讼代理人提交电子化材料,为其提供平台支撑和技术便利。
VIII. The people's courts at all levels shall actively promote and orderly regulate online court trial, and give comprehensive consideration to the technical conditions, case situation, litigants' willingness, and other factors, to determine whether to adopt online court trial. Online court trial may generally apply to civil and commercial cases, and administrative cases. However, online hearing shall not apply, where both litigants to a case disagree with online court trial, the technical conditions for online court trial are not met, the identity needs to be found out, the original documents need to be verified, and the physical objects need to be inspected, among others. For criminal cases, interrogation of defendants, pronouncement of judgments, and trial of cases of commutation and parole, among others, may be conducted by remote video interviews. For simple criminal cases to which summary procedures and fast-track sentencing procedures apply, cases in which lighter penalties may be given under the circumstance of pleading guilty and accepting punishment, and criminal cases impeding the epidemic prevention and control, exploration shall be made for opening court sessions by remote video.   八、各级人民法院要积极推广和有序规范在线庭审,综合考虑技术条件、案件情况和当事人意愿等因素,确定是否采取在线庭审方式。民商事、行政案件一般均可以采取在线方式开庭,但案件存在双方当事人不同意在线庭审、不具备在线庭审技术条件、需现场查明身份、核对原件、查验实物等情形的,不适用在线庭审。刑事案件可以采取远程视频方式讯问被告人、宣告判决、审理减刑、假释案件等。对适用简易程序、速裁程序的简单刑事案件、认罪认罚从宽案件,以及妨害疫情防控的刑事案件,可以探索采取远程视频方式开庭。
Online court trial activities shall comply with the relevant provisions of the procedural law and the judicial interpretations, and fully protect litigants' rights to apply for disqualification, produce evidence, conduct cross-examination, make statements and defense, among others. Online court trial shall be conducted by online video, other than by writing or voice. 在线庭审活动应当遵循诉讼法律及司法解释的相关规定,充分保障当事人申请回避、举证、质证、陈述、辩论等诉讼权利。在线庭审应当以在线视频方式进行,不得采取书面或者语音方式。
The people's courts shall generally hold online court trials in courtrooms. A judge that definitely needs to open a court session online at another place due to epidemic prevention and control shall report to the president of the court for consent, and ensure the solemnness and seriousness of the said place, and standard etiquette of the court trial. The people's courts shall, mutatis mutandis to the relevant provisions of the Court Rules of the People's Courts of the People's Republic of China, strengthen litigation guidance for online court trial participants, specify online court trial disciplines, and ensure that the court trial process is safe, civilized, regulated and orderly. 人民法院开展在线庭审,一般应当在法庭内进行。因疫情防控需要,法官确需在其他场所在线开庭的,应当报请本院院长同意,并保证开庭场所庄重严肃、庭审礼仪规范。人民法院应当参照《中华人民共和国人民法院法庭规则》相关规定,加强对在线庭审参与人的诉讼指导,明确在线庭审纪律,确保庭审过程安全文明、规范有序。
Where litigants explicitly agree with online court trial, but fail to attend the court trial on schedule or withdraw from the court trial without permission, it may be deemed “refusal to appear in the court” and “midway withdrawal from a court session,” and be respectively handled according to the procedural law and the relevant judicial interpretations, except when it is found out that it is definitely due to such reasons as network failure, equipment failure, power interruption or force majeure. 当事人明确同意在线庭审,但不按时参加或者庭审中擅自退出的,除经查明确属网络故障、设备损坏、电力中断或者不可抗力等原因外,可以认定为“拒不到庭”和“中途退庭”,分别按照诉讼法律及相关司法解释的规定处理。
The people's courts shall actively use voice recognition technology to concurrently generate electronic court trial records, which shall be confirmed online by judicial officers, judge assistants, clerks, litigants and other litigation participants, among others, to ensure the effectiveness of online court trial. In During the online court trial, audio and video recordings shall be made, stored, and archived from beginning to end according to the Several Provisions of the Supreme People's Court on the Audio and Video Recordings of Court Trials by the People's Courts. 人民法院应当积极运用语音识别技术同步生成庭审电子笔录,由审判人员、法官助理、书记员、当事人及其他诉讼参与人等在线确认,确保在线庭审活动效力。在线庭审过程,应当按照《最高人民法院关于人民法院庭审录音录像的若干规定》,全程录音录像并存储归档。
IX. During the period of the epidemic prevention and control, the people's courts at all levels may, in light of the technical conditions and work needs, allow judges to remotely consult electronic dossiers, hear cases at a panel, and develop and submit judgment documents, in strict accordance with the relevant provisions on the administration of electronic dossiers and confidentiality work. 北大法宝  九、疫情防控期间,各级人民法院可以根据技术条件和工作需要,允许法官远程查阅电子卷宗、合议案件、撰写提交裁判文书等,但应当严格遵循电子卷宗管理和保密工作相关规定。
X. The people's courts at all levels shall intensify the applicability of electronic service, and improve the service quality and efficiency. With consent of a person being served, the people's court may serve the litigation instruments and the evidential materials submitted by the parties by electronic means such as the China Mobile Micro Court, the China Judicial Process Information Online, the National Court Unified Service Platform, fax, email, and instant messaging service accounts.   十、各级人民法院要加大电子送达适用力度,提升送达质量和效率。经受送达人同意,可以通过中国移动微法院、中国审判流程信息公开网、全国统一送达平台、传真、电子邮件、即时通讯账号等电子方式送达诉讼文书和当事人提交的证据材料。
Courts included in the pilot reform of reforming the separation of complicated cases from simple ones in civil procedure shall carry out the electronic service work in a lawful and orderly manner according to the provisions from Articles 24 to 26 of the Measures for the Implementation of the Pilot Program. Courts not included in the pilot program may, mutatis mutandis to the provisions from Articles 24 to 26 of the Measures for the Implementation of the Pilot Program, apply the application conditions and the standards for coming into force for electronic service, to ensure that electronic service by the people's courts comply with the procedural law and the judicial interpretations, but shall not serve any judgment, written verdict or mediation document by electronic means. 纳入民事诉讼程序繁简分流改革试点的法院,应当按照《试点实施办法》第二十四条至第二十六条的规定,依法有序开展电子送达工作。未纳入试点的法院,对电子送达的适用条件和生效标准,可以参照适用《试点实施办法》第二十四条、第二十六条的规定,但不得采用电子方式送达判决书、裁定书、调解书,确保人民法院电子送达符合诉讼法律及司法解释的规定。
XI. The people's courts at all levels shall vigorously advance the construction of the one-stop diversified dispute resolution mechanisms and the one-stop litigation service centers, upgrade the online litigation service platforms, expand the online litigation service functions, and provide all-round on-line litigation services including litigation consultation, payment and refund of fees, information inquiry, contact with judges, petitions and complaints filing by letter and mail, and tip-off for litigants and the public, to guarantee that litigants may obtain judicial information and handle litigation matters without leaving home, effectively reduce traveling and gathering of people, and serve the epidemic prevention and control.   十一、各级人民法院要大力推进一站式多元解纷机制和一站式诉讼服务中心建设,升级在线诉讼服务平台,拓展在线诉讼服务功能,向当事人和社会公众在线提供诉讼咨询、交费退费、信息查询、联系法官、申诉信访、举报投诉等全方位诉讼服务,保障当事人足不出户即可获取司法信息、办理诉讼事项,切实减少人员出行和聚集,服务疫情防控工作。
XII. Internet courts of Hangzhou, Beijing and Guangzhou shall sufficiently utilize the first mover advantages and intensify the exploration for the construction of case-handling platforms, online litigation procedures, application of emerging technologies, and online litigation rules, among others. On the basis of ensuring the whole-process online trial of internet cases, the intelligence level of the trial and enforcement work shall be enhanced in an accelerated manner, the research and application of big data, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, 5G technology, and other respects shall be strengthened, exploration shall be made for forming practical samples of smart justice, and reproducible and promotable advanced experience shall be summarized and formed. On the basis of the positioning of their own functions, the rules for electronic litigation in the internet era shall be actively explored, and the improvement of the substantive rules for internet judicial governance shall be promoted, to effectively maximize the leading and exemplary role of internet courts in concept innovation, technology innovation, institutional innovation and other respects, and effectively promote the legalization of cyberspace governance.   十二、杭州、北京、广州互联网法院要充分利用先发优势,加大在办案平台建设、在线诉讼流程、新兴技术应用、在线诉讼规则等方面的探索力度。要在保证互联网案件全流程在线审理的基础上,加速提升审判执行工作智能化水平,加强对大数据、云计算、人工智能、5G技术等方面的研究应用,探索形成智慧司法的实践样本,总结形成可复制、可推广的先进经验。要立足自身职能定位,积极探索互联网时代电子诉讼规则,推动完善互联网司法治理实体规则,切实发挥互联网法院在理念创新、技术创新、制度创新等方面的引领示范作用,有效推动网络空间治理法治化。
XIII. The people's courts at all levels shall attach great importance to the promotion of online litigation during the period of the epidemic prevention and control, effectively optimize the concepts, deepen the understanding, and change the ideas, regard online litigation as the basic mode of the people's courts for carrying out the trial and enforcement work during the special period, and ensure cohesion of team, non-interruption of work, and maintenance of quality and efficiency, to make useful explorations for further improving the internet-based judicial model, and lay a sound practice foundation. The presidents of the people's courts at all levels shall, as the primary persons responsible for promoting online litigation, specify the working ideas, rationalize the working mechanism, intensify the organization and implementation, proactively take the lead in handling cases online, play a leading and exemplary role, and promote online case-handling as a normalized mechanism during the period of the epidemic prevention and control.   十三、各级人民法院要高度重视疫情防控期间在线诉讼推进工作,切实优化理念、加深认识、转变思路,将在线诉讼作为特殊时期人民法院开展审判执行工作的基本模式,确保队伍不散、工作不断、质效不降,为进一步完善互联网司法模式做出有益探索,奠定良好实践基础。各级人民法院院长要作为推进在线诉讼的第一责任人,明确工作思路,理顺工作机制,加大组织实施力度,积极带头以在线方式办理案件,发挥引领示范作用,推动在线办案成为疫情防控期间的常态化机制。
XIV. The people's courts at all levels shall vigorously strengthen the construction of information infrastructure, proactively promote the application of the China Mobile Micro Court, accelerate the establishment of an online litigation platform with the China Mobile Micro Court as the portal, promote the connection of the existing litigation service platforms with the China Mobile Micro Court, and integrate and improve various types of information systems, to prevent multihead development and repeated construction. No efforts shall be spared to smooth the internal and external networks, to realize safe and effective interaction of the judicial data. On the basis of the existing platforms and systems, corresponding work modules shall be added, various functions of online litigation shall be expanded and optimized, the practical needs shall be met, the user interface shall be optimized, and user experience shall be improved, to ensure the integration, efficiency, and convenience of the online litigation service system.   十四、各级人民法院要大力加强信息化基础设施建设,积极推广应用中国移动微法院,加快搭建以中国移动微法院为总入口的在线诉讼平台,推动现有诉讼服务平台对接中国移动微法院,整合完善各类信息系统,防止多头开发和重复建设。要着力打通内外网,实现司法数据安全有效交互。要基于现有的平台系统,增加相应工作模块,拓展优化在线诉讼各项功能,对接实践需求,优化使用界面,提升用户体验,确保在线诉讼服务系统集成、高效便捷。
XV. All higher people's courts shall actively and effectively coordinate and direct courts within their jurisdictions to promote online litigation, develop and issue relevant litigation procedures and document templates, intensify the guidance for lower levels, and ensure that online litigation activities are regulated, unified, lawful and orderly. They shall insist on conducting promotion, while conducting summary and research, constantly summarize and refine the useful initiatives and experience of courts within the jurisdictions in promoting online litigation, diligently collect the existing problems and difficulties, offer specific solutions or suggestions, and form work reports and submit them to the Office of the Leading Group for Judicial Reform of the Supreme People's Court in a timely manner.   十五、各高级人民法院要积极做好辖区法院推进在线诉讼的统筹指导工作,制定出台相关诉讼规程和文书样式,加大对下指导力度,确保在线诉讼活动规范统一,合法有序。要坚持边推进、边总结、边研究,不断总结提炼辖区法院推进在线诉讼的有益举措和经验,认真搜集存在的问题困难,提出具体解决方案或建议,及时形成工作报告报送最高人民法院司法改革领导小组办公室。
Supreme People's Court 最高人民法院
February 14, 2020装完逼就跑 2020年2月14日
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