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Water Pollution Prevention and Control Law of the People's Republic of China (1996 Amendment) [Revised]
中华人民共和国水污染防治法(96修正) [已被修订]
【法宝引证码】

 

WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL LAW OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 

中华人民共和国水污染防治法


(Adopted at the Fifth Meeting of the Standing committee of the Sixth National People's Congress on May 11, 1984, and revised in accordance with the Decision of the Standing Committee of the Eighth National People's Congress on revising the Water Pollution Prevention and Control Law of the People's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Water Pollution adopted at its 19th Meeting on May 15, 1996)
 
(1984年5月11日第六届全国人民代表大会常务委员会
第五次会议通过 根据1996年5月15日第八届全国人民
代表大会常务委员会第十九次会议《关于修改
<中华人民共和国水污染防治法>的决定》修正)


 
CONTENTS 目录

 
CHAPTER I GENERAL PROVISIONS 第一章 总则

 
CHAPTER II ESTABLISHMENT OF STANDARDS FOR WATER ENVIRONMENT QUALITY AND FOR DISCHARGE OF WATER POLLUTANTS 第二章 水环境质量标准和污染物排放标准的制定

 
CHAPTER III SUPERVISION AND MANAGEMENT OF PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF WATER POLLUTION 第三章 水污染防治的监督管理

 
CHAPTER IV PREVENTION OF SURFACE WATER POLLUTION 第四章 防止地表水污染

 
CHAPTER V PREVENTION OF GROUND WATER POLLUTION 第五章 防止地下水污染

 
CHAPTER VI LEGAL LIABILITY 第六章 法律责任

 
CHAPTER VII SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS 第七章 附则

 

CHAPTER I GENERAL PROVISIONS 第一章 总则


 
Article 1 This Law is enacted for the purposes of preventing and controlling water pollution, protecting and improving the environment, safeguarding human health, ensuring effective utilization of water resources and promoting progress of the socialist modernization drive.   第一条 为防治水污染,保护和改善环境,以保障人体健康,保证水资源的有效利用,促进社会主义现代化建设的发展,特制定本法。

 
Article 2 This Law applies to prevention and control of pollution of   第二条 本法适用于中华人民共和国领域内的江河、湖泊、运河、渠道、水库等地表水体以及地下水体的污染防治。

rivers, lakes, canals, irrigation channels, reservoirs and other surface
 
海洋污染防治另由法律规定,不适用本法。

water bodies and of ground water bodies within the territory of the
 

People's Republic of China.
   第三条 国务院有关部门和地方各级人民政府,必须将水环境保护工作纳入计划,采取防治水污染的对策和措施。

This Law is not applicable to prevention and control of marine
 

pollution, which is provided for by a separate law.
   第四条 各级人民政府的环境保护部门是对水污染防治实施统一监督管理的机关。

 
各级交通部门的航政机关是对船舶污染实施监督管理的机关。
Article 3 Relevant departments under the State Council and local 
各级人民政府的水利管理部门、卫生行政部门、地质矿产部门、市政管理部门、重要江河的水源保护机构,结合各自的职责,协同环境保护部门对水污染防治实施监督管理。

people's governments at various levels must incorporate protection of
 

the water environment into their plans and adopt ways and measures to
   第五条 一切单位和个人都有责任保护水环境,并有权对污染损害水环境的行为进行监督和检举。

prevent and control water pollution.
 
因水污染危害直接受到损失的单位和个人,有权要求致害者排除危害和赔偿损失。

 

Article 4 The environmental protection departments of the people's 第二章 水环境质量标准和污染物排放标准的制定


governments at various levels shall be the organs exercising unified
 

supervision and management of prevention and control of water pollution.
   第六条 国务院环境保护部门制定国家水环境质量标准。

Navigation administration offices of the communications departments at
 
省、自治区、直辖市人民政府可以对国家水环境质量标准中未规定的项目,制定地方补充标准,并报国务院环境保护部门备案。

various levels shall be the organs exercising supervision and management
 

of pollution caused by ships.
   第七条 国务院环境保护部门根据国家水环境质量标准和国家经济、技术条件,制定国家污染物排放标准。

Water conservancy administration departments, public health
 
省、自治区、直辖市人民政府对国家水污染物排放标准中未作规定的项目,可以制定地方水污染物排放标准;对国家水污染物排放标准中已作规定的项目,可以制定严于国家水污染物排放标准的地方水污染物排放标准。地方水污染物排放标准须报国务院环境保护部门备案。

administration departments, geological and mining departments, municipal
 
凡是向已有地方污染物排放标准的水体排放污染物的,应当执行地方污染物排放标准。

administration departments, and water sources protection agencies for
 

major rivers of the people's governments at various levels shall,
   第八条 国务院环境保护部门和省、自治区、直辖市人民政府,应当根据水污染防治的要求和国家经济、技术条件,适时修订水环境质量标准和污染物排放标准。

through performing their respective functions and in conjunction with
 


environmental protection departments, exercise supervision over and
 第三章 水污染防治的监督管理


management of prevention and control of water pollution.
 

   第九条 国务院有关部门和地方各级人民政府在开发、利用和调节、调度水资源的时候,应当统筹兼顾,维护江河的合理流量和湖泊、水库以及地下水体的合理水位,维护水体的自然净化能力。
Article 5 All units and individuals shall have the duty to protect the 

water environment and the right to supervise and inform against any
   第十条 防治水污染应当按流域或者按区域进行统一规划。国家确定的重要江河的流域水污染防治规划,由国务院环境保护部门会同计划主管部门、水利管理部门等有关部门和有关省、自治区、直辖市人民政府编制,报国务院批准。

pollution or damage to the water environment.
 
其他跨省、跨县江河的流域水污染防治规划,根据国家确定的重要江河的流域水污染防治规划和本地实际情况,由省级以上人民政府环境保护部门会同水利管理部门等有关部门和有关地方人民政府编制,报国务院或者省级人民政府批准。跨县不跨省的其他江河的流域水污染防治规划由该省级人民政府报国务院备案。

Any unit or individual that has suffered damage directly from a water
 
经批准的水污染防治规划是防治水污染的基本依据,规划的修订须经原批准机关的批准。

pollution hazard shall have the right to demand elimination of the
 
县级以上地方人民政府,应当根据依法批准的江河流域水污染防治规划,组织制定本行政区域的水污染防治规划,并纳入本行政区域的国民经济和社会发展中长期和年度计划。

hazard and compensation for the damage by the polluter.
 

   第十一条 国务院有关部门和地方各级人民政府应当合理规划工业布局,对造成水污染的企业进行整顿和技术改造,采取综合防治措施,提高水的重复利用率,合理利用资源,减少废水和污染物排放量。
CHAPTER II ESTABLISHMENT OF STANDARDS FOR WATER ENVIRONMENT QUALITY AND FOR DISCHARGE OF WATER POLLUTANTS 

   第十二条 县级以上人民政府可以对风景名胜区水体、重要渔业水体和其他具有特殊经济文化价值的水体,划定保护区,并采取措施,保证保护区的水质符合规定用途的水质标准。
Article 6 The environmental protection department under the State 

Council shall establish the national standards for water environment
   第十三条 新建、扩建、改建直接或者间接向水体排放污染物的建设项目和其他水上设施,必须遵守国家有关建设项目环境保护管理的规定。

quality.
 
建设项目的环境影响报告书,必须对建设项目可能产生的水污染和对生态环境的影响作出评价,规定防治的措施,按照规定的程序报经有关环境保护部门审查批准。在运河、渠道、水库等水利工程内设置排污口,应当经过有关水利工程管理部门同意。

The people's governments of provinces, autonomous regions and
 
建设项目中防治水污染的设施,必须与主体工程同时设计,同时施工,同时投产使用。防治水污染的设施必须经过环境保护部门检验,达不到规定要求的,该建设项目不准投入生产或者使用。

municipalities directly under the Central Government may establish their
 
环境影响报告书中,应当有该建设项目所在地单位和居民的意见。

own local standards for the items that are not specified in the national
 

standards for water environment quality and report the same to the
   第十四条 直接或者间接向水体排放污染物的企业事业单位,应当按照国务院环境保护部门的规定,向所在地的环境保护部门申报登记拥有的污染物排放设施、处理设施和在正常作业条件下排放污染物的种类、数量和浓度,并提供防治水污染方面的有关技术资料。

environmental protection department under the State Council for the
 
前款规定的排污单位排放水污染物的种类、数量和浓度有重大改变的,应当及时申报;其水污染物处理设施必须保持正常使用,拆除或者闲置水污染物处理设施的,必须事先报经所在地的县级以上地方人民政府环境保护部门批准。

record.
 

   第十五条 企业事业单位向水体排放污染物的,按照国家规定缴纳排污费;超过国家或者地方规定的污染物排放标准的,按照国家规定缴纳超标准排污费。
Article 7 The environmental protection department under the State 
排污费和超标准排污费必须用于污染的防治,不得挪作他用。

Council shall, in line with the national standards for water environment
 
超标准排污的企业事业单位必须制定规划,进行治理,并将治理规划报所在地的县级以上地方人民政府环境保护部门备案。

quality and the country's economic and technological conditions,
 

establish the national standards for discharge of water pollutants.
   第十六条 省级以上人民政府对实现水污染物达标排放仍不能达到国家规定的水环境质量标准的水体,可以实施重点污染物排放的总量控制制度,并对有排污量削减任务的企业实施该重点污染物排放量的核定制度。具体办法由国务院规定。

The people's governments of provinces, autonomous regions and
 

municipalities directly under the Central Government may establish their
   第十七条 国务院环境保护部门会同国务院水利管理部门和有关省级人民政府,可以根据国家确定的重要江河流域水体的使用功能以及有关地区的经济、技术条件,确定该重要江河流域的省界水体适用的水环境质量标准,报国务院批准后施行。

own local standards for the items that are not specified in the national
 

standards for discharge of water pollutants. With regard to the items
   第十八条 国家确定的重要江河流域的水资源保护工作机构,负责监测其所在流域的省界水体的水环境质量状况,并将监测结果及时报国务院环境保护部门和国务院水利管理部门;有经国务院批准成立的流域水资源保护领导机构的,应当将监测结果及时报告流域水资源保护领导机构。

that are already specified in the national standards for discharge of
 

water pollutants, they may establish more stringent local standards than
   第十九条 城市污水应当进行集中处理。

the national standards. All local standards must be reported to the
 
国务院有关部门和地方各级人民政府必须把保护城市水源和防治城市水污染纳入城市建设规划,建设和完善城市排水管网,有计划地建设城市污水集中处理设施,加强城市水环境的综合整治。

environmental protection department under the State Council for the
 
城市污水集中处理设施按照国家规定向排污者提供污水处理的有偿服务,收取污水处理费用,以保证污水集中处理设施的正常运行。向城市污水集中处理设施排放污水、缴纳污水处理费用的,不再缴纳排污费。收取的污水处理费用必须用于城市污水集中处理设施的建设和运行,不得挪作他用。

record.
 
城市污水集中处理设施的污水处理收费、管理以及使用的具体办法,由国务院规定。

Those who discharge pollutants into any water body for which local
 

standards have been established shall observe such local standards.
   第二十条 省级以上人民政府可以依法划定生活饮用水地表水源保护区。生活饮用水地表水源保护区分为一级保护区和其他等级保护区。在生活饮用水地表水源取水口附近可以划定一定的水域和陆域为一级保护区。在生活饮用水地表水源一级保护区外,可以划定一定的水域和陆域为其他等级保护区。各级保护区应当有明确的地理界线。

 
禁止向生活饮用水地表水源一级保护区的水体排放污水。
Article 8 The environmental protection department under the State 
禁止在生活饮用水地表水源一级保护区内从事旅游、游泳和其他可能污染生活饮用水水体的活动。

Council and the people's governments of provinces, autonomous regions
 
禁止在生活饮用水地表水源一级保护区内新建、扩建与供水设施和保护水源无关的建设项目。

and municipalities directly under the Central Government shall, in line
 
在生活饮用水地表水源一级保护区内已设置的排污口,由县级以上人民政府按照国务院规定的权限责令限期拆除或者限期治理。

with the requirements of prevention and control of water pollution and
 
对生活饮用水地下水源应当加强保护。

the country's economic and technological conditions, amend in due time
 
对生活饮用水水源保护的具体办法由国务院规定。

their standards for water environment quality and for discharge of water
 

pollutants.
   第二十一条 在生活饮用水源受到严重污染,威胁供水安全等紧急情况下,环境保护部门应当报经同级人民政府批准,采取强制性的应急措施,包括责令有关企业事业单位减少或者停止排放污染物。

 
CHAPTER III SUPERVISION AND MANAGEMENT OF PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF WATER POLLUTION   第二十二条 企业应当采用原材料利用效率高、污染物排放量少的清洁生产工艺,并加强管理,减少水污染物的产生。

 
国家对严重污染水环境的落后生产工艺和严重污染水环境的落后设备实行淘汰制度。
Article 9 Relevant departments under the State Council and local 
国务院经济综合主管部门会同国务院有关部门公布限期禁止采用的严重污染水环境的工艺名录和限期禁止生产、禁止销售、禁止进口、禁止使用的严重污染水环境的设备名录。

people's governments at various levels shall, when developing,
 
生产者、销售者、进口者或者使用者必须在国务院经济综合主管部门会同国务院有关部门规定的期限内分别停止生产、销售、进口或者使用列入前款规定的名录中的设备。生产工艺的采用者必须在国务院经济综合主管部门会同国务院有关部门规定的期限内停止采用列入前款规定的名录中的工艺。

utilizing, regulating and allocating water resources, make integrated
 
依照前两款规定被淘汰的设备,不得转让给他人使用。

plans for maintaining proper river flows, proper water levels of lakes,
 

reservoirs and proper ground water tables, in order to retain the
   第二十三条 国家禁止新建无水污染防治措施的小型化学制纸浆、印染、染料、制革、电镀、炼油、农药以及其他严重污染水环境的企业。

natural purification capacity of water bodies.
 

   第二十四条 对造成水体严重污染的排污单位,限期治理。
Article 10 To prevent and control water pollution, it is necessary to 
中央或者省、自治区、直辖市人民政府直接管辖的企业事业单位的限期治理,由省、自治区、直辖市人民政府的环境保护部门提出意见,报同级人民政府决定。市、县或者市、县以下人民政府管辖的企业事业单位的限期治理,由市、县人民政府的环境保护部门提出意见,报同级人民政府决定。排污单位应当如期完成治理任务。

make unified plans on the basis of river basins or regions. Plans for
 

preventing and controlling water pollution of basins of major rivers,
   第二十五条 各级人民政府的环境保护部门和有关的监督管理部门,有权对管辖范围内的排污单位进行现场检查,被检查的单位必须如实反映情况,提供必要的资料。检查机关有责任为被检查的单位保守技术秘密和业务秘密。

designated as such by the State, shall be formulated by the
 

environmental protection department under the State Council, together
   第二十六条 跨行政区域的水污染纠纷,由有关地方人民政府协商解决,或者由其共同的上级人民政府协调解决。

with the competent department of planning, water conservancy
 


administration department and other departments concerned as well as the
 第四章 防止地表水污染


people's governments of relevant provinces, autonomous regions and
 

municipalities directly under the Central Government, and shall be
   第二十七条 在生活饮用水源地、风景名胜区水体、重要渔业水体和其他有特殊经济文化价值的水体的保护区内,不得新建排污口。在保护区附近新建排污口,必须保证保护区水体不受污染。

submitted to the State Council for approval.
 
本法公布前已有的排污口,排放污染物超过国家或者地方标准的,应当治理;危害饮用水源的排污口,应当搬迁。

Plans for preventing and controlling water pollution of basins of other
 

rivers that run across provinces or counties shall be formulated, in
   第二十八条 排污单位发生事故或者其他突然性事件,排放污染物超过正常排放量,造成或者可能造成水污染事故的,必须立即采取应急措施,通报可能受到水污染危害和损害的单位,并向当地环境保护部门报告。船舶造成污染事故的,应当向就近的航政机关报告,接受调查处理。

line with the plans for preventing and controlling water pollution of
 
造成渔业污染事故的,应当接受渔政监督管理机构的调查处理。

basins of major rivers, designated as such by the State, and in light of
 

actual local conditions, by the environmental protection departments of
   第二十九条 禁止向水体排放油类、酸液、碱液或者剧毒废液。

the people's governments at or above the provincial level, together with
 

the water conservancy administration departments and other departments
   第三十条 禁止在水体清洗装贮过油类或者有毒污染物的车辆和容器。

concerned as well as the relevant local people's governments, and shall
 

be submitted to the State Council or the people's governments at the
   第三十一条 禁止将含有汞、镉、砷、铬、铅、氰化物、黄磷等的可溶性剧毒废渣向水体排放、倾倒或者直接埋入地下。

provincial level for approval. Plans for preventing and controlling
 
存放可溶性剧毒废渣的场所,必须采取防水、防渗漏、防流失的措施。

water pollution of basins of other rivers that run across counties but
 

not provinces shall be submitted by the people's government of the
   第三十二条 禁止向水体排放、倾倒工业废渣、城市垃圾和其他废弃物。

province concerned to the State Council for the record.
 

Plans for preventing and controlling water pollution, once approved,
   第三十三条 禁止在江河、湖泊、运河、渠道、水库最高水位线以下的滩地和岸坡堆放、存贮固体废弃物和其他污染物。

shall serve as the essential basis for prevention and control of water
 

pollution, and any modification of such plans shall be subject to
   第三十四条 禁止向水体排放或者倾倒放射性固体废弃物或者含有高放射性和中放射性物质的废水。

approval of the original departments that approved the plans.
 
向水体排放含低放射性物质的废水,必须符合国家有关放射防护的规定和标准。

Local people's governments at or above the county level shall, in
 

accordance with the approved plans for preventing and controlling water
   第三十五条 向水体排放含热废水,应当采取措施,保证水体的水温符合水环境质量标准,防止热污染危害。

pollution of river basins, organize people to work out plans for
 

preventing and controlling water pollution for their own administrative
   第三十六条 排放含病原体的污水,必须经过消毒处理;符合国家有关标准后,方准排放。

regions and incorporate such plans in the long-term, medium-term and
 

annual plans of their administrative regions for national economic and
   第三十七条 向农田灌溉渠道排放工业废水和城市污水,应当保证其下游最近的灌溉取水点的水质符合农田灌溉水质标准。

social development.
 
利用工业废水和城市污水进行灌溉,应当防止污染土壤、地下水和农产品。

 
Article 11 Relevant departments under the State Council and local   第三十八条 使用农药,应当符合国家有关农药安全使用的规定和标准。

people's governments at various levels shall make rational plans for the
 
运输、存贮农药和处置过期失效农药,必须加强管理,防止造成水污染。

geographical distribution of industries, subject those enterprises that
 

cause water pollution to rectification and technological updating, adopt
   第三十九条 县级以上地方人民政府的农业管理部门和其他有关部门,应当采取措施,指导农业生产者科学、合理地施用化肥和农药,控制化肥和农药的过量使用,防止造成水污染。

comprehensive prevention and control measures, increase the rate of
 

water recycling, utilize resources rationally and reduce discharge of
   第四十条 船舶排放含油污水、生活污水,必须符合船舶污染物排放标准。从事海洋航运的船舶,进入内河和港口的,应当遵守内河的船舶污染物排放标准。

waste water and pollutants.
 
船舶的残油、废油必须回收,禁止排入水体。

 
禁止向水体倾倒船舶垃圾。
Article 12 The people's governments at or above the county level may 
船舶装载运输油类或者有毒货物,必须采取防止溢流和渗漏的措施,防止货物落水造成水污染。

delineate protection zones for water bodies in scenic or historic sites,
 


major fishery water bodies and other water bodies of special economic or
 第五章 防止地下水污染


cultural value, and take measures to ensure that the water quality in
 

those protection zones complies with the standards for the designated
   第四十一条 禁止企业事业单位利用渗井、渗坑、裂隙和溶洞排放、倾倒含有毒污染物的废水、含病原体的污水和其他废弃物。

uses.
 

   第四十二条 在无良好隔渗地层,禁止企业事业单位使用无防止渗漏措施的沟渠、坑塘等输送或者存贮含有毒污染物的废水、含病原体的污水和其他废弃物。
Article 13 New construction projects and expansion or reconstruction 

projects and other installations on water that directly or indirectly
   第四十三条 在开采多层地下水的时候,如果各含水层的水质差异大,应当分层开采;对已受污染的潜水和承压水,不得混合开采。

discharge pollutants to water bodies shall be subject to relevant State
 

regulations governing environmental protection for such projects.
   第四十四条 兴建地下工程设施或者进行地下勘探、采矿等活动,应当采取防护性措施,防止地下水污染。

In the environmental impact statement of a construction project an
 

assessment shall be made regarding the water pollution hazards the
   第四十五条 人工回灌补给地下水,不得恶化地下水质。

project is likely to produce and its impact on the ecosystem, and
 


measures for their prevention and control shall be prescribed. The
 第六章 法律责任


statement shall be submitted, according to the specified procedure, to
 

the relevant environmental protection department for examination and
   第四十六条 违反本法规定,有下列行为之一的,环境保护部门或者交通部门的航政机关可以根据不同情节,给予警告或者处以罚款:

approval. The building of sewage outlets within any water conservancy
 

projects such as canals, irrigation channels and reservoirs shall be
 (一)拒报或者谎报国务院环境保护部门规定的有关污染物排放申报登记事项的;

subject to consent of the relevant department in charge of water
 

conservancy projects.
 (二)拒绝环境保护部门或者有关的监督管理部门现场检查,或者弄虚作假的;

The facilities for prevention and control of water pollution must be
 

designed, constructed and put to use or into operation simultaneously
 (三)违反本法第四章、第五章有关规定,贮存、堆放、弃置、倾倒、排放污染物、废弃物的;

with the main part of a construction project. Such facilities must be
 

inspected by the environmental protection department. If they do not
 (四)不按国家规定缴纳排污费或者超标准排污费的。

conform to the specified requirements, the said project shall not be
 
罚款的办法和数额由本法实施细则规定。

permitted to be put into operation or to use.
 

An environmental impact statement shall contain comments and suggestions
   第四十七条 违反本法第十三条第三款规定,建设项目的水污染防治设施没有建成或者没有达到国家规定的要求,即投入生产或者使用的,由批准该建设项目的环境影响报告书的环境保护部门责令停止生产或者使用,可以并处罚款。

of the units and residents in the place where the construction project
 

is located.
   第四十八条 违反本法第十四条第二款规定,排污单位故意不正常使用水污染物处理设施,或者未经环境保护部门批准,擅自拆除、闲置水污染物处理设施,排放污染物超过规定标准的,由县级以上地方人民政府环境保护部门责令恢复正常使用或者限期重新安装使用,并处罚款。

 
Article 14 Enterprises and institutions that discharge pollutants   第四十九条 违反本法第二十条第四款规定,在生活饮用水地表水源一级保护区内新建、扩建与供水设施和保护水源无关的建设项目的,由县级以上人民政府按照国务院规定的权限责令停业或者关闭。

directly or indirectly into a water body shall, pursuant to the
 

regulations of the environmental protection department under the State
   第五十条 违反本法第二十二条规定,生产、销售、进口或者使用禁止生产、销售、进口、使用的设备,或者采用禁止采用的工艺的,由县级以上人民政府经济综合主管部门责令改正;情节严重的,由县级以上人民政府经济综合主管部门提出意见,报请同级人民政府按照国务院规定的权限责令停业、关闭。

Council, report to and register with the local environmental protection
 

department their existing facilities for discharging and treating
   第五十一条 违反本法第二十三条规定,建设无水污染防治措施的小型企业,严重污染水环境的,由所在地的市、县人民政府或者上级人民政府责令关闭。

pollutants, and the categories, quantities and concentrations of
 

pollutants discharged under their normal operating conditions, and also
   第五十二条 造成水体严重污染的企业事业单位,经限期治理,逾期未完成治理任务的,除按照国家规定征收两倍以上的超标准排污费外,可以根据所造成的危害和损失处以罚款,或者责令其停业或者关闭。

provide to the same department technical information concerning
 
罚款由环境保护部门决定。责令企业事业单位停业或者关闭,由作出限期治理决定的地方人民政府决定;责令中央直接管辖的企业事业单位停业或者关闭的,须报经国务院批准。

prevention and control of water pollution.
 

The enterprises and institutions mentioned in the preceding paragraph
   第五十三条 违反本法规定,造成水污染事故的排污单位,由事故发生地的县级以上地方人民政府环境保护部门根据所造成的危害和损失处以罚款。

shall report without delay any substantial change in the categories,
 
造成渔业污染事故或者船舶造成水污染事故的,分别由事故发生地的渔政监督管理机构或者交通部门的航政机关根据所造成的危害和损失处以罚款。

quantities or concentrations of the pollutants discharged. Their
 
造成水污染事故,情节较重的,对有关责任人员,由其所在单位或者上级主管机关给予行政处分。

facilities for treating water pollutants must be kept in normal
 

operation; when such facilities are to be dismantled or left idle, the
   第五十四条 当事人对行政处罚决定不服的,可以在收到通知之日起十五天内,向人民法院起诉;期满不起诉又不履行的,由作出处罚决定的机关申请人民法院强制执行。

matter must be reported in advance to the environmental protection
 

department of the local people's government at or above the county level
   第五十五条 造成水污染危害的单位,有责任排除危害,并对直接受到损失的单位或者个人赔偿损失。

for approval.
 
赔偿责任和赔偿金额的纠纷,可以根据当事人的请求,由环境保护部门或者交通部门的航政机关处理;当事人对处理决定不服的,可以向人民法院起诉。当事人也可以直接向人民法院起诉。

 
水污染损失由第三者故意或者过失所引起的,第三者应当承担责任。
Article 15 Enterprises and institutions that discharge pollutants into a 
水污染损失由受害者自身的责任所引起的,排污单位不承担责任。

water body shall pay a pollutant discharge fee in accordance with State
 

regulations; if the discharge exceeds the limits set by the national or
   第五十六条 完全由于不可抗拒的自然灾害,并经及时采取合理措施,仍然不能避免造成水污染损失的,免予承担责任。

local standards, they shall pay a fee for excess discharge according to
 

State regulations.
   第五十七条 违反本法规定,造成重大水污染事故,导致公私财产重大损失或者人身伤亡的严重后果的,对有关责任人员可以比照刑法第一百一十五条或者第一百八十七条的规定,追究刑事责任。

The fees paid for pollutant discharge and for excess discharge must be
 

used for prevention and control of water pollution and may not be used
   第五十八条 环境保护监督管理人员和其他有关国家工作人员滥用职权、玩忽职守、徇私舞弊的,由其所在单位或者上级主管机关给予行政处分;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

for any other purposes.
 


Enterprises and institutions that discharge pollutants in excess of the
 第七章 附则


standards must work out plans to make the discharge conform to the
 

standards, and shall submit, for the record, such plans to the
   第五十九条 对个体工商户向水体排放污染物,污染严重的,由省、自治区、直辖市人民代表大会常务委员会参照本法规定的原则制定管理办法。

environmental protection department of the local people's government at
 

or above the county level in the place where they are located.
   第六十条 本法中下列用语的含义是:

 
Article 16 With regard to water bodies where the standards for water (一)“水污染”是指水体因某种物质的介入,而导致其化学、物理、生物或者放射性等方面特性的改变,从而影响水的有效利用,危害人体健康或者破坏生态环境,造成水质恶化的现象。

environment quality established by the State still cannot be attained
 

although the discharge of water pollutants has conformed to the
 (二)“污染物”是指能导致水污染的物质。

discharge standards, the people's governments at or above the provincial
 

level may institute a system for control of the total discharge of major
 (三)“有毒污染物”是指那些直接或者间接为生物摄入体内后,导致该生物或者其后代发病、行为反常、遗传异变、生理机能失常、机体变形或者死亡的污染物。

pollutants, and a system for making an estimate before deciding on the
 

quantity of major pollutants to be discharged by an enterprise that is
 (四)“油类”是指任何类型的油及其炼制品。

charged with the task of reducing its discharge. Specific measures shall
 

be formulated by the State Council.
 (五)“渔业水体”是指划定的鱼虾类的产卵场、索饵场、越冬场、回游通道和鱼虾贝藻类的养殖场。

 
Article 17 The environmental protection department under the State   第六十一条 国务院环境保护部门根据本法制定实施细则,报国务院批准后施行。

Council may, together with the water conservancy administration
 

department under the State Council and the provincial people's
   第六十二条 本法自一九八四年十一月一日起施行。

government concerned and in light of the utilization functions
 


determined by the State for water bodies of major river basins as well
 

as the economic and technological conditions of the related regions,
 

establish water environment quality standards applicable to water bodies
 

of such major river basins within the provincial boundaries, and such
 

standards shall be put into practice after being reported to and
 

approved by the State Council.
 

 
Article 18 Water resources protection agencies for major river basins 

determined as such by the State shall be responsible for monitoring the
 

water environment quality conditions of such river basins within the
 

boundaries of the provinces where they are located and shall, without
 

delay, report the monitoring findings to the environmental protection
 

department under the State Council and the water conservancy
 

administration department under the State Council; where there are
 

leading bodies for protection of water resources of the river basins
 

that are set up with the approval of the State Council, such findings
 

shall, without delay, be reported to those leading bodies.
 

 
Article 19 Urban sewage shall be centrally treated. 

Relevant departments under the State Council and the local people's
 

governments at various levels must incorporate protection of urban water
 

sources and prevention and control of urban water pollution in their
 

respective plans for urban construction, construct and improve networks
 

of urban drainage pipelines, construct facilities for central treatment
 

of urban sewage according to plans, and improve all-round treatment and
 

control of urban water environment.
 

Facilities for central treatment of urban sewage shall be, according to
 

State regulations, provided for use with compensation, that is, a sewage
 

treatment fee shall be collected so as to ensure normal operation of the
 

facilities. Those who discharge sewage to the central treatment
 

facilities and pay the fees for sewage treatment shall be exempted from
 

the pollutant discharge fee. Sewage treatment fees collected shall be
 

used for the construction and operation of the facilities for central
 

treatment of urban sewage and may not be used for other purposes.
 

Specific measures for collection, control and use of the fees for
 

facilities for central treatment of urban sewage shall be formulated by
 

the State Council.
 

 
Article 20 The people's governments at or above the provincial level may 

delineate surface sources protection zones for domestic and drinking
 

water according to law. Such protection zones shall be divided into
 

first-grade protection zones and protection zones of other grades.
 

Certain water areas and land-based areas near the intakes of domestic
 

and drinking surface water sources may be delineated as the first-grade
 

protection zones. Certain water areas and land-based areas beyond the
 

first-grade protection zones may be delineated as protection zones of
 

other grades. Protection zones of all grades shall be indicated by clear
 

geographic demarcations.
 

It is forbidden to discharge sewage into water bodies within the
 

first grade surface sources protection zones for domestic and drinking
 

water.
 

It is forbidden to travel, swim or carry out other activities within the
 

first-grade surface sources protection zones for domestic and drinking
 

water that may possibly cause pollution to the water body.
 

It is forbidden to construct or expand within the first-grade surface
 

sources protection zones for domestic and drinking water, any projects
 

that have noting to do with water supply facilities and protection of
 

water sources.
 

With regard to sewage outlets already built in the first-grade surface
 

sources protection zones for domestic and drinking water, the people's
 

governments at or above the county level shall, pursuant to the limits
 

of power authorized by the State Council, order that they be dismantled
 

or treated within a time limit.
 

The protection of ground sources for domestic and drinking water shall
 

be strengthened.
 

Specific measures for protection of domestic and drinking water sources
 

shall be formulated by the State Council.
 

 
Article 21 In case of emergency, such as severe pollution of a domestic 

and drinking water source which threatens the safe supply of water, the
 

environmental protection department shall, with the approval of the
 

people's government at the same level, take compulsory emergency
 

measures, including ordering the enterprises or institutions concerned
 

to reduce or stop the discharge of pollutants.
 

 
Article 22 Enterprises shall employ clean production techniques that 

facilitate high utilization efficiency of raw and semi-finished
 

materials and reduced discharge of pollutants and improve management to
 

decrease water pollutants.
 

The State shall institute a system for eliminating outdated production
 

techniques and equipment which seriously pollute the water environment.
 

The competent department for comprehensive economic and trade affairs
 

under the State Council shall, together with the relevant departments
 

under the State Council, publish the catalogue for techniques which
 

seriously pollute the water environment and for stopping the use of
 

which a time limit is fixed, as well as the catalogue of equipment which
 

seriously pollute the water environment and for stopping the
 

manufacture, sale, import and use of which a time limit is fixed.
 

Manufacturers, sellers, importers and users must, within the time limit
 

fixed by the competent department for comprehensive economic and trade
 

affairs under the State Council together with the relevant departments
 

under the State Council, stop manufacturing, selling, importing or using
 

the equipment listed in the catalogue mentioned in the preceding
 

paragraph. Users of the production techniques listed in the catalogue
 

mentioned in the preceding paragraph must stop using such production
 

techniques within the time limit fixed by the competent department for
 

comprehensive economic and trade affairs under the State Council
 

together with relevant departments under the State Council.
 

No equipment that has been eliminated according to the provisions of the
 

preceding two paragraphs may be transferred to others for use.
 

 
Article 23 The State shall forbid construction of any small enterprises, 

devoid of measures for prevention and control of water pollution, that
 

seriously pollute the water environment, such as chemical pulp mills,
 

printing and dyeing mills, dyestuff mills, tanneries, electroplating
 

factories, oil refineries and pesticides manufacturers.
 

 
Article 24 Any pollutant discharging unit that causes serious pollution 

to a water body shall be ordered to treat the pollution within a time
 

limit.
 

For enterprises and institutions directly under the jurisdiction of the
 

Central Government or the people's government of a province, autonomous
 

region or municipality directly under the Central Government, a proposal
 

on the time limit shall be made by the environmental protection
 

department of the people's government of the province, autonomous region
 

or municipality directly under the Central Government and submitted to
 

the people's government at the same level for decision. For enterprises
 

and institutions under the jurisdiction of the people's government at or
 

below the county or city level, a proposal on the time limit shall be
 

made by the environmental protection department of the people's
 

government of the city or county and submitted to the people's
 

government at the same level for decision. The pollutant discharging
 

units shall accomplish treatment of the pollution as scheduled.
 

 
Article 25 Environmental protection departments and relevant supervision 

and management departments of the people's governments at various levels
 

shall have the power to carry out on-site inspections of pollutant
 

discharging units under their jurisdiction, and the units under
 

inspection must report the situation truthfully and provide the
 

necessary information. The inspecting authorities shall have the
 

obligation to keep the technological and business secrets of the units
 

inspected.
 

 
Article 26 Disputes over water pollution involving two or more 

administrative regions shall be settled through consultation by the
 

local people's governments concerned, or through mediation by their
 

people's government at a higher level.
 

 
CHAPTER IV PREVENTION OF SURFACE WATER POLLUTION 

 
Article 27 No sewage outlet may be built in the protection zones for 

domestic and drinking water sources, for water bodies at scenic or
 

historic sites, for important fishery water bodies and for other water
 

bodies of special economic and cultural value. If a sewage outlet is to
 

be built in the vicinity of such protection zones, the water bodies
 

within those zones must be protected against pollution.
 

Sewage outlets that have already been built prior to promulgation of
 

this Law, but that discharge pollutants in excess of the limits set by
 

the national or local standards shall be tackled and brought under
 

control. Any outlet that endangers drinking water sources shall be
 

relocated.
 

 
Article 28 If a pollutant discharging unit, as a result of an accident 

or other exigency, discharges pollutants in excess of normal quantities
 

and thus causes or may possibly cause a water pollution accident, it
 

shall immediately take emergency measures, inform such units as are
 

likely to be endangered or damaged by the water pollution and report the
 

matter to the local environmental protection department. Where a ship
 

has caused a pollution accident, it shall report the matter to the
 

nearest navigation administration office for investigation and disposal.
 

Where a pollution accident occurs to fishery, the matter shall be
 

investigated and handled by the fishery supervision and administration
 

department.
 

 
Article 29 It is forbidden to discharge any oil, acid or alkaline 

solutions or deadly toxic liquid waste into any water body.
 

 
Article 30 It is forbidden to wash and clean in any water body any 

vehicles or containers which have been used for storing oil or toxic
 

pollutant.
 

 
Article 31 It is forbidden to discharge or dump into any water body or 

directly bury deadly toxic soluble slag, tailings, etc. containing such
 

substances as mercury, cadmium, arsenic, chromium, lead, cyanide and
 

yellow phosphorus.
 

Sites for depositing deadly toxic soluble slag, tailings, etc. shall be
 

made waterproof and protected against seepage and leaking.
 

 
Article 32 It is forbidden to discharge or dump industry waste residues, 

urban refuse or other wastes into any water body.
 

 
Article 33 It is forbidden to pile or deposit solid wastes and other 

pollutants on beaches and bank slopes below the highest water level of
 

rivers, lakes, canals, irrigation channels and reservoirs.
 

 
Article 34 It is forbidden to discharge or dump radioactive solid wastes 

or waste water containing any high-or medium-level radioactive
 

substances into any water body.
 

Any discharge of waste water containing low-level radioactive substances
 

into any water body must comply with the regulations and standards of
 

the State for radioactive protection.
 

 
Article 35 Where heated waste water is discharged into any water body, 

measures shall be taken to ensure that the temperature of the water body
 

conforms to the standards for water environment quality, so as to
 

prevent any heat pollution hazard.
 

 
Article 36 Pathogen-contaminated sewage may be discharged only after it 

is disinfected to meet the relevant standards of the State.
 

 
Article 37 Where industrial waste water or urban sewage is discharged 

into farmland irrigation channels, attention shall be paid to ensuring
 

that the water quality at the nearest irrigation intake downstream
 

conforms to the standards for the farmland irrigation water quality.
 

When industrial waste water or urban sewage is used for irrigation,
 

attention shall be paid to guarding against pollution of the soil,
 

ground water and agricultural products.
 

 
Article 38 The application of pesticides shall comply with the 

regulations and standards of the State for their safe use.
 

Transportation and storage of pesticides and disposal of expired or
 

ineffective pesticides shall be strictly controlled to prevent water
 

pollution.
 

 
Article 39 The administrative departments for agriculture and other 

departments concerned of the local people's governments at or above the
 

county level shall take measures to provide guidance to agricultural
 

producers as to how to apply fertilizers and pesticides scientifically
 

and rationally, so as to prevent their excessive use and water
 

pollution.
 

 
Article 40 The discharge of oil-bearing waste water or domestic ewage 

from ships shall comply with the standards for pollutant discharge by
 

ships. Ocean-going ships, on entering inland rivers or harbors, shall
 

observe the standards for pollutant discharge by inland river ships.
 

Residual oil or waste oil of ships must be recovered, and its discharge
 

into any water body shall be forbidden.
 

It is forbidden to dump ship refuse into any water body.
 

Where ships are being loaded with or transporting oils or toxic cargoes,
 

measures must be taken against any spillage or leakage of the oils and
 

against such cargoes from falling into water, in order to prevent water
 

pollution.
 

 
CHAPTER V PREVENTION OF GROUND WATER POLLUTION 

 
Article 41 Enterprises and institutions shall be forbidden to discharge 

or dump waste water containing toxic pollutants or pathogens or other
 

wastes into seepage wells or pits, crevices or karat caves.
 

 
Article 42 At places where no satisfactory impervious strata exist, 

enterprises and institutions shall be forbidden to use ditches, pits or
 

ponds devoid of safeguards against seepage for conveyance or storage of
 

waste water containing toxic pollutants or pathogens, or of other
 

wastes.
 

 
Article 43 In exploiting ground water from multiple aquifers, layered 

exploitation shall be resorted to if the water quality differs greatly
 

from one aquifer to another. No combined exploitation of paretic water
 

and artesian water already polluted may be permitted.
 

 
Article 44 While constructing underground engineering facilities or 

carrying out underground prospecting, mining and other underground
 

activities, protective measures shall be taken to prevent ground water
 

pollution.
 

 
Article 45 Artificial recharge for ground water may not deteriorate the 

quality of ground water.
 

 
CHAPTER VI LEGAL LIABILITY 

 
Article 46 Any one who, in violation of the provisions of this Law, 

commits any of the following acts, shall, in light of the seriousness of
 

the case, be warned or fined by the environmental protection department
 

or by the navigation administration office of the communications
 

department:
 

 
(1) refusing to report or submitting a false report on items for which 

registration is required by the environmental protection department
 

under the State Council for discharge of pollutants;
 

 
(2) refusing an on-site inspection by the environmental protection 

department or the supervision and management department concerned, or
 

resorting to deception;
 

 
(3) storing, piling, abandoning, dumping or discharging any pollutant or 

waste in violation of the relevant provisions of Chapters IV and V of
 

this Law; or
 

 
(4) failing to pay, as provided for by the State, the fee for pollutant 

discharge or for excess discharge.
 

The amount of fine and the procedure for its imposition shall be
 

stipulated in the rules for implementation of this Law.
 

 
Article 47 If any unit, in violation of the provisions of the third 

paragraph of Article 13 of this Law, puts into production or to use a
 

construction project for which the construction of facilities for
 

prevention and control of water pollution has not been completed or
 

whose facilities for prevention and control of water pollution fail to
 

meet the requirements laid down by the State, the environmental
 

protection department that approved the environmental impact statement
 

of the said project shall order the unit to suspend production or use,
 

and may also impose a fine on it.
 

 
Article 48 If any pollutant discharging unit, in violation of the 

provisions of the second paragraph of Article 14 of this Law,
 

intentionally does not use the water pollutant treatment facilities in a
 

normal manner, or dismantles or lays idle such facilities without
 

approval of the environmental protection department and thus discharges
 

pollutants in excess of the standards, the environmental protection
 

department of the local people's government at or above the county level
 

shall order the unit to restore the normal use or to re-install and use
 

the facilities within a time limit, and may also impose a fine on it.
 

 
Article 49 If any unit, in violation of the provisions of the fourth 

paragraph of Article 20 of this Law, constructs or expands, within a
 

first-grade surface sources protection zone for domestic and drinking
 

water, the people's government at or above the county level shall,
 

pursuant to the limits of power authorized by the State Council, order
 

the unit to suspend operation or to close down.
 

 
Article 50 If any unit, in violation of the provisions of Article 22 of 

this Law, manufactures, sells, imports or uses equipment that is
 

prohibited from being manufactured, sold, imported or used or employs
 

production techniques that are prohibited from being employed, the
 

competent department for comprehensive economic and trade affairs of the
 

people's government at or above the county level shall order to set it
 

right; if the violation is serious, the competent department for
 

comprehensive economic and trade affairs of the people's government at
 

or above the county level shall submit a proposal to the people's
 

government at the same level that it, within the limits of its power
 

authorized by the State Council, order the unit to suspend operation or
 

to close down.
 

 
Article 51 If, in violation of the provisions of Article 23 of this Law, 

a small enterprise devoid of water pollution prevention and control
 

measures is constructed and thus it causes severe pollution to the water
 

environment, the people's government of the city or county where it is
 

located or the people's government at a higher level shall order it to
 

close down.
 

 
Article 52 An enterprise or institution which has caused severe 

pollution to a water body but has failed to eliminate such pollution on
 

expiration of the time limit shall, according to regulations of the
 

State, pay twice or more the fee for excess discharge, and may, in the
 

light of consequent damage and loss, also be fined or ordered to suspend
 

operation or close down.
 

The fine shall be decided by the environmental protection department.
 

The order for suspension of operation or shutdown of an enterprise or
 

institution shall be issued by the local people's government which sets
 

the time limit for elimination of the pollution; The order for
 

suspension of operation or shutdown of an enterprise or institution
 

under direct jurisdiction of the Central Government shall be submitted
 

to the State Council for approval.
 

 
Article 53 If a pollutant discharging unit, in violation of the 

provisions of this Law, causes a water pollution accident, the
 

environmental protection department of the people's government at or
 

above the county level in the place where the accident occurs shall, in
 

light of the consequent damage and loss, impose a fine on it.
 

If a unit causes a fishery pollution accident or a ship causes a water
 

pollution accident, the fishery supervision and administration
 

department or the navigation administration office of the communications
 

department in the place where the accident occurs shall impose a fine on
 

the unit or ship in light of the consequent damage and loss.
 

If a water pollution accident is relatively serious, the persons who are
 

responsible for the accident shall be given administrative sanctions by
 

the unit to which they belong or by the competent department at a higher
 

level.
 

 
Article 54 A party that refuses to accept the decision on administrative 

penalty may, within 15 days from the date of receiving the notification,
 

bring a suit in a People's Court; if the party, upon expiration of the
 

period, neither brings a suit nor complies with the decision, the organ
 

which made the decision on the penalty shall apply to the People's Court
 

for enforcement.
 

 
Article 55 A unit which has caused a water pollution hazard shall have 

the responsibility to eliminate it and make compensation to the unit or
 

individual that has suffered direct losses.
 

A dispute over liability to make compensation or the amount of
 

compensation may, at the request of the parties, be settled by the
 

environmental protection department or by the navigation administration
 

office of the communications department. If a party refuses to accept
 

the settlement decision, he may bring a suit to a People's Court. The
 

party may also bring a suit to a People's Court directly.
 

If the loss from water pollution is caused by a third party
 

intentionally or negligently, the third party shall be liable to make
 

compensation.
 

If the loss from water pollution is caused due to the victim's own
 

fault, the pollutant discharging unit shall bear no liability for it.
 

 
Article 56 If the loss from water pollution is caused entirely by 

irresistible natural disasters which cannot be averted even after
 

reasonable measures have been promptly taken, the party concerned shall
 

be exempted from liability.
 

 
Article 57 If any one, in violation of the provisions of this Law, gives 

rise to a major water pollution accident which leads to any heavy loss
 

to public or private property or serious injury to or death of a person,
 

the persons who are responsible for it may be investigated for criminal
 

responsibility by applying mutatis mutandis the provisions of Article 115 or Article 187 of the Criminal Law.
 

 
Article 58 If any supervisor or administrator from the environmental 

protection department or any other State functionary abuses his power,
 

neglects his duty or engages in malpractice for personal gain, the unit
 

to which he belongs or the competent department at a higher level shall
 

give him an administrative sanction; if a crime is constituted, he shall
 

be investigated for criminal responsibility according to law.
 

 
CHAPTER VII SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS 

 
Article 59 The standing committees of the people's congresses of 

provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the
 

Central Government shall, with reference to the principles of this Law,
 

formulate control measures governing discharge of pollutants by private
 

industrialists and businessmen who cause serious pollution.
 

 
Article 60 For the purpose of this Law, the definitions of the following 

terms are:
 

 
(1) "Water pollution" means the introduction into a water body of any 

substance which alters the chemical, physical, biological or radioactive
 

properties of the water in such a way as to affect its effective use,
 

endanger human health, damage the ecosystem or deteriorate the water
 

quality.
 

 
(2) "Pollutant" means a substance that is capable of causing water 

pollution.
 

 
(3) "Toxic pollutant" means a pollutant that, when ingested by organisms 

directly or indirectly, leads to diseases, abnormal behaviour, genetic
 

mutation, physiological functional disturbance, organism deformity or
 

death of the organisms themselves or their offsprings.
 

 
(4) "Oil" means any kind of oils or its refined products. 

 
(5) "Fishery water bodies" means those parts of water bodies designated 

for the spawning, feeding, wintering or migratory passage of fish or
 

shrimp, and for breeding fish, shrimp or shellfish or growing algae.
 

 
Article 61 The environmental protection department under the State 

Council shall, on the basis of this Law, formulate detailed rules for
 

implementation of this Law, which shall be put into effect after being
 

submitted to and approved by the State Council.
 

 
Article 62 This Law shall come into force on November 1, 1984.

 
     
     
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