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Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Issues concerning the Application of Law in the Trial of Cases Involving Disputes over Financial Leasing Contracts [Effective]
最高人民法院关于审理融资租赁合同纠纷案件适用法律问题的解释 [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】

Announcement of the Supreme People's Court 

最高人民法院公告

The Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Issues concerning the Application of Law in the Trial of Cases Involving Disputes over Financial Leasing Contracts, as adopted at the 1,597th meeting of the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court on November 25, 2013, is hereby issued, and shall come into force on March 1, 2014. 《最高人民法院关于审理融资租赁合同纠纷案件适用法律问题的解释》已于2013年11月25日由最高人民法院审判委员会第1597次会议通过,现予公布,自2014年3月1日起施行。
Supreme People's Court 最高人民法院
February 24, 2014 2014年2月24日
Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Issues concerning the Application of Law in the Trial of Cases Involving Disputes over Financial Leasing Contracts 最高人民法院关于审理融资租赁合同纠纷案件适用法律问题的解释
(No. 3 [2014] of the Supreme People's Court, adopted at the 1,597th meeting of the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court on November 25, 2013) (2013年11月25日最高人民法院审判委员会第1597次会议通过 法释〔2014〕3号)
For the correct application of law in the trial of cases involving disputes over financial leasing contracts, this Interpretation is developed in accordance with the Contract Law of the People's Republic of China, the Property Law of the People's Republic of China, the Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China, and other relevant laws and in light of trial practices. 为正确审理融资租赁合同纠纷案件,根据《中华人民共和国合同法》《中华人民共和国物权法》《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》等法律的规定,结合审判实践,制定本解释。
I. Determination and Validity of a Financial Leasing Contract 

一、融资租赁合同的认定及效力

Article 1 A people's court shall determine whether there is a legal relationship of financial leasing in accordance with Article 237 of the Contract Law

北京大学互联网法律中心

and in light of the nature, value, and rent of the subject matter as well as the rights and obligations of the parties under the contract.
   第一条 人民法院应当根据合同法二百三十七条的规定,结合标的物的性质、价值、租金的构成以及当事人的合同权利和义务,对是否构成融资租赁法律关系作出认定。
Where no legal relationship of financial leasing actually exists under a contract titled financial leasing contract, a people's court shall handle cases according to the actual legal relationships. 对名为融资租赁合同,但实际不构成融资租赁法律关系的,人民法院应按照其实际构成的法律关系处理。
Article 2 Where the lessee sells its own property to the lessor and then leases back the property from the lessor under a financial leasing contract, the people's court shall not determine that there is no legal relationship of financial leasing simply because the lessee and the seller are the same party.   第二条 承租人将其自有物出卖给出租人,再通过融资租赁合同将租赁物从出租人处租回的,人民法院不应仅以承租人和出卖人系同一人为由认定不构成融资租赁法律关系。
Article 3 Where the lessee's use of the leasehold in its operations is subject to administrative licensing in accordance with the provisions of laws and administrative regulations, the people's court shall not determine that the financial leasing contract is void simply because the lessor fails the administrative licensing.   第三条 根据法律、行政法规规定,承租人对于租赁物的经营使用应当取得行政许可的,人民法院不应仅以出租人未取得行政许可为由认定融资租赁合同无效。
Article 4 Where a financial leasing contract is determined as void, if the parties have agreed on the ownership of the leasehold when the contract is void, such agreement shall prevail; or if the parties have not agreed on or have not clearly agreed on it when the contract becomes void and fail to reach an agreement on it after consultation, the leasehold shall be returned to the lessor. However, where the lessee causes the contract to be void, and the lessor does not require the return of the leasehold or the leasehold is being used and its return to the lessor will significantly reduce the value and efficacy of the leasehold, a people's court may hold that the lessee has the ownership of the leasehold but shall compensate the lessor for the leasehold in an amount determined according to the performance of the contract and the rental payments.   第四条 融资租赁合同被认定无效,当事人就合同无效情形下租赁物归属有约定的,从其约定;未约定或者约定不明,且当事人协商不成的,租赁物应当返还出租人。但因承租人原因导致合同无效,出租人不要求返还租赁物,或者租赁物正在使用,返还出租人后会显著降低租赁物价值和效用的,人民法院可以判决租赁物所有权归承租人,并根据合同履行情况和租金支付情况,由承租人就租赁物进行折价补偿。
II. Performance of a Contract and Publication of the Leasehold 

二、合同的履行和租赁物的公示

Article 5 Where the seller violates its obligation to deliver the subject matter to the lessee as agreed on in the contract, and the lessee refuses to take delivery of the leasehold under either of the following circumstances, a people's court shall support such refusal:   第五条 出卖人违反合同约定的向承租人交付标的物的义务,承租人因下列情形之一拒绝受领租赁物的,人民法院应予支持:
(1) The leasehold is in serious violation of the provisions of the contract. (一)租赁物严重不符合约定的;
(2) The seller fails to deliver the leasehold within the agreed delivery period or within a reasonable period, and upon demand by the lessee or the lessor, still fails to deliver the leasehold after the period of demand ends. (二)出卖人未在约定的交付期间或者合理期间内交付租赁物,经承租人或者出租人催告,在催告期满后仍未交付的。
Where the lessee refuses to take delivery of the leasehold and fails to notify the lessor in a timely manner or refuses to take delivery of the leasehold without a good reason, causing any loss to the lessor, if the lessor claims damages against the lessee, a people's court shall support such a claim. 承租人拒绝受领租赁物,未及时通知出租人,或者无正当理由拒绝受领租赁物,造成出租人损失,出租人向承租人主张损害赔偿的,人民法院应予支持。
Article 6 The lessee's exercise of its right to claim damages against the seller shall not affect the lessee's obligation to pay rents under the financial leasing contract, except that the lessee claims reduction or waiver of its rental payment obligation on the ground that the determination of the leasehold depends on the lessor's skills or the lessor has interfered with the choice of the leasehold.   第六条 承租人对出卖人行使索赔权,不影响其履行融资租赁合同项下支付租金的义务,但承租人以依赖出租人的技能确定租赁物或者出租人干预选择租赁物为由,主张减轻或者免除相应租金支付义务的除外。
Article 7 During the period when the leasehold is possessed by the lessee, the risk of damage to or destruction of the leasehold shall be assumed by the lessee, and if the lessor requests that the lessee continue to pay rents, a people's court shall support such a request, unless the parties agree otherwise or the law provides otherwise.   第七条 承租人占有租赁物期间,租赁物毁损、灭失的风险由承租人承担,出租人要求承租人继续支付租金的,人民法院应予支持。但当事人另有约定或者法律另有规定的除外。
Article 8 Where the lessor assigns part or all of its rights under the financial leasing contract, and the assignee requests rescission or modification of the financial leasing contract on such a ground, a people's court shall not support such a request.   第八条 出租人转让其在融资租赁合同项下的部分或者全部权利,受让方以此为由请求解除或者变更融资租赁合同的,人民法院不予支持。
Article 9 Where the lessee or the party actually using the leasehold assigns the leasehold or establishes any other property right in the leasehold without the lessor's consent, a third party acquires the ownership of or any other property right in the leasehold in accordance with the provisions of Article 106 of the Property Law, and the lessor claims that the third party does not have such a property right, a people's court shall not support such a claim, except under any of the following circumstances:   第九条 承租人或者租赁物的实际使用人,未经出租人同意转让租赁物或者在租赁物上设立其他物权,第三人依据物权法一百零六条的规定取得租赁物的所有权或者其他物权,出租人主张第三人物权权利不成立的,人民法院不予支持,但有下列情形之一的除外:
(1) The lessor has marked the leasehold in a conspicuous place of it, because of which the third party knows or should have known that the property is a leasehold when transacting with the lessee. (一)出租人已在租赁物的显著位置作出标识,第三人在与承租人交易时知道或者应当知道该物为租赁物的;
(2) Upon authorization by the lessor, the lessee has mortgaged the leasehold to the lessor and registered the mortgage with the registration authority as legally required. (二)出租人授权承租人将租赁物抵押给出租人并在登记机关依法办理抵押权登记的;
(3) The third party fails to search for information on financial leasing transactions at the corresponding institution as required by a law, an administrative regulation, or the provisions issued by the industry or local competent authorities when transacting with the lessee. (三)第三人与承租人交易时,未按照法律、行政法规、行业或者地区主管部门的规定在相应机构进行融资租赁交易查询的;
(4) The lessor has evidence to otherwise prove that the third party knows or should have known that the subject matter of its transaction is leasehold. (四)出租人有证据证明第三人知道或者应当知道交易标的物为租赁物的其他情形。
Article 10 Where the parties agree that the lessor shall own the leasehold when the lease term expires, if the lessee is unable to return the leasehold because the leasehold is damaged, destroyed, or attached to or commingled with any other property, and the lessor claims reasonable compensation, a people's court shall support such a claim.   第十条 当事人约定租赁期间届满后租赁物归出租人的,因租赁物毁损、灭失或者附合、混同于他物导致承租人不能返还,出租人要求其给予合理补偿的,人民法院应予支持。
III. Rescission of a Contract 

三、合同的解除

Article 11 Under any of the following circumstances, a people's court shall support a request of the lessor or the lessee for rescission of the financial leasing contract:   第十一条 有下列情形之一,出租人或者承租人请求解除融资租赁合同的,人民法院应予支持:
(1) The sales contract between the lessor and the seller is rescinded, determined as void, or revoked, and the parties fail to enter into a sales contract anew. (一)出租人与出卖人订立的买卖合同解除、被确认无效或者被撤销,且双方未能重新订立买卖合同的;
(2) The leasehold is accidentally damaged or destroyed, which is not attributed to either party, and it is impossible to repair it or determine a replacement of it. (二)租赁物因不可归责于双方的原因意外毁损、灭失,且不能修复或者确定替代物的;
(3) The purpose of the financial leasing contract cannot be achieved because of the seller. (三)因出卖人的原因致使融资租赁合同的目的不能实现的。
Article 12 Under any of the following circumstances, a people's court shall support a request of the lessor for rescission of the financial leasing contract:   第十二条 有下列情形之一,出租人请求解除融资租赁合同的,人民法院应予支持:
(1) The lessee assigns, sublets, mortgages, pledges, uses for equity investment, or otherwise disposes of the leasehold without the lessor's consent. (一)承租人未经出租人同意,将租赁物转让、转租、抵押、质押、投资入股或者以其他方式处分租赁物的;
(2) The lessee fails to pay rents according to the time limits and amounts in the contract, which satisfies the conditions for rescission as set out in the contract, and upon demand by the lessor, the lessee still fails to pay within a reasonable period. (二)承租人未按照合同约定的期限和数额支付租金,符合合同约定的解除条件,经出租人催告后在合理期限内仍不支付的;
(3) The contract does not clearly provide for the circumstances under which the contract may be rescinded due to rental arrears, but the lessee owes two or more installments of rents or the amount owed is 50% or more of all the rents, and upon demand by the lessor, the lessee still fails to pay within a reasonable period. (三)合同对于欠付租金解除合同的情形没有明确约定,但承租人欠付租金达到两期以上,或者数额达到全部租金百分之十五以上,经出租人催告后在合理期限内仍不支付的;
(4) The purpose of the contract cannot be achieved, because the lessee otherwise violates the provisions of the contract. (四)承租人违反合同约定,致使合同目的不能实现的其他情形。
Article 13 Where the lessee cannot possess or use the leasehold because of the lessor, a people's court shall support the lessee's request for rescission of the financial leasing contract.   第十三条 因出租人的原因致使承租人无法占有、使用租赁物,承租人请求解除融资租赁合同的,人民法院应予支持。
Article 14 Where a party only requests rescission of the financial leasing contract and does not file any claim regarding the ownership of the leasehold or compensation for losses in a trial before a people's court of first instance, the people's court may explain the party's rights to the party.   第十四条 当事人在一审诉讼中仅请求解除融资租赁合同,未对租赁物的归属及损失赔偿提出主张的,人民法院可以向当事人进行释明。
Article 15 Where the financial leasing contract is rescinded because the leasehold is accidentally damaged or destroyed or for any other reason which is not attributable to any party after it is delivered to the lessee, a people's court shall support a request of the lessor for the lessee to make compensation according to depreciation of the leasehold.   第十五条 融资租赁合同因租赁物交付承租人后意外毁损、灭失等不可归责于当事人的原因而解除,出租人要求承租人按照租赁物折旧情况给予补偿的,人民法院应予支持。
Article 16 Where the financial leasing contract is rescinded because the sales contract is rescinded, determined as void, or revoked, the people's court shall support a request of the lessor for the lessee to compensate it for corresponding losses according to the provisions of the financial leasing contract or on the ground that the seller and the leasehold are chosen by the lessee although the financial leasing contract does not provide for or clearly provide for such compensation.   第十六条 融资租赁合同因买卖合同被解除、被确认无效或者被撤销而解除,出租人根据融资租赁合同约定,或者以融资租赁合同虽未约定或约定不明,但出卖人及租赁物系由承租人选择为由,主张承租人赔偿相应损失的,人民法院应予支持。
If the lessor is compensated for its losses when the sales contract is rescinded, determined as void, or revoked, the lessee shall be relieved of its compensatory liability accordingly. 出租人的损失已经在买卖合同被解除、被确认无效或者被撤销时获得赔偿的,应当免除承租人相应的赔偿责任。
IV. Liability for Breach of Contract 

四、违约责任哎哟不错哦

Article 17 Where the lessor falls under any of the following circumstances, affecting the lessee's possession and use of the leasehold, a people's court shall support a request of the lessee for the lessor to compensate it for corresponding losses in accordance with Article 245 of the Contract Law聊五分钱的天吗:   第十七条 出租人有下列情形之一,影响承租人对租赁物的占有和使用,承租人依照合同法二百四十五条的规定,要求出租人赔偿相应损失的,人民法院应予支持:
(1) The lessor takes back the leasehold without a good reason. (一)无正当理由收回租赁物;
(2) The lessor obstructs or interferes with the lessee's possession and use of the leasehold without a good reason. (二)无正当理由妨碍、干扰承租人对租赁物的占有和使用;
(3) A third party claims any right in the leasehold because of the lessor. (三)因出租人的原因导致第三人对租赁物主张权利;
(4) The lessor otherwise improperly affects the lessee's possession and use of the leasehold. (四)不当影响承租人对租赁物占有、使用的其他情形。
Article 18 Where the lessor falls under any of the following circumstances, causing the lessee's failure to file a claim for compensation against the seller before the time limitation or failure to be compensated, a people's court shall support a request of the lessee for the lessor to assume corresponding liability:   第十八条 出租人有下列情形之一,导致承租人对出卖人索赔逾期或者索赔失败,承租人要求出租人承担相应责任的,人民法院应予支持:
(1) The lessor knows that the leasehold has a quality defect but fails to inform the lessee of the quality defect. (一)明知租赁物有质量瑕疵而不告知承租人的;
(2) When the lessee exercises its right to claim compensation, the lessor fails to provide necessary assistance in a timely manner. (二)承租人行使索赔权时,未及时提供必要协助的;
(3) The lessor deliberately delays the exercise of the right to claim compensation against the seller which may only be exercised by the lessor as agreed on in the financial leasing contract. (三)怠于行使融资租赁合同中约定的只能由出租人行使对出卖人的索赔权的;
(4) The lessor deliberately delays the exercise of the right to claim compensation against the seller which may only be exercised by the lessor as agreed on in the sales contract. (四)怠于行使买卖合同中约定的只能由出租人行使对出卖人的索赔权的。
Article 19 Where the leasehold is in violation of the provisions of the financial leasing contract, and the lessor commits any of the following conduct, a people's court shall support a request of the lessee for the lessor to assume corresponding liability in accordance with Articles 241 and 244 of the Contract Law:   第十九条 租赁物不符合融资租赁合同的约定且出租人实施了下列行为之一,承租人依照合同法二百四十一条、第二百四十四条的规定,要求出租人承担相应责任的,人民法院应予支持:
(1) The lessor plays a decisive role in the choice of the leasehold when the lessee chooses the seller and the leasehold. (一)出租人在承租人选择出卖人、租赁物时,对租赁物的选定起决定作用的;
(2) The lessor interferes with the choice of the seller or the leasehold or requires the lessee to choose the seller or the leasehold according to the lessor's will. (二)出租人干预或者要求承租人按照出租人意愿选择出卖人或者租赁物的;
(3) The lessor changes without authorization the seller or the leasehold which has been chosen by the lessee. (三)出租人擅自变更承租人已经选定的出卖人或者租赁物的。
Where the lessee claims that it depends on the lessor's skills in determining the leasehold or the lessor interferes with the choice of the leasehold, the lessee shall bear the burden of proof of the fact. 承租人主张其系依赖出租人的技能确定租赁物或者出租人干预选择租赁物的,对上述事实承担举证责任。
Article 20 Where the lessee fails to perform its obligation to pay rent within the prescribed time limit or delays the performance of any other payment obligation, a people's court shall support a request of the lessor for the lessee to pay overdue interest and liquidated damages in accordance with the provisions of the financial leasing contract.   第二十条 承租人逾期履行支付租金义务或者迟延履行其他付款义务,出租人按照融资租赁合同的约定要求承租人支付逾期利息、相应违约金的,人民法院应予支持。
Article 21 Where the lessor requests that the lessee pay all unpaid rents under the contract and that the financial leasing contract be rescinded, the people's court shall notify the lessor to make a choice in accordance with Article 248 of the Contract Law.   第二十一条 出租人既请求承租人支付合同约定的全部未付租金又请求解除融资租赁合同的,人民法院应告知其依照合同法二百四十八条的规定作出选择。
Where the lessor requests that the lessee pay all unpaid rents under the contract, and after a people's court issues a judgment, the lessee fails to perform the judgment, the people's court shall accept another action instituted by the lessor for rescission of the financial leasing contract and return of the leasehold. 出租人请求承租人支付合同约定的全部未付租金,人民法院判决后承租人未予履行,出租人再行起诉请求解除融资租赁合同、收回租赁物的,人民法院应予受理。
Article 22 Where the lessor requests rescission of the financial leasing contract in accordance with Article 12 of this Interpretation in addition to return of the leasehold and compensation for losses, a people's court shall support such requests.   第二十二条 出租人依照本解释第十二条的规定请求解除融资租赁合同,同时请求收回租赁物并赔偿损失的,人民法院应予支持。
The compensation for losses as mentioned in the preceding paragraph shall be compensation for the difference between all the rents and other expenses unpaid by the lessee and the value of the returned leasehold. If the contract provides that the lessor shall own the leasehold when the lease term expires, the compensation for losses shall also include the residual value of the leasehold when the term of the financial leasing contract expires. 前款规定的损失赔偿范围为承租人全部未付租金及其他费用与收回租赁物价值的差额。合同约定租赁期间届满后租赁物归出租人所有的,损失赔偿范围还应包括融资租赁合同到期后租赁物的残值。
Article 23 Where the lessee and the lessor are in dispute over the value of the leasehold during litigation, a people's court may determine the value of the leasehold according to the provisions of the financial leasing contract; or if the financial leasing contract does not provide for or clearly provide for the value determination, the value of the leasehold may be determined by reference to the depreciation of the leasehold and the residual value of the leasehold upon expiry of the term of the financial leasing contract as agreed on in the contract.   第二十三条 诉讼期间承租人与出租人对租赁物的价值有争议的,人民法院可以按照融资租赁合同的约定确定租赁物价值;融资租赁合同未约定或者约定不明的,可以参照融资租赁合同约定的租赁物折旧以及合同到期后租赁物的残值确定租赁物价值。
Where the lessee or the lessor believes that the value determined under the preceding paragraph seriously deviates from the actual value of the leasehold, it may request that the people's court authorize an accredited institution to conduct appraisal or that the value be determined by auction. 承租人或者出租人认为依前款确定的价值严重偏离租赁物实际价值的,可以请求人民法院委托有资质的机构评估或者拍卖确定。
V. Miscellaneous Provisions 

五、其他规定

Article 24 Where a dispute arises between the seller and the buyer out of the sales contract or between the lessor and the lessee out of the financial leasing contract, if a party institutes an action involving only one of the contractual relationships but the people's court believes after examining the case that a party to the other contractual relationship has a legal interest in the outcome of the case, the people's court may notify such a party of joining the action as a third party.   第二十四条 出卖人与买受人因买卖合同发生纠纷,或者出租人与承租人因融资租赁合同发生纠纷,当事人仅对其中一个合同关系提起诉讼,人民法院经审查后认为另一合同关系的当事人与案件处理结果有法律上的利害关系的,可以通知其作为第三人参加诉讼。
Where the lessee and the party actually using the leasehold are different, and an action instituted by a party to the financial leasing contract is not against the party actually using the leasehold, if the people's court believes after examining the case that the party actually using the leasehold has a legal interest in the outcome of the case, the people's court may notify such a party of joining the action as a third party. 承租人与租赁物的实际使用人不一致,融资租赁合同当事人未对租赁物的实际使用人提起诉讼,人民法院经审查后认为租赁物的实际使用人与案件处理结果有法律上的利害关系的,可以通知其作为第三人参加诉讼。
Where the lessee claims a right under the sales contract such as its right to take delivery of the leasehold or right to compensation directly against the seller based on the sales contract and the financial leasing contract, a people's court shall notify the lessor of joining the action as a third party. 承租人基于买卖合同和融资租赁合同直接向出卖人主张受领租赁物、索赔等买卖合同权利的,人民法院应通知出租人作为第三人参加诉讼。
Article 25 The time limitation for a party to request a people's court to protect its rights in a dispute over rental arrears under a financial leasing contract shall be two years, commencing from the date of expiry of the lease term.   第二十五条 当事人因融资租赁合同租金欠付争议向人民法院请求保护其权利的诉讼时效期间为两年,自租赁期限届满之日起计算。
Article 26 This Interpretation shall come into force on March 1, 2014, upon which the Provisions of the Supreme People's Court on Several Issues concerning the Trial of Cases Involving Disputes over Financial Leasing Contracts (No. 19 [1996], SPC) shall be repealed.   第二十六条 本解释自2014年3月1日起施行。《最高人民法院关于审理融资租赁合同纠纷案件若干问题的规定》(法发〔1996〕19号)同时废止。
This Interpretation shall apply to cases involving disputes over financial leasing contracts for which no final judgments have been issued after this Interpretation comes into force; and shall not apply to cases for which final judgments have been issued before this Interpretation comes into force and which are retried upon petition of a party or decision to permit retrial under the trial supervision procedure. 本解释施行后尚未终审的融资租赁合同纠纷案件,适用本解释;本解释施行前已经终审,当事人申请再审或者按照审判监督程序决定再审的,不适用本解释。
     
     
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