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Civil Code of the People's Republic of China [Not Yet Effective]
中华人民共和国民法典 [尚未生效]
【法宝引证码】

Order of the President of the People's Republic of China 

中华人民共和国主席令

(No. 45) (第四十五号)

The Civil Code of the People's Republic of China, as adopted at the 3rd Session of the Thirteenth National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on May 28, 2020, is hereby issued, and shall come into force on January 1, 2021. 《中华人民共和国民法典》已由中华人民共和国第十三届全国人民代表大会第三次会议于2020年5月28日通过,现予公布,自2021年1月1日起施行。
Xi Jinping, President of the People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国主席 习近平
May 28, 2020 2020年5月28日
Civil Code of the People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国民法典
(Adopted at the 3rd Session of the Thirteenth National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on May 28, 2020) (2020年5月28日第十三届全国人民代表大会第三次会议通过)
Table of Contents 目录
Book One General Provisions 第一编 总则
Chapter I Basic Provisions 第一章 基本规定
Chapter II Natural Persons 第二章 自然人
Section 1 Capacity for Civil Rights and Capacity for Civil Conduct 第一节 民事权利能力和民事行为能力
Section 2 Guardianship 第二节 监护
Section 3 Declaration of Absence and Declaration of Death 第三节 宣告失踪和宣告死亡
Section 4 Individual Industrial and Commercial Households and Rural Usufructuary Households 第四节 个体工商户和农村承包经营户
Chapter III Legal Persons 第三章 法人
Section 1 General Rules 第一节 一般规定
Section 2 For-profit Legal Persons 第二节 营利法人
Section 3 Non-profit Legal Persons 第三节 非营利法人
Section 4 Special Legal Persons 第四节 特别法人
Chapter IV Unincorporated Organizations 第四章 非法人组织
Chapter V Civil Rights 第五章 民事权利
Chapter VI Juridical Acts 第六章 民事法律行为
Section 1 General Rules 第一节 一般规定
Section 2 Declaration of Will 第二节 意思表示
Section 3 Validity of Juridical Acts 第三节 民事法律行为的效力
Section 4 Juridical Acts Subject to Conditions or Terms 第四节 民事法律行为的附条件和附期限
Chapter VII Agency 第七章 代理
Section 1 General Rules 第一节 一般规定
Section 2 Agency by Mandate 第二节 委托代理
Section 3 Termination of Agency 第三节 代理终止
Chapter VIII Civil Liability 第八章 民事责任
Chapter IX Extinctive Prescription 第九章 诉讼时效
Chapter X Calculation of Time Periods 第十章 期间计算
Book Two Real Rights 第二编 物权
Title One General Provisions 第一分编 通则
Chapter I General Rules 第一章 一般规定
Chapter II Creation, Modification, Transfer and Extinction of Real Rights 第二章 物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭
Section 1 Registration of Immovables 第一节 不动产登记
Section 2 Delivery of Movables 第二节 动产交付
Section 3 Other Provisions 第三节 其他规定
Chapter III Protection of Real Rights 第三章 物权的保护
Title Two Ownership 第二分编 所有权
Chapter IV General Rules 第四章 一般规定
Chapter V State Ownership, Collective Ownership and Private Ownership 第五章 国家所有权和集体所有权、私人所有权
Chapter VI Owners' Separate Ownership in a Building 第六章 业主的建筑物区分所有权
Chapter VII Neighboring Relations 第七章 相邻关系
Chapter VIII Co-ownership 第八章 共有
Chapter IX Special Provisions on the Obtainment of Ownership 第九章 所有权取得的特别规定
Title Three Usufruct 第三分编 用益物权
Chapter X General Rules 第十章 一般规定
Chapter XI Conventional Usufruct on Rural Land for Agricultural Operations 第十一章 土地承包经营权
Chapter XII Right to Use Land for Construction 第十二章 建设用地使用权
Chapter XIII Right to Use Rural Land as a Residential Lot 第十三章 宅基地使用权
Chapter XIV Right of Habitation 第十四章 居住权
Chapter XV Servitude 第十五章 地役权
Title Four Security Interests 第四分编 担保物权
Chapter XVI General Rules 第十六章 一般规定
Chapter XVII Mortgage 第十七章 抵押权
Section 1 Ordinary Mortgage 第一节 一般抵押权
Section 2 Maximum Mortgage 第二节 最高额抵押权
Chapter XVIII Pledge 第十八章 质权
Section 1 Pledge of Movables 第一节 动产质权
Section 2 Pledge of Rights 第二节 权利质权
Chapter XIX Lien 第十九章 留置权
Title Five Possession 第五分编 占有
Chapter XX Possession 第二十章 占有
Book Three Contracts 第三编 合同
Title One General Provisions 第一分编 通则
Chapter I General Rules 第一章 一般规定
Chapter II Contracting 第二章 合同的订立
Chapter III Validity of Contracts 第三章 合同的效力
Chapter IV Performance of Contracts 第四章 合同的履行
Chapter V Preservation of Contracts 第五章 合同的保全
Chapter VI Modification and Assignment of Contracts 第六章 合同的变更和转让
Chapter VII Termination of Contractual Rights and Obligations 第七章 合同的权利义务终止
Chapter VIII Liability for Breach of Contract 第八章 违约责任
Title Two Nominate Contracts 第二分编 典型合同
Chapter IX Sales Contracts 第九章 买卖合同
Chapter X Contracts for Supply of Power, Water, Gas, or Heat 第十章 供用电、水、气、热力合同
Chapter XI Gift Contracts 第十一章 赠与合同
Chapter XII Contracts for Loan of Money 第十二章 借款合同
Chapter XIII Contracts of Suretyship 第十三章 保证合同
Section 1 General Rules 第一节 一般规定
Section 2 Suretyship Liability 第二节 保证责任
Chapter XIV Leasing Contracts 第十四章 租赁合同
Chapter XV Financial Leasing Contracts 第十五章 融资租赁合同
Chapter XVI Factoring Contracts 第十六章 保理合同
Chapter XVII Contracts for Work 第十七章 承揽合同
Chapter XVIII Contracts for Construction Projects 第十八章 建设工程合同
Chapter XIX Transportation Contracts 第十九章 运输合同
Section 1 General Rules 第一节 一般规定
Section 2 Passenger Transportation Contracts 第二节 客运合同
Section 3 Cargo Transportation Contracts 第三节 货运合同
Section 4 Multimodal Transport Contracts 第四节 多式联运合同
Chapter XX Technology Contracts 第二十章 技术合同
Section 1 General Rules 第一节 一般规定
Section 2 Technology Development Contracts 第二节 技术开发合同
Section 3 Technology Transfer Contracts and Technology License Contracts 第三节 技术转让合同和技术许可合同
Section 4 Technical Consulting Contracts and Technical Service Contracts 第四节 技术咨询合同和技术服务合同
Chapter XXI Deposit Contracts 第二十一章 保管合同
Chapter XXII Warehousing Contracts 第二十二章 仓储合同
Chapter XXIII Contracts of Mandate 第二十三章 委托合同
Chapter XXIV Property Management Service Contracts 第二十四章 物业服务合同
Chapter XXV Commission Agent Contracts 第二十五章 行纪合同
Chapter XXVI Intermediary Contracts 第二十六章 中介合同
Chapter XXVII Contracts of Partnership 第二十七章 合伙合同
Title Three Quasi-contracts 第三分编 准合同
Chapter XXVIII Management of the Business of Another 第二十八章 无因管理
Chapter XXIX Unjust Enrichment 第二十九章 不当得利
Book Four Personality Rights 第四编 人格权
Chapter I General Rules 第一章 一般规定
Chapter II Rights of Life, Inviolability and Integrity of Person, and Health 第二章 生命权、身体权和健康权
Chapter III Right of Name 第三章 姓名权和名称权
Chapter IV Right of Likeness 第四章 肖像权
Chapter V Right of Reputation and Right of Honor 第五章 名誉权和荣誉权
Chapter VI Right of Privacy and Protection of Personal Information 第六章 隐私权和个人信息保护
Book Five Marriage and Family 第五编 婚姻家庭
Chapter I General Rules 第一章 一般规定
Chapter II Marriage 第二章 结婚
Chapter III Family Relations 第三章 家庭关系
Section 1 Husband and Wife 第一节 夫妻关系
Section 2 Parents, Children and Other Close Relatives 第二节 父母子女关系和其他近亲属关系
Chapter IV Divorce 第四章 离婚
Chapter V Adoption 第五章 收养
Section 1 Establishment of an Adoptive Relationship 第一节 收养关系的成立
Section 2 Validity of Adoption 第二节 收养的效力
Section 3 Termination of an Adoptive Relationship 第三节 收养关系的解除
Book Six Succession 第六编 继承
Chapter I General Rules 第一章 一般规定
Chapter II Statutory Succession 第二章 法定继承
Chapter III Testamentary Succession and Legacy 第三章 遗嘱继承和遗赠
Chapter IV Disposition of the Estate 第四章 遗产的处理
Book Seven Tort Liability 第七编 侵权责任
Chapter I General Rules 第一章 一般规定
Chapter II Damages 第二章 损害赔偿
Chapter III Special Provisions on Tortfeasors 第三章 责任主体的特殊规定
Chapter IV Product Liability 第四章 产品责任
Chapter V Liability for Motor Vehicle Traffic Accident 第五章 机动车交通事故责任
Chapter VI Liability for Medical Malpractice 第六章 医疗损害责任
Chapter VII Liability for Environmental Pollution and Ecological Damage 第七章 环境污染和生态破坏责任
Chapter VIII Liability for Ultrahazardous Activity 第八章 高度危险责任
Chapter IX Liability for Harm Caused by Domestic Animal 第九章 饲养动物损害责任
Chapter X Liability for Harm Caused by Building or Object 第十章 建筑物和物件损害责任
Supplemental Provisions 附则
Book One General Provisions 

第一编 总则

Chapter I Basic Provisions 

第一章 基本规定

Article 1 This Code is enacted in accordance with the Constitution for the purposes of protecting the lawful rights and interests of the parties to civil legal relations, regulating civil relations, maintaining the social and economic order, meeting the developmental requirements of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and upholding core socialist values.   第一条 为了保护民事主体的合法权益,调整民事关系,维护社会和经济秩序,适应中国特色社会主义发展要求,弘扬社会主义核心价值观,根据宪法,制定本法。
Article 2 Civil law regulates the personal relationships and property relationships among natural persons, legal persons, and unincorporated organizations, as equal parties.   第二条 民法调整平等主体的自然人、法人和非法人组织之间的人身关系和财产关系。
Article 3 The personal rights, property rights, and other lawful rights and interests of the parties to civil legal relations shall be protected by law, and no organization or individual may infringe upon such rights and interests.   第三条 民事主体的人身权利、财产权利以及其他合法权益受法律保护,任何组织或者个人不得侵犯。
Article 4 All parties to civil legal relations are equal in legal status in civil activities.   第四条 民事主体在民事活动中的法律地位一律平等。
Article 5 The parties to civil legal relations shall conduct civil activities under the principle of free will, and create, modify, or terminate civil legal relations according to their own wills.   第五条 民事主体从事民事活动,应当遵循自愿原则,按照自己的意思设立、变更、终止民事法律关系。
Article 6 The parties to civil legal relations shall conduct civil activities under the principle of fairness, and rationally determine the rights and obligations of each party.   第六条 民事主体从事民事活动,应当遵循公平原则,合理确定各方的权利和义务。
Article 7 The parties to civil legal relations shall conduct civil activities under the principle of good faith, adhere to honesty, and fulfill their promises.   第七条 民事主体从事民事活动,应当遵循诚信原则,秉持诚实,恪守承诺。
Article 8 The parties to civil legal relations shall not conduct civil activities in violation of the law, nor contrary to public order and good morals.   第八条 民事主体从事民事活动,不得违反法律,不得违背公序良俗。
Article 9 The parties to civil legal relations shall conduct civil activities contributing to the conservation of resources and protection of environment.   第九条 民事主体从事民事活动,应当有利于节约资源、保护生态环境。
Article 10 Civil disputes shall be resolved in accordance with the law; or if the law is silent, customs may apply, but not contrary to public order and good morals.   第十条 处理民事纠纷,应当依照法律;法律没有规定的,可以适用习惯,但是不得违背公序良俗。
Article 11 Where there are any special provisions on civil relations in any other law, such special provisions shall apply.   第十一条 其他法律对民事关系有特别规定的,依照其规定。
Article 12 The law of the People's Republic of China shall apply to civil activities within the territory of the People's Republic of China, except as otherwise provided for by any law.   第十二条 中华人民共和国领域内的民事活动,适用中华人民共和国法律。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Chapter II Natural Persons 

第二章 自然人

Section 1 Capacity for Civil Rights and Capacity for Civil Conduct 

第一节 民事权利能力和民事行为能力

Article 13 A natural person has the capacity for civil rights from the moment of birth to the moment of death, enjoying civil rights and assuming civil obligations in accordance with the law.   第十三条 自然人从出生时起到死亡时止,具有民事权利能力,依法享有民事权利,承担民事义务。
Article 14 All natural persons are equal in capacity for civil rights.   第十四条 自然人的民事权利能力一律平等。
Article 15 The time of birth and the time of death of a natural person shall be the ones recorded on his or her birth certificate or death certificate; or in the absence of a birth certificate or death certificate, the time shall be the one recorded in the household registration or any other valid identity registration. If there is any other evidence sufficient to overturn the aforesaid time, the time proved by such evidence shall prevail.   第十五条 自然人的出生时间和死亡时间,以出生证明、死亡证明记载的时间为准;没有出生证明、死亡证明的,以户籍登记或者其他有效身份登记记载的时间为准。有其他证据足以推翻以上记载时间的,以该证据证明的时间为准。
Article 16 Where the protection of the interests of a fetus is involved in, among others, a succession or acceptance of a gift, the fetus shall be presumed to have capacity for civil rights. However, in case of a stillborn, the fetus's capacity for civil rights has never existed.   第十六条 涉及遗产继承、接受赠与等胎儿利益保护的,胎儿视为具有民事权利能力。但是,胎儿娩出时为死体的,其民事权利能力自始不存在。
Article 17 A natural person attaining the age of eighteen is an adult. A natural person under the age of eighteen is a minor.   第十七条 十八周岁以上的自然人为成年人。不满十八周岁的自然人为未成年人。
Article 18 An adult has full capacity for civil conduct, and may perform juridical acts independently.   第十八条 成年人为完全民事行为能力人,可以独立实施民事法律行为。
A minor attaining the age of sixteen and primarily relying on his or her own labor income in living is deemed a person with full capacity for civil conduct. 十六周岁以上的未成年人,以自己的劳动收入为主要生活来源的,视为完全民事行为能力人。
Article 19 A minor attaining the age of eight is a person with limited capacity for civil conduct, who shall be represented by his or her statutory agent in performing juridical acts or whose performance of juridical acts shall be consented to or ratified by his or her statutory agent, but may alone perform juridical acts which purely benefit the minor or are commensurate with his or her age and intelligence.   第十九条 八周岁以上的未成年人为限制民事行为能力人,实施民事法律行为由其法定代理人代理或者经其法定代理人同意、追认;但是,可以独立实施纯获利益的民事法律行为或者与其年龄、智力相适应的民事法律行为。
Article 20 A minor under the age of eight is a person without capacity for civil conduct, who shall be represented in performing civil juridical acts by his or her statutory agent.   第二十条 不满八周岁的未成年人为无民事行为能力人,由其法定代理人代理实施民事法律行为。
Article 21 An adult incapable of discerning his or her conduct is a person without capacity for civil conduct, who shall be represented by his or her statutory agent in performing juridical acts.   第二十一条 不能辨认自己行为的成年人为无民事行为能力人,由其法定代理人代理实施民事法律行为。
The provision of the preceding paragraph shall also apply to a minor attaining the age of eight without the power of discernment of his or her conduct. 八周岁以上的未成年人不能辨认自己行为的,适用前款规定。
Article 22 An adult incapable of fully discerning his or her conduct shall be a person with limited capacity for civil conduct, who shall be represented by his or her statutory agent in performing juridical acts or whose performance of juridical acts shall be consented to or ratified by his or her statutory agent, but may perform alone juridical acts which purely benefit the adult or are commensurate with his or her intelligence and mental health.   第二十二条 不能完全辨认自己行为的成年人为限制民事行为能力人,实施民事法律行为由其法定代理人代理或者经其法定代理人同意、追认;但是,可以独立实施纯获利益的民事法律行为或者与其智力、精神健康状况相适应的民事法律行为。
Article 23 The guardian of a person without capacity for civil conduct or with limited capacity for civil conduct shall be the statutory agent of the person.   第二十三条 无民事行为能力人、限制民事行为能力人的监护人是其法定代理人。
Article 24 For an adult incapable of discerning or fully discerning his or her conduct, an interested party or a relevant organization may apply to a people's court for determining the adult as a person without capacity for civil conduct or a person with limited capacity for civil conduct.   第二十四条 不能辨认或者不能完全辨认自己行为的成年人,其利害关系人或者有关组织,可以向人民法院申请认定该成年人为无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人。
After the adult is determined by a people's court as a person without capacity for civil conduct or a person with limited capacity for civil conduct, the people's court may, based on the recovery of his or her intelligence or mental health, determine the adult as a person with limited capacity for civil conduct or a person with full capacity for civil conduct, upon his or her application or application of an interested party or a relevant organization. 被人民法院认定为无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人的,经本人、利害关系人或者有关组织申请,人民法院可以根据其智力、精神健康恢复的状况,认定该成年人恢复为限制民事行为能力人或者完全民事行为能力人。
For the purposes of this article, the relevant organizations include but are not limited to: an urban residents' committee, a villagers' committee, a school, a medical institution, a women's federation, a disabled persons' federation, an organization legally formed for seniors, and a civil affairs department, among others. 本条规定的有关组织包括:居民委员会、村民委员会、学校、医疗机构、妇女联合会、残疾人联合会、依法设立的老年人组织、民政部门等。
Article 25 The domicile of a natural person shall be his or her residence recorded in the household registration or any other valid identity registration; but if his or her habitual residence is different from the domicile, the habitual residence shall be deemed his or her domicile.   第二十五条 自然人以户籍登记或者其他有效身份登记记载的居所为住所;经常居所与住所不一致的,经常居所视为住所。
Section 2 Guardianship 

第二节 监护

Article 26 Parents have the obligations of maintenance, education, and protection of their minor children.   第二十六条 父母对未成年子女负有抚养、教育和保护的义务。
Adult children have the obligations of supporting, assistance, and protection of their parents. 成年子女对父母负有赡养、扶助和保护的义务。
Article 27 The parents of a minor are his or her guardians.   第二十七条 父母是未成年子女的监护人。
Where both parents of a minor are dead or incapable of acting as a guardian, one of the following persons capable of acting as a guardian shall act as the guardian of the minor in the following order: 未成年人的父母已经死亡或者没有监护能力的,由下列有监护能力的人按顺序担任监护人:
(1) Paternal or maternal grandparents of the minor. (一)祖父母、外祖父母;
(2) Elder brothers or sisters of the minor. (二)兄、姐;
(3) Other individuals or organizations willing to act as the guardian, provided that it is approved by the urban residents' committee, villagers' committee, or civil affairs department of the place of the minor's domicile. (三)其他愿意担任监护人的个人或者组织,但是须经未成年人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会或者民政部门同意。
Article 28 One of the following persons capable of acting as a guardian shall, in the following order, act as the guardian of an adult without capacity for civil conduct or with limited capacity for civil conduct:   第二十八条 无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力的成年人,由下列有监护能力的人按顺序担任监护人:
(1) Spouse of the adult. (一)配偶;
(2) Parents or children of the adult. (二)父母、子女;
(3) Other close relatives of the adult. (三)其他近亲属;
(4) Other individuals or organizations willing to act as the guardian, provided that it is approved by the urban residents' committee, villagers' committee, or civil affairs department of the place of the adult's domicile. (四)其他愿意担任监护人的个人或者组织,但是须经被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会或者民政部门同意。
Article 29 Where the parents of a ward are his or her guardians, they may designate the guardian by a will.   第二十九条 被监护人的父母担任监护人的,可以通过遗嘱指定监护人。
Article 30 Persons legally qualified for guardianship may, by agreement, determine the guardian. The true will of the ward shall be respected in the determination of guardian by agreement.   第三十条 依法具有监护资格的人之间可以协议确定监护人。协议确定监护人应当尊重被监护人的真实意愿。
Article 31 In case of any dispute over the determination of guardian, the urban residents' committee, villagers' committee, or civil affairs department of the place of the ward's domicile may designate the guardian, and against the aforesaid designation, the relevant parties may apply to the people's court for designating the guardian; and the relevant parties may, notwithstanding, directly apply to the people's court for designating the guardian.   第三十一条 对监护人的确定有争议的,由被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会或者民政部门指定监护人,有关当事人对指定不服的,可以向人民法院申请指定监护人;有关当事人也可以直接向人民法院申请指定监护人。
The urban residents' committee, villagers' committee, civil affairs department, or people's court shall respect the true will of the ward, and designate the guardian from among persons legally qualified for guardianship under the principle of most benefiting the ward. 居民委员会、村民委员会、民政部门或者人民法院应当尊重被监护人的真实意愿,按照最有利于被监护人的原则在依法具有监护资格的人中指定监护人。
Before the guardian is designated under paragraph 1 of this article, if the personal rights, property rights, and other lawful rights and interests of the ward are under no protection, the urban residents' committee, villagers' committee, relevant organization prescribed by the law, or civil affairs department of the place of the ward's domicile shall act as the provisional guardian. 依据本条第一款规定指定监护人前,被监护人的人身权利、财产权利以及其他合法权益处于无人保护状态的,由被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会、法律规定的有关组织或者民政部门担任临时监护人。
After designation, the guardian shall not be replaced without permission; and in case of replacement without permission, the designated guardian is not relieved of his or her responsibilities. 监护人被指定后,不得擅自变更;擅自变更的,不免除被指定的监护人的责任。
Article 32 Where there is no person legally qualified for guardianship, the civil affairs department may or the urban residents' committee or villagers' committee of the place of the ward's domicile satisfying the conditions for performing the duty of guardianship may act as the guardian.   第三十二条 没有依法具有监护资格的人的,监护人由民政部门担任,也可以由具备履行监护职责条件的被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会担任。
Article 33 An adult with full capacity for civil conduct may, by consulting in advance with his or her close relatives or other individuals or organizations willing to act as a guardian, determine his or her guardian in writing. When the adult loses all or part of capacity for civil conduct, the guardian shall perform the duty of guardianship of the adult.   第三十三条 具有完全民事行为能力的成年人,可以与其近亲属、其他愿意担任监护人的个人或者组织事先协商,以书面形式确定自己的监护人,在自己丧失或者部分丧失民事行为能力时,由该监护人履行监护职责。
Article 34 The duties of a guardian include but are not limited to representing the ward in performing juridical acts and protecting the personal rights, property rights, and other lawful rights and interests of the ward.   第三十四条 监护人的职责是代理被监护人实施民事法律行为,保护被监护人的人身权利、财产权利以及其他合法权益等。
The guardian's rights arising from performance of the duty of guardianship in accordance with the law shall be protected by law. 监护人依法履行监护职责产生的权利,受法律保护。
A guardian failing to perform the duty of guardianship or infringing upon the ward's lawful rights and interests shall assume legal liability. 监护人不履行监护职责或者侵害被监护人合法权益的,应当承担法律责任。
In case of emergency or under any other emergency circumstance, the guardian is temporarily unable to perform the duty of guardianship and the ward's life is unattended, the urban residents' committee, villagers' committee, or civil affairs department of the place of the ward's domicile shall arrange for necessary daily care for the ward. 因发生突发事件等紧急情况,监护人暂时无法履行监护职责,被监护人的生活处于无人照料状态的,被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会或者民政部门应当为被监护人安排必要的临时生活照料措施。
Article 35 A guardian shall perform the duty of guardianship under the principle of most benefiting the ward. The guardian shall not dispose of the ward's property unless for safeguarding the ward's interests.   第三十五条 监护人应当按照最有利于被监护人的原则履行监护职责。监护人除为维护被监护人利益外,不得处分被监护人的财产。
The guardian of a minor shall, in the performance of the duty of guardianship, respect the ward's true will when making decisions related to the ward's interests according to the ward's age and intelligence. 未成年人的监护人履行监护职责,在作出与被监护人利益有关的决定时,应当根据被监护人的年龄和智力状况,尊重被监护人的真实意愿。
The guardian of an adult shall, in the performance of the duty of guardianship, respect the ward's true will to the fullest extent, safeguard and assist the ward in performing juridical acts that are commensurate with the ward's intelligence and mental health. The guardian shall not interfere with any affairs that the ward is capable of handling alone. 成年人的监护人履行监护职责,应当最大程度地尊重被监护人的真实意愿,保障并协助被监护人实施与其智力、精神健康状况相适应的民事法律行为。对被监护人有能力独立处理的事务,监护人不得干涉。
Article 36 Where a guardian falls under any of the following circumstances, the people's court shall, upon application of the relevant individual or organization, disqualify the guardian, arrange necessary provisional guardianship measures, and designate another guardian in accordance with the law under the principle of most benefiting the ward:   第三十六条 监护人有下列情形之一的,人民法院根据有关个人或者组织的申请,撤销其监护人资格,安排必要的临时监护措施,并按照最有利于被监护人的原则依法指定监护人:
(1) Committing any conduct seriously detrimental to the ward's physical and mental health. (一)实施严重损害被监护人身心健康的行为;
(2) Being slack in performing the duty of guardianship, or being incapable of performing the duty of guardianship but refusing to delegate part or all of the duty of guardianship to another person, which causes distress of the ward. (二)怠于履行监护职责,或者无法履行监护职责且拒绝将监护职责部分或者全部委托给他人,导致被监护人处于危困状态;
(3) Otherwise seriously infringing upon the ward's lawful rights and interests. (三)实施严重侵害被监护人合法权益的其他行为。
For the purposes of this article, the relevant individuals and organizations include but are not limited to: any other person legally qualified for guardianship, an urban residents' committee, a villagers' committee, a school, a medical institution, a women's federation, a disabled persons' federation, an organization for the protection of minors, an organization legally formed for seniors, and a civil affairs department. 本条规定的有关个人、组织包括:其他依法具有监护资格的人,居民委员会、村民委员会、学校、医疗机构、妇女联合会、残疾人联合会、未成年人保护组织、依法设立的老年人组织、民政部门等。
Where the individuals and organizations except the civil affairs department as prescribed in the preceding paragraph fail to apply for the disqualification of the guardian to the people's court in a timely manner, the civil affairs department shall file such an application with the people's court. 前款规定的个人和民政部门以外的组织未及时向人民法院申请撤销监护人资格的,民政部门应当向人民法院申请。
Article 37 Parents, children, and spouses who support the wards in the form of child support, support for elderly parents, or spousal support in accordance with the law shall continue to perform such obligations after they are disqualified by the people's courts as guardians.   第三十七条 依法负担被监护人抚养费、赡养费、扶养费的父母、子女、配偶等,被人民法院撤销监护人资格后,应当继续履行负担的义务。
Article 38 Where the ward's parent or child shows true repentance after being disqualified from guardianship by the people's court, except one having committed an intentional crime on the ward, the people's court may, by respecting the ward's true will and according to the circumstances, reinstate his or her guardianship upon his or her application, and the guardianship between the guardian designated by the people's court and the ward shall terminate concurrently.   第三十八条 被监护人的父母或者子女被人民法院撤销监护人资格后,除对被监护人实施故意犯罪的外,确有悔改表现的,经其申请,人民法院可以在尊重被监护人真实意愿的前提下,视情况恢复其监护人资格,人民法院指定的监护人与被监护人的监护关系同时终止。
Article 39 Under any of the following circumstances, the guardianship shall terminate:   第三十九条 有下列情形之一的,监护关系终止:
(1) The ward obtains or regains full capacity for civil conduct. (一)被监护人取得或者恢复完全民事行为能力;
(2) The guardian becomes incapable of guardianship. (二)监护人丧失监护能力;
(3) The ward or the guardian dies. (三)被监护人或者监护人死亡;
(4) The guardian relationship otherwise terminates as determined by a people's court. (四)人民法院认定监护关系终止的其他情形。
If the ward still needs guardianship after the guardianship terminates, another guardian shall be determined in accordance with the law. 监护关系终止后,被监护人仍然需要监护的,应当依法另行确定监护人。
Section 3 Declaration of Absence and Declaration of Death 

第三节 宣告失踪和宣告死亡

Article 40 Where a natural person has disappeared for two years, an interested party may apply to a people's court for a declaration of absence of the natural person.   第四十条 自然人下落不明满二年的,利害关系人可以向人民法院申请宣告该自然人为失踪人。
Article 41 The period of disappearance of a natural person shall be counted from the day when he or she is not heard from. If a person disappears during a war, the period of disappearance shall be counted from the day when the war ends or from the date of absence as confirmed by the relevant authority.   第四十一条 自然人下落不明的时间自其失去音讯之日起计算。战争期间下落不明的,下落不明的时间自战争结束之日或者有关机关确定的下落不明之日起计算。
Article 42 The property of an absentee shall be under the custody of his or her spouse, adult children, parents, or any other person willing to act as custodian of the property.   第四十二条 失踪人的财产由其配偶、成年子女、父母或者其他愿意担任财产代管人的人代管。
If there is any dispute over custody or the persons as mentioned in the preceding paragraph do not exist or are incapable of custody, the property shall be under the custody of a person designated by a people's court. 代管有争议,没有前款规定的人,或者前款规定的人无代管能力的,由人民法院指定的人代管。
Article 43 The property custodian shall appropriately manage the absentee's property, and protect the property rights and interests of the absentee.   第四十三条 财产代管人应当妥善管理失踪人的财产,维护其财产权益。
Any taxes and debts owed and other expenses payable by the absentee shall be paid by the property custodian out of the absentee's property. 失踪人所欠税款、债务和应付的其他费用,由财产代管人从失踪人的财产中支付。
Where the property custodian causes damage to the absentee's property intentionally or with gross negligence, the custodian shall assume compensatory liability. 财产代管人因故意或者重大过失造成失踪人财产损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。
Article 44 Where the property custodian fails to perform the duty of custody, infringes upon the absentee's property rights and interests, or becomes incapable of custody, an interested party for the absentee may apply to a people's court for replacement of the property custodian.   第四十四条 财产代管人不履行代管职责、侵害失踪人财产权益或者丧失代管能力的,失踪人的利害关系人可以向人民法院申请变更财产代管人。
The property custodian may, for good reason, apply to a people's court for replacement of the property custodian. 财产代管人有正当理由的,可以向人民法院申请变更财产代管人。
Where the people's court decides to replace the property custodian, the replacement custodian shall have the right to request the original custodian to hand over relevant property and report on property custody in a timely manner. 人民法院变更财产代管人的,变更后的财产代管人有权请求原财产代管人及时移交有关财产并报告财产代管情况。
Article 45 Where an absentee reappears, the people's court shall revoke the declaration of absence upon application of the person or an interested party.   第四十五条 失踪人重新出现,经本人或者利害关系人申请,人民法院应当撤销失踪宣告。
Where an absentee reappears, the person shall have the right to request the property custodian to hand over relevant property and report on property custody in a timely manner. 失踪人重新出现,有权请求财产代管人及时移交有关财产并报告财产代管情况。
Article 46 Where a natural person falls under any of the following circumstances, an interested party may apply to a people's court for a declaration of death of the natural person:   第四十六条 自然人有下列情形之一的,利害关系人可以向人民法院申请宣告该自然人死亡:
(1) The natural person has disappeared for four years. (一)下落不明满四年;
(2) The natural person has disappeared for two years from an accident. (二)因意外事件,下落不明满二年。
Where a person has disappeared from an accident, and it is impossible for the person to survive the accident as certified by the relevant authority, an application for a declaration of death of the person is not subject to the two-year period. 因意外事件下落不明,经有关机关证明该自然人不可能生存的,申请宣告死亡不受二年时间的限制。
Article 47 Where both an application for a declaration of death and an application for a declaration of absence of the same natural person are filed by the interested parties with a people's court, the people's court shall declare the death of the person if the conditions for a declaration of death as set out in this Code are met.   第四十七条 对同一自然人,有的利害关系人申请宣告死亡,有的利害关系人申请宣告失踪,符合本法规定的宣告死亡条件的,人民法院应当宣告死亡。
Article 48 The day when the people's court renders a judgment to declare the death of a person shall be deemed the date of death of the person; but if the person is declared dead for his or her disappearance from an accident, the day when the accident occurred shall be deemed the date of death of the person.   第四十八条 被宣告死亡的人,人民法院宣告死亡的判决作出之日视为其死亡的日期;因意外事件下落不明宣告死亡的,意外事件发生之日视为其死亡的日期。
Article 49 Where a natural person declared dead is alive, the validity of the juridical acts performed by the natural person during the period of declared death shall not be affected.   第四十九条 自然人被宣告死亡但是并未死亡的,不影响该自然人在被宣告死亡期间实施的民事法律行为的效力。
Article 50 Where a person declared dead reappears, the people's court shall revoke the declaration of death upon application of the person or an interested party.   第五十条 被宣告死亡的人重新出现,经本人或者利害关系人申请,人民法院应当撤销死亡宣告。
Article 51 The marital relationship of a person declared dead shall be extinguished from the date of declaration of death. If the declaration of death is revoked, the marital relationship shall resume automatically from the date of revocation of the declaration of death, unless his or her spouse has remarried or submits to the marriage registration authority a written statement of refusal to resume marriage.   第五十一条 被宣告死亡的人的婚姻关系,自死亡宣告之日起消除。死亡宣告被撤销的,婚姻关系自撤销死亡宣告之日起自行恢复。但是,其配偶再婚或者向婚姻登记机关书面声明不愿意恢复的除外。
Article 52 Where a child of a person declared dead is legally adopted by another person during the period of his or her declared death, the person shall not claim nullity of the adoption on the ground that the adoption is without his or her approval after the declaration of death is revoked.   第五十二条 被宣告死亡的人在被宣告死亡期间,其子女被他人依法收养的,在死亡宣告被撤销后,不得以未经本人同意为由主张收养行为无效。
Article 53 Where the declaration of death of a person is revoked, the person shall have the right to reclaim his or her property which has devolved to other parties to civil legal relationships in accordance with Book Six of this Code. If any property cannot be reclaimed, the person shall be indemnified appropriately.   第五十三条 被撤销死亡宣告的人有权请求依照本法第六编取得其财产的民事主体返还财产;无法返还的,应当给予适当补偿。
Where an interested party conceals facts, causing another person to be declared dead, and thus obtains any property of the person, the interested party shall, in addition to returning the property, assume compensatory liability for any loss so caused. 利害关系人隐瞒真实情况,致使他人被宣告死亡而取得其财产的,除应当返还财产外,还应当对由此造成的损失承担赔偿责任。
Section 4 Individual Industrial and Commercial Households and Rural Usufructuary Households 

第四节 个体工商户和农村承包经营户

Article 54 A natural person conducting industrial and commercial operations upon registration in accordance with the law is an individual industrial and commercial household. An individual industrial and commercial household may have a trade name.   第五十四条 自然人从事工商业经营,经依法登记,为个体工商户。个体工商户可以起字号。
Article 55 A member of a rural collective economic organization who has obtained a usufruct on rural land in accordance with the law for farm operations of the household is a rural usufructuary household.   第五十五条 农村集体经济组织的成员,依法取得农村土地承包经营权,从事家庭承包经营的,为农村承包经营户。
Article 56 Where the business of an individual industrial and commercial household is operated by an individual, the debts of the individual industrial and commercial household shall be assumed by the individual with his or her own property; where that is operated by a family, the debts of the individual industrial and commercial household shall be assumed by the family with family property; or where if it is impossible to ascertain whether that is operated by an individual or a family, the debts of the individual industrial and commercial household shall be assumed by the family with family property.   第五十六条 个体工商户的债务,个人经营的,以个人财产承担;家庭经营的,以家庭财产承担;无法区分的,以家庭财产承担。
The debts of a rural usufructuary household shall be assumed by the rural household which operates on the rural land subject to the usufruct with family property or be assumed by some family members with their property who actually operate on the rural land subject to the usufruct. 农村承包经营户的债务,以从事农村土地承包经营的农户财产承担;事实上由农户部分成员经营的,以该部分成员的财产承担。
Chapter III Legal Persons 

第三章 法人

Section 1 General Rules 

第一节 一般规定

Article 57 A legal person is an organization with capacity for civil rights and capacity for civil conduct which independently enjoys civil rights and assumes civil obligations in accordance with the law.   第五十七条 法人是具有民事权利能力和民事行为能力,依法独立享有民事权利和承担民事义务的组织。
Article 58 A legal person shall be formed in accordance with the law. A legal person shall have its own name, organs, domicile, and property or funding.   第五十八条 法人应当依法成立。
The specific conditions and procedures for formation of a legal person shall be governed by laws and administrative regulations. 法人应当有自己的名称、组织机构、住所、财产或者经费。法人成立的具体条件和程序,依照法律、行政法规的规定。
Where the formation of a legal person is subject to the approval of the relevant authority in accordance with any law or administrative regulation, such a law or administrative regulation shall apply. 设立法人,法律、行政法规规定须经有关机关批准的,依照其规定。
Article 59 A legal person's capacity for civil rights and capacity for civil conduct arise when the legal person is formed and cease to exist when the legal person is terminated.   第五十九条 法人的民事权利能力和民事行为能力,从法人成立时产生,到法人终止时消灭。
Article 60 A legal person shall assume civil liabilities independently with all of its property.   第六十条 法人以其全部财产独立承担民事责任。
Article 61 In accordance with the provisions of laws or the bylaws of a legal person, the person in charge who conducts civil activities on behalf of the legal person shall be the legal representative of the legal person.   第六十一条 依照法律或者法人章程的规定,代表法人从事民事活动的负责人,为法人的法定代表人。
The legal consequences of civil activities conducted by the legal representative in the name of the legal person shall be assumed by the legal person. 法定代表人以法人名义从事的民事活动,其法律后果由法人承受。
Any restriction on the legal representative's right of representation imposed by the bylaws or the supreme organ of the legal person shall not be set up against bona fide opposite parties. 法人章程或者法人权力机构对法定代表人代表权的限制,不得对抗善意相对人。
Article 62 Where the legal representative of a legal person causes damage to any other person in the performance of duties, the legal person shall assume civil liability for such damage.   第六十二条 法定代表人因执行职务造成他人损害的,由法人承担民事责任。
The legal person may, after assuming such civil liability, claim reimbursement from the legal representative at fault in accordance with the laws or its bylaws. 法人承担民事责任后,依照法律或者法人章程的规定,可以向有过错的法定代表人追偿。
Article 63 A legal person's domicile shall be the place of its principal office. If a legal person needs to be registered in accordance with the law, it shall register the place of its principal office as its domicile.   第六十三条 法人以其主要办事机构所在地为住所。依法需要办理法人登记的,应当将主要办事机构所在地登记为住所。
Article 64 Where any registered information on a legal person changes during its existence, the legal person shall apply for modification registration to the registration authority in accordance with the law.   第六十四条 法人存续期间登记事项发生变化的,应当依法向登记机关申请变更登记。
Article 65 The inconsistency between the actual circumstances of a legal person and the registered information on the legal person shall not be set up against bona fide opposite parties.   第六十五条 法人的实际情况与登记的事项不一致的,不得对抗善意相对人。
Article 66 The registration authority shall, in accordance with the law, publish the relevant registration information on a legal person in a timely manner.   第六十六条 登记机关应当依法及时公示法人登记的有关信息。
Article 67 In case of combination of a legal person, the surviving legal person shall enjoy the rights and assume the obligations of the legal person.   第六十七条 法人合并的,其权利和义务由合并后的法人享有和承担。
In case of division of a legal person, the surviving legal persons shall jointly and severally enjoy the rights and assume the obligations of the legal person, unless the creditor and the debtor have agreed otherwise. 法人分立的,其权利和义务由分立后的法人享有连带债权,承担连带债务,但是债权人和债务人另有约定的除外。
Article 68 A legal person is terminated upon completion of liquidation and deregistration in accordance with the law for any of the following reasons:   第六十八条 有下列原因之一并依法完成清算、注销登记的,法人终止:
(1) The legal person is dissolved. (一)法人解散;
(2) The legal person is declared bankrupt. (二)法人被宣告破产;
(3) Any other reason specified by laws. (三)法律规定的其他原因。
Where the termination of a legal person is subject to the approval of the relevant authority in accordance with any law or administrative regulation, such a law or administrative regulation shall apply. 法人终止,法律、行政法规规定须经有关机关批准的,依照其规定。
Article 69 A legal person shall be dissolved under any of the following circumstances:   第六十九条 有下列情形之一的,法人解散:
(1) The duration stated in the legal person's bylaws expires, or any other cause of dissolution stated in the legal person's bylaws arises. (一)法人章程规定的存续期间届满或者法人章程规定的其他解散事由出现;
(2) The legal person's supreme organ makes a resolution for dissolution. (二)法人的权力机构决议解散;
(3) The legal person is dissolved as required by business combination or division. (三)因法人合并或者分立需要解散;
(4) The legal person's business license or registration certificate is revoked in accordance with the law, or the legal person is ordered to close down or is abolished. (四)法人依法被吊销营业执照、登记证书,被责令关闭或者被撤销;
(5) Any other circumstances specified by laws. (五)法律规定的其他情形。
Article 70 Where a legal person is dissolved, except for business combination or division, the liquidation obligors shall form a liquidation group to conduct liquidation in a timely manner.   第七十条 法人解散的,除合并或者分立的情形外,清算义务人应当及时组成清算组进行清算。
The members of a legal person's executive organ or decision-making organ, such as directors or council members, are liquidation obligors, except as otherwise provided for by any law or administrative regulation. 法人的董事、理事等执行机构或者决策机构的成员为清算义务人。法律、行政法规另有规定的,依照其规定。
Where the liquidation obligors fail to fulfill their liquidation obligation in a timely manner, causing any damage, they shall assume civil liability; and the competent authority or an interested party may apply to a people's court for designating relevant persons to form a liquidation group to conduct liquidation. 清算义务人未及时履行清算义务,造成损害的,应当承担民事责任;主管机关或者利害关系人可以申请人民法院指定有关人员组成清算组进行清算。
Article 71 The liquidation procedures and the powers of the liquidation group of a legal person shall be governed by the provisions of relevant laws; and if there are no such provisions, the relevant provisions of the company's laws shall apply mutatis mutandis.   第七十一条 法人的清算程序和清算组职权,依照有关法律的规定;没有规定的,参照适用公司法律的有关规定。
Article 72 In the course of liquidation, a legal person continues to exist, but shall not conduct any activity irrelevant to liquidation.   第七十二条 清算期间法人存续,但是不得从事与清算无关的活动。
The residual property after the legal person is liquidated shall be dealt with in accordance with the provisions of the legal person's bylaws or the resolution of the legal person's supreme organ, except as otherwise provided for by any law. 法人清算后的剩余财产,按照法人章程的规定或者法人权力机构的决议处理。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
The legal person is terminated upon completion of liquidation and deregistration of the legal person; or if the law does not require the legal person to be registered, it is terminated upon completion of liquidation. 清算结束并完成法人注销登记时,法人终止;依法不需要办理法人登记的,清算结束时,法人终止。
Article 73 Where a legal person is declared bankrupt, it is terminated upon completion of bankruptcy liquidation and deregistration of the legal person in accordance with the law.   第七十三条 法人被宣告破产的,依法进行破产清算并完成法人注销登记时,法人终止。
Article 74 A legal person may form branch offices in accordance with the law. If any law or administrative regulation requires the branch offices to be registered, such a law or administrative regulation shall apply.   第七十四条 法人可以依法设立分支机构。法律、行政法规规定分支机构应当登记的,依照其规定。
Where a branch office conducts civil activities in its own name, any civil liability arising therefrom shall be assumed by the legal person; but such civil liability may be assumed first with the property managed by the branch office and then by the legal person for any deficit. 分支机构以自己的名义从事民事活动,产生的民事责任由法人承担;也可以先以该分支机构管理的财产承担,不足以承担的,由法人承担。
Article 75 The legal consequences of civil activities conducted by a promoter or promoters for the formation of a legal person shall be assumed by the legal person; but if the legal person fails to be formed, shall be assumed by the promoter or promoters, and in latter case, the two or more promoters shall jointly and severally enjoy rights and assume debts.   第七十五条 设立人为设立法人从事的民事活动,其法律后果由法人承受;法人未成立的,其法律后果由设立人承受,设立人为二人以上的,享有连带债权,承担连带债务。
Where a promoter conducts civil activities in the name of the promoter for the formation of a legal person, a third party shall have the right to require the legal person or the promoter to assume civil liability arising therefrom. 设立人为设立法人以自己的名义从事民事活动产生的民事责任,第三人有权选择请求法人或者设立人承担。
Section 2 For-Profit Legal Persons 

第二节 营利法人

Article 76 A legal person formed for the purpose of making profits and distributing profits to its shareholders or other investors is a for-profit legal person.   第七十六条 以取得利润并分配给股东等出资人为目的成立的法人,为营利法人。
For-profit legal persons include limited liability companies, joint stock limited companies, and other enterprise legal persons. 营利法人包括有限责任公司、股份有限公司和其他企业法人等。
Article 77 A for-profit legal person is formed upon registration in accordance with the law.   第七十七条 营利法人经依法登记成立。
Article 78 The registration authority shall issue a for-profit legal person business license to a for-profit legal person legally formed. The issue date of the business license shall be the date of formation of the for-profit legal person.   第七十八条 依法设立的营利法人,由登记机关发给营利法人营业执照。营业执照签发日期为营利法人的成立日期。
Article 79 For the formation of a for-profit legal person, the bylaws of the legal person shall be developed in accordance with the law.   第七十九条 设立营利法人应当依法制定法人章程。
Article 80 A for-profit legal person shall have a supreme organ.   第八十条 营利法人应当设权力机构。
The supreme organ exercises the powers of amending the bylaws of the legal person and electing or replacing members of the executive organ and supervisory organ and other powers stated in the bylaws of the legal person. 权力机构行使修改法人章程,选举或者更换执行机构、监督机构成员,以及法人章程规定的其他职权。
Article 81 A for-profit legal person shall have an executive organ.   第八十一条 营利法人应当设执行机构。
The executive organ exercises the powers of convening the meetings of the supreme organ, deciding the legal person's business plans and investment proposals, and deciding the internal management structure of the legal person and other powers stated in the bylaws of the legal person. 执行机构行使召集权力机构会议,决定法人的经营计划和投资方案,决定法人内部管理机构的设置,以及法人章程规定的其他职权。
Where the executive organ is a board of directors or is an executive director, the chairman of the board of directors, the executive director, or a manager shall serve as the legal representative in accordance with the provisions of the bylaws of the legal person; or where the legal person has no board of directors or executive director, the primary person in charge stated in the bylaws of the legal person shall be the executive organ and legal representative of the legal person. 执行机构为董事会或者执行董事的,董事长、执行董事或者经理按照法人章程的规定担任法定代表人;未设董事会或者执行董事的,法人章程规定的主要负责人为其执行机构和法定代表人。
Article 82 Where a for-profit legal person has a supervisory organ such as the board of supervisors or a supervisor, the supervisory organ shall, in accordance with the law, exercise the powers of inspecting the legal person's financial affairs and overseeing the performance of duties by the members of the executive organ and the senior executives of the legal person and the powers stated in the bylaws of the legal person.   第八十二条 营利法人设监事会或者监事等监督机构的,监督机构依法行使检查法人财务,监督执行机构成员、高级管理人员执行法人职务的行为,以及法人章程规定的其他职权。
Article 83 An investor of a for-profit legal person shall not damage the interests of the legal person or any other investor by abusing the rights of an investor. If the investor abuses the rights of an investor, causing any loss to the legal person or any other investor, the investor shall assume civil liability in accordance with the law.   第八十三条 营利法人的出资人不得滥用出资人权利损害法人或者其他出资人的利益;滥用出资人权利造成法人或者其他出资人损失的,应当依法承担民事责任。
An investor of a for-profit legal person shall not damage the interests of a creditor of the legal person by abusing the independent status of the legal person and the limited liability of the investor. If the investor abuses the legal person's independent status or the investor's limited liability to evade debts, causing serious damage to the interests of a creditor of the legal person, the investor shall be jointly and severally liable for the legal person's debts. 营利法人的出资人不得滥用法人独立地位和出资人有限责任损害法人债权人的利益;滥用法人独立地位和出资人有限责任,逃避债务,严重损害法人债权人的利益的,应当对法人债务承担连带责任。
Article 84 The controlling investor, actual controller, directors, supervisors, and senior executives of a for-profit legal person shall not damage the interests of the legal person through affiliations. One that causes damage to the legal person through affiliations shall assume compensatory liability.   第八十四条 营利法人的控股出资人、实际控制人、董事、监事、高级管理人员不得利用其关联关系损害法人的利益;利用关联关系造成法人损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。
Article 85 Where a for-profit legal person's supreme organ or executive organ adopts a resolution under a convening procedure or in a voting mode that violates any law or administrative regulation or the bylaws of the legal person or any content of the resolution violates the bylaws of the legal person, an investor of the for-profit legal person may request a people's court to revoke the resolution, without prejudice to the civil legal relations formed between the for-profit legal person and bona fide opposite parties based on such a resolution.   第八十五条 营利法人的权力机构、执行机构作出决议的会议召集程序、表决方式违反法律、行政法规、法人章程,或者决议内容违反法人章程的,营利法人的出资人可以请求人民法院撤销该决议。但是,营利法人依据该决议与善意相对人形成的民事法律关系不受影响。
Article 86 In business activities, a for-profit legal person shall comply with business ethics, maintain the safety of transactions, receive government supervision and public scrutiny, and assume social responsibilities.   第八十六条 营利法人从事经营活动,应当遵守商业道德,维护交易安全,接受政府和社会的监督,承担社会责任。
Section 3 Non-profit Legal Persons 

第三节 非营利法人

Article 87 A non-profit legal person is a legal person formed for public welfare or any other non-profit purpose without distribution of profits to its investors, promoters, or members.   第八十七条 为公益目的或者其他非营利目的成立,不向出资人、设立人或者会员分配所取得利润的法人,为非营利法人。
Non-profit legal persons include but are not limited to public institutions, social groups, foundations, and social service organizations. 非营利法人包括事业单位、社会团体、基金会、社会服务机构等。
Article 88 A public institution satisfying the conditions for a legal person and to be formed for meeting the needs of economic and social development and providing public welfare services obtains the status of a public institution legal person upon formation through registration in accordance with the law; or if the law does not require it to undergo legal person registration, obtains the status of a public institution legal person from the date of formation.   第八十八条 具备法人条件,为适应经济社会发展需要,提供公益服务设立的事业单位,经依法登记成立,取得事业单位法人资格;依法不需要办理法人登记的,从成立之日起,具有事业单位法人资格。
Article 89 Where a public institution legal person has a council, the council shall be its decision-making organ, except as otherwise provided for by any law. The legal representative of a public institution legal person shall be determined in accordance with laws, administrative regulations, or its bylaws.   第八十九条 事业单位法人设理事会的,除法律另有规定外,理事会为其决策机构。事业单位法人的法定代表人依照法律、行政法规或者法人章程的规定产生。
Article 90 A social group satisfying the conditions for a legal person and to be formed based on the common will of its members for public welfare, common interests of its members, or any other non-profit purpose obtains the status of a social group legal person upon formation through registration in accordance with the law; or if the law does not require it to undergo legal person registration, obtains the status of a social group legal person from the date of formation.   第九十条 具备法人条件,基于会员共同意愿,为公益目的或者会员共同利益等非营利目的设立的社会团体,经依法登记成立,取得社会团体法人资格;依法不需要办理法人登记的,从成立之日起,具有社会团体法人资格。
Article 91 For the formation of a social group legal person, the bylaws of the legal person shall be developed in accordance with the law.   第九十一条 设立社会团体法人应当依法制定法人章程。
A social group legal person shall have a supreme organ such as the congress of members or the congress of representatives of members. 社会团体法人应当设会员大会或者会员代表大会等权力机构。
A social group legal person shall have an executive organ such as a council. The person in charge of the council, such as the chairman or president, shall serve as the legal representative in accordance with the bylaws of the legal person. 社会团体法人应当设理事会等执行机构。理事长或者会长等负责人按照法人章程的规定担任法定代表人。
Article 92 A foundation or a social service organization, among others, satisfying the conditions for a legal person and to be formed with donated property for public welfare purposes obtains the status of a donation-based legal person upon formation through registration in accordance with the law.   第九十二条 具备法人条件,为公益目的以捐助财产设立的基金会、社会服务机构等,经依法登记成立,取得捐助法人资格。
A venue for holding religious activities formed in accordance with the law and satisfying the conditions for a legal person may apply for legal person registration and obtain the status of a donation-based legal person, subject to any provisions of laws and administrative regulations relating to the venues for holding religious activities. 依法设立的宗教活动场所,具备法人条件的,可以申请法人登记,取得捐助法人资格。法律、行政法规对宗教活动场所有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 93 For the formation of a donation-based legal person, the bylaws of the legal person shall be developed in accordance with the law.   第九十三条 设立捐助法人应当依法制定法人章程。
The donation-based legal person shall have a decision-making organ, such as a council or a democratic governing body, and an executive organ. The person in charge of the decision-making organ such as the chairman shall serve as the legal representative in accordance with the bylaws of the legal person. 捐助法人应当设理事会、民主管理组织等决策机构,并设执行机构。理事长等负责人按照法人章程的规定担任法定代表人。
The donation-based legal person shall have a supervisory organ such as a board of supervisors. 捐助法人应当设监事会等监督机构。
Article 94 Donors shall be entitled to ask the donation-based legal person about the use and management of donated property and give their opinions and recommendations, and the donation-based legal person shall give honest replies in a timely manner.   第九十四条 捐助人有权向捐助法人查询捐助财产的使用、管理情况,并提出意见和建议,捐助法人应当及时、如实答复。
Where a donation-based legal person's decision-making organ, executive organ, or legal representative makes a decision under a procedure that violates any law or administrative regulation or the bylaws of the legal person or the content of the decision violates the bylaws of the legal person, a donor or any other interested party or the competent authority may request the people's court to revoke the decision, without prejudice to the civil legal relationship formed between the donor-based legal person and bona fide opposite parties based on the decision. 捐助法人的决策机构、执行机构或者法定代表人作出决定的程序违反法律、行政法规、法人章程,或者决定内容违反法人章程的,捐助人等利害关系人或者主管机关可以请求人民法院撤销该决定。但是,捐助法人依据该决定与善意相对人形成的民事法律关系不受影响。
Article 95 When a non-profit legal person formed for public welfare purposes is terminated, it shall not distribute any residual property to its investors, promoters, or members. The residual property shall be used for public welfare purposes in accordance with the provisions of its bylaws or a resolution of its supreme organ; or if the residual property cannot be dealt with in accordance with the provisions of its bylaws or the resolution of its supreme organ, the competent authority shall cause the transfer of such residual property to other legal persons with the same or a similar vision, and announce it to the public.   第九十五条 为公益目的成立的非营利法人终止时,不得向出资人、设立人或者会员分配剩余财产。剩余财产应当按照法人章程的规定或者权力机构的决议用于公益目的;无法按照法人章程的规定或者权力机构的决议处理的,由主管机关主持转给宗旨相同或者相近的法人,并向社会公告。
Section 4 Special Legal Persons 

第四节 特别法人

Article 96 The state organ legal persons, rural collective economic organization legal persons, urban and rural cooperative economic organization legal persons, and basic self-governing mass organization legal persons as provided for in this section are special legal persons.   第九十六条 本节规定的机关法人、农村集体经济组织法人、城镇农村的合作经济组织法人、基层群众性自治组织法人,为特别法人。
Article 97 An independently funded state organ or a statutory institution assuming administrative functions shall have the status of a state organ legal person from the date of formation of it, and may conduct civil activities necessary for performing its functions.   第九十七条 有独立经费的机关和承担行政职能的法定机构从成立之日起,具有机关法人资格,可以从事为履行职能所需要的民事活动。
Article 98 Where a state organ legal person is abolished, the legal person is terminated, and its civil rights shall be enjoyed and its obligations shall be assumed by the state organ legal person as its successor; or if there is no such a successor, its rights shall be enjoyed and its obligations shall be assumed by the state organ legal person making the abolition decision.   第九十八条 机关法人被撤销的,法人终止,其民事权利和义务由继任的机关法人享有和承担;没有继任的机关法人的,由作出撤销决定的机关法人享有和承担。
Article 99 A rural collective economic organization shall obtain the status of a legal person in accordance with the law.   第九十九条 农村集体经济组织依法取得法人资格。
Where any laws and administrative regulations provide for rural collective economic organizations, such laws and administrative regulations shall apply. 法律、行政法规对农村集体经济组织有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 100 An urban or rural cooperative economic organization shall obtain the status of a legal person in accordance with the law.   第一百条 城镇农村的合作经济组织依法取得法人资格。
Where any laws and administrative regulations provide for urban or rural cooperative economic organizations, such laws and administrative regulations shall apply. 法律、行政法规对城镇农村的合作经济组织有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 101 An urban residents' committee or a villagers' committee has the status of a basic self-governing mass organization legal person, and may conduct civil activities necessary for performing its functions.   第一百零一条 居民委员会、村民委员会具有基层群众性自治组织法人资格,可以从事为履行职能所需要的民事活动。
Where no village collective economic organization is formed, a villagers' committee may instead perform the functions of a village collective economic organization in accordance with the law. 未设立村集体经济组织的,村民委员会可以依法代行村集体经济组织的职能。
Chapter IV Unincorporated Organizations 

第四章 非法人组织

Article 102 An unincorporated organization is an organization without the status of a legal person but able to conduct civil activities in its own name in accordance with the law.   第一百零二条 非法人组织是不具有法人资格,但是能够依法以自己的名义从事民事活动的组织。
Unincorporated organizations include but are not limited to sole proprietorships, partnerships, and professional service organizations without the status of a legal person. 非法人组织包括个人独资企业、合伙企业、不具有法人资格的专业服务机构等。
Article 103 An unincorporated organization shall be registered as required by laws.   第一百零三条 非法人组织应当依照法律的规定登记。
Where the formation of an unincorporated organization shall be subject to the approval of the relevant authority in accordance with any law or administrative regulation, such law or administrative regulation shall apply. 设立非法人组织,法律、行政法规规定须经有关机关批准的,依照其规定。
Article 104 Where the property of an unincorporated organization is insufficient for paying its debts, its investors or promoters shall assume unlimited liability for such debts, except as otherwise provided for by any law.   第一百零四条 非法人组织的财产不足以清偿债务的,其出资人或者设立人承担无限责任。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 105 An unincorporated organization may choose one or more persons to conduct civil activities on its behalf.   第一百零五条 非法人组织可以确定一人或者数人代表该组织从事民事活动。
Article 106 An unincorporated organization shall be dissolved under any of the following circumstances:   第一百零六条 有下列情形之一的,非法人组织解散:
(1) The duration stated in the bylaws expires, or any other cause of dissolution stated in the bylaws arises. (一)章程规定的存续期间届满或者章程规定的其他解散事由出现;
(2) Its investors or promoters decide to dissolve it. (二)出资人或者设立人决定解散;
(3) Any other circumstances specified by laws. (三)法律规定的其他情形。
Article 107 Where an unincorporated organization is dissolved, its liquidation shall be conducted in accordance with the law.   第一百零七条 非法人组织解散的,应当依法进行清算。
Article 108 In addition to the provisions of this Chapter, the relevant provisions of Section 1 of Chapter III of this Book shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to unincorporated organizations.   第一百零八条 非法人组织除适用本章规定外,参照适用本编第三章第一节的有关规定。
Chapter V Civil Rights 

第五章 民事权利

Article 109 The personal freedom and human dignity of a natural person shall be protected by law.   第一百零九条 自然人的人身自由、人格尊严受法律保护。
Article 110 A natural person enjoys the rights of life, inviolability and integrity of person, health, name, likeness, reputation, honor, privacy, and marital autonomy, among others.   第一百一十条 自然人享有生命权、身体权、健康权、姓名权、肖像权、名誉权、荣誉权、隐私权、婚姻自主权等权利。
A legal person or an unincorporated organization enjoys the rights of name, reputation, and honor. 法人、非法人组织享有名称权、名誉权和荣誉权。
Article 111 The personal information of a natural person shall be protected by law. Any organization or individual needing to obtain the personal information of other persons shall legally obtain and ensure the security of such information, and shall not illegally collect, use, process, or transmit the personal information of other persons, nor illegally buy, sell, provide, or publish the personal information of other persons.   第一百一十一条 自然人的个人信息受法律保护。任何组织或者个人需要获取他人个人信息的,应当依法取得并确保信息安全,不得非法收集、使用、加工、传输他人个人信息,不得非法买卖、提供或者公开他人个人信息。
Article 112 The personal rights of a natural person arising from marriage or family relations, among others, shall be protected by law.   第一百一十二条 自然人因婚姻家庭关系等产生的人身权利受法律保护。
Article 113 The property rights of the parties to civil legal relations shall be equally protected by law.   第一百一十三条 民事主体的财产权利受法律平等保护。
Article 114 The parties to civil legal relations enjoy real rights in accordance with the law.   第一百一十四条 民事主体依法享有物权。
A real right is the right holder's exclusive right to directly dominate a specific thing in accordance with the law, including ownership, usufruct, and security interest. 物权是权利人依法对特定的物享有直接支配和排他的权利,包括所有权、用益物权和担保物权。
Article 115 Things include immovables and movables. If rights are the objects of any real rights in accordance with any laws, such laws shall apply.   第一百一十五条 物包括不动产和动产。法律规定权利作为物权客体的,依照其规定。
Article 116 The types and contents of real rights shall be prescribed by laws.   第一百一十六条 物权的种类和内容,由法律规定。
Article 117 Fair and reasonable indemnification shall be made if any immovable or movable is expropriated or requisitioned for public interest according to the authority and procedures prescribed by laws.   第一百一十七条 为了公共利益的需要,依照法律规定的权限和程序征收、征用不动产或者动产的,应当给予公平、合理的补偿。
Article 118 The parties to civil legal relations enjoy a creditor's rights in accordance with the law.   第一百一十八条 民事主体依法享有债权。
A creditor's right is the right holder's right to request that a specific obligor perform or not perform certain conduct, arising from contracts, torts, management of the business of another under no obligation, unjust enrichment, and other provisions of laws. 债权是因合同、侵权行为、无因管理、不当得利以及法律的其他规定,权利人请求特定义务人为或者不为一定行为的权利。
Article 119 A contract entered into in accordance with the law shall be legally binding upon the parties to the contract.   第一百一十九条 依法成立的合同,对当事人具有法律约束力。
Article 120 In case of infringement upon civil rights and interests, the victim shall have the right to request that the tortfeasor assume tort liability.   第一百二十条 民事权益受到侵害的,被侵权人有权请求侵权人承担侵权责任。
Article 121 A person who, under no statutory or contractual obligation, manages the business of another to prevent damage to the interest of another shall have the right to request that the beneficiary of such management reimburse the manager for necessary expenses incurred.   第一百二十一条 没有法定的或者约定的义务,为避免他人利益受损失而进行管理的人,有权请求受益人偿还由此支出的必要费用。
Article 122 Where a person is unjustly enriched without any legal basis, the person who so suffers a loss shall have the right to request that the person unjustly enriched return the amount to the extent of the unjust enrichment.   第一百二十二条 因他人没有法律根据,取得不当利益,受损失的人有权请求其返还不当利益。
Article 123 The parties to civil legal relations enjoy intellectual property rights in accordance with the law.   第一百二十三条 民事主体依法享有知识产权。
Intellectual property rights are the proprietary rights enjoyed by right holders in accordance with the law in respect of the following objects: 知识产权是权利人依法就下列客体享有的专有的权利:
(1) Works. (一)作品;
(2) Inventions, utility models, and designs. (二)发明、实用新型、外观设计;
(3) Trademarks. (三)商标;
(4) Geographic indications. (四)地理标志;
(5) Trade secrets. (五)商业秘密;
(6) Layout designs of integrated circuits. (六)集成电路布图设计;
(7) New varieties of plants. (七)植物新品种;
(8) Other objects specified by laws. (八)法律规定的其他客体。
Article 124 Natural persons enjoy the right of succession in accordance with the law.   第一百二十四条 自然人依法享有继承权。
The lawful private property of natural persons may be inherited in accordance with the law. 自然人合法的私有财产,可以依法继承。
Article 125 The parties to civil legal relations enjoy stock rights and other investment rights in accordance with the law.   第一百二十五条 民事主体依法享有股权和其他投资性权利。
Article 126 The parties to civil legal relations enjoy other civil rights and interests prescribed by laws.   第一百二十六条 民事主体享有法律规定的其他民事权利和利益。
Article 127 Where any laws provide for the protection of data and network virtual property, such laws shall apply.   第一百二十七条 法律对数据、网络虚拟财产的保护有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 128 Where any laws have special provisions on the protection of civil rights of the minors, the elderly, the disabled, women, and consumers, among others, such special provisions shall apply.   第一百二十八条 法律对未成年人、老年人、残疾人、妇女、消费者等的民事权利保护有特别规定的,依照其规定。
Article 129 Civil rights may be obtained by juridical acts, factual behaviors, events prescribed by laws, or other means prescribed by laws.   第一百二十九条 民事权利可以依据民事法律行为、事实行为、法律规定的事件或者法律规定的其他方式取得。
Article 130 The parties to civil legal relations shall, based on their free will, exercise civil rights in accordance with the law without any interference.   第一百三十条 民事主体按照自己的意愿依法行使民事权利,不受干涉。
Article 131 The parties to civil legal relations shall perform the obligations imposed by laws and obligations agreed upon by the parties while exercising their rights.   第一百三十一条 民事主体行使权利时,应当履行法律规定的和当事人约定的义务。
Article 132 The parties to civil legal relations shall not abuse civil rights to damage the national interest, public interest, or the lawful rights and interests of any other person.   第一百三十二条 民事主体不得滥用民事权利损害国家利益、社会公共利益或者他人合法权益。
Chapter VI Juridical Acts 

第六章 民事法律行为

Section 1 General Rules 

第一节 一般规定

Article 133 Juridical acts are acts of the parties to civil legal relations to create, modify, or terminate civil legal relationships through a declaration of will.   第一百三十三条 民事法律行为是民事主体通过意思表示设立、变更、终止民事法律关系的行为。
Article 134 Juridical acts may be formed based on the unanimous declaration of will by two or more parties or based on the declaration of will by a single party.   第一百三十四条 民事法律行为可以基于双方或者多方的意思表示一致成立,也可以基于单方的意思表示成立。
Where a legal person or an unincorporated organization makes a resolution according to the mode of deliberation and voting procedures prescribed by laws or its bylaws, the act of resolution is formed. 法人、非法人组织依照法律或者章程规定的议事方式和表决程序作出决议的,该决议行为成立。
Article 135 Juridical acts may be made in written, verbal, or other forms; but if any law or administrative regulation requires or the parties agree upon a particular form, such a particular form shall be adopted.   第一百三十五条 民事法律行为可以采用书面形式、口头形式或者其他形式;法律、行政法规规定或者当事人约定采用特定形式的,应当采用特定形式。
Article 136 A juridical act shall become valid upon its formation, except as otherwise provided for by any law or agreed upon by the parties.   第一百三十六条 民事法律行为自成立时生效,但是法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。
The actor shall not modify or rescind the juridical act at will, except in accordance with any law or as permitted by the other party. 行为人非依法律规定或者未经对方同意,不得擅自变更或者解除民事法律行为。
Section 2 Declaration of Will 

第二节 意思表示

Article 137 A declaration of will made by dialog shall become valid at the time when the opposite party knows the content of will.   第一百三十七条 以对话方式作出的意思表示,相对人知道其内容时生效。
A declaration of will not made by dialog shall become valid at the time when it reaches the opposite party. If a declaration of will not made by dialog is in the form of data message, and the opposite party has designated a specific system to receive the data message, the declaration of will shall become valid at the time when the data message enters the specific system designated; or in the absence of such designation, the declaration of will shall become valid at the time when the opposite party knows or should have known that the data message has entered its system. If the parties have otherwise agreed upon the time when a declaration of will made in the form of data message becomes valid, such an agreement shall apply. 以非对话方式作出的意思表示,到达相对人时生效。以非对话方式作出的采用数据电文形式的意思表示,相对人指定特定系统接收数据电文的,该数据电文进入该特定系统时生效;未指定特定系统的,相对人知道或者应当知道该数据电文进入其系统时生效。当事人对采用数据电文形式的意思表示的生效时间另有约定的,按照其约定。
Article 138 A declaration of will made without any opposite party shall become valid upon completion of declaration, except as otherwise provided for by any law.   第一百三十八条 无相对人的意思表示,表示完成时生效。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 139 A declaration of will made in the form of publishing an announcement shall become valid at the time when the announcement is published.   第一百三十九条 以公告方式作出的意思表示,公告发布时生效。
Article 140 An actor may expressly or tacitly declare his or her will.   第一百四十条 行为人可以明示或者默示作出意思表示。
Will may be deemed tacitly declared only when it is in accordance with any law, is agreed upon by the parties, or conforms to the trading practices between the parties. 沉默只有在有法律规定、当事人约定或者符合当事人之间的交易习惯时,才可以视为意思表示。
Article 141 An actor may withdraw his or her declaration of will. The notice of withdrawing his or her declaration of will shall reach the opposite party before his or her declaration of will reaches the opposite party or at the same time when his or her declaration of will reaches the opposite party.   第一百四十一条 行为人可以撤回意思表示。撤回意思表示的通知应当在意思表示到达相对人前或者与意思表示同时到达相对人。
Article 142 The meaning of a declaration of will made to an opposite party shall be interpreted according to the words used as well as considering the relevant clauses, nature and purpose of the act, customs, and the principle of good faith.   第一百四十二条 有相对人的意思表示的解释,应当按照所使用的词句,结合相关条款、行为的性质和目的、习惯以及诚信原则,确定意思表示的含义。
In the interpretation of a declaration of will made without an opposite party, the true will of the actor shall be determined by considering the relevant clauses, nature and purpose of the act, customs, and the principle of good faith, rather than a total confinement to the words used. 无相对人的意思表示的解释,不能完全拘泥于所使用的词句,而应当结合相关条款、行为的性质和目的、习惯以及诚信原则,确定行为人的真实意思。
Section 3 Validity of Juridical Acts 

第三节 民事法律行为的效力

Article 143 A juridical act satisfying all of the following conditions shall be valid:   第一百四十三条 具备下列条件的民事法律行为有效:
(1) The actor has corresponding capacity for civil conduct. (一)行为人具有相应的民事行为能力;
(2) The will expressed is true. (二)意思表示真实;
(3) It neither violates the imperative provisions of laws and administrative regulations, nor is contrary to public order and good morals. (三)不违反法律、行政法规的强制性规定,不违背公序良俗。
Article 144 A juridical act performed by a person without capacity for civil conduct shall be void.   第一百四十四条 无民事行为能力人实施的民事法律行为无效。
Article 145 A juridical act performed by a person with limited capacity for civil conduct shall be valid if the act purely benefits the person or is commensurate with his or her age, intelligence, and mental health; and any other juridical acts performed by the person may become valid after they are consented to or ratified by his or her statutory agent.   第一百四十五条 限制民事行为能力人实施的纯获利益的民事法律行为或者与其年龄、智力、精神健康状况相适应的民事法律行为有效;实施的其他民事法律行为经法定代理人同意或者追认后有效。
The opposite party may, by a notice, demand the statutory agent to ratify within 30 days of receipt of the notice. If the statutory agent fails to respond, ratification shall be deemed denied. Before the ratification of a juridical act, a bona fide opposite party shall be entitled to revoke the act. The revocation shall be made by a notice. 相对人可以催告法定代理人自收到通知之日起三十日内予以追认。法定代理人未作表示的,视为拒绝追认。民事法律行为被追认前,善意相对人有撤销的权利。撤销应当以通知的方式作出。
Article 146 A juridical act performed by an actor and the opposite party based on false declaration of will shall be void.   第一百四十六条 行为人与相对人以虚假的意思表示实施的民事法律行为无效。
The validity of a juridical act hidden behind a false declaration of will shall be dealt with in accordance with the relevant provisions of laws. 以虚假的意思表示隐藏的民事法律行为的效力,依照有关法律规定处理。
Article 147 The actor shall be entitled to request a people's court or an arbitral institution to revoke a juridical act performed based on gross misunderstanding.   第一百四十七条 基于重大误解实施的民事法律行为,行为人有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。
Article 148 Where a juridical act is performed by a party against his or her true will as a result of fraud by the other party, the defrauded party shall have the right to request a people's court or an arbitral institution to revoke the act.   第一百四十八条 一方以欺诈手段,使对方在违背真实意思的情况下实施的民事法律行为,受欺诈方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。
Article 149 Where a juridical act is performed by a party against his or her true will as a result of fraud by a third party, the defrauded party shall have the right to request a people's court or an arbitral institution to revoke the act if the other party knows or should have known the fraud.   第一百四十九条 第三人实施欺诈行为,使一方在违背真实意思的情况下实施的民事法律行为,对方知道或者应当知道该欺诈行为的,受欺诈方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。
Article 150 Where a juridical act is performed by a party against his or her true will as a result of coercion by the other party or a third party, the coerced party shall have the right to request a people's court or an arbitral institution to revoke the act.   第一百五十条 一方或者第三人以胁迫手段,使对方在违背真实意思的情况下实施的民事法律行为,受胁迫方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。
Article 151 Where a juridical act is evidently unfair when it is formed as a result of one party taking advantage of the other party's distress or lack of judgment, among others, the aggrieved party shall have the right to request a people's court or an arbitral institution to revoke the act.   第一百五十一条 一方利用对方处于危困状态、缺乏判断能力等情形,致使民事法律行为成立时显失公平的,受损害方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。
Article 152 Under any of the following circumstances, the right of revocation shall be extinguished:   第一百五十二条 有下列情形之一的,撤销权消灭:
(1) A party fails to exercise its right of revocation within one year from the day when the party knows or should have known the cause of revocation, or a party with gross misunderstanding fails to exercise its right of revocation within 90 days from the day when the party knows or should have known the cause of revocation. (一)当事人自知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起一年内、重大误解的当事人自知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起九十日内没有行使撤销权;
(2) A coerced party fails to exercise its right of revocation within one year from the day when coercion terminates. (二)当事人受胁迫,自胁迫行为终止之日起一年内没有行使撤销权;
(3) A party renounces its right of revocation, expressly or by its conduct, after knowing the cause of revocation. (三)当事人知道撤销事由后明确表示或者以自己的行为表明放弃撤销权。
Where a party fails to exercise its right of revocation within five years from the day when the juridical act occurs, the right of revocation shall be extinguished. 当事人自民事法律行为发生之日起五年内没有行使撤销权的,撤销权消灭。
Article 153 A juridical act violating the imperative provisions of any law or administrative regulation shall be void, unless the imperative provisions do not result in the nullity of the juridical act.   第一百五十三条 违反法律、行政法规的强制性规定的民事法律行为无效。但是,该强制性规定不导致该民事法律行为无效的除外。
A juridical act contrary to public order and good morals shall be void. 违背公序良俗的民事法律行为无效。
Article 154 A juridical act by which an actor maliciously colludes with the opposite party to damage any other person's lawful rights and interests shall be void.   第一百五十四条 行为人与相对人恶意串通,损害他人合法权益的民事法律行为无效。
Article 155 A void or revoked juridical act is not legally binding from the outset.   第一百五十五条 无效的或者被撤销的民事法律行为自始没有法律约束力。
Article 156 Where the partial invalidity of a juridical act does not affect the validity of the other part, the other part shall remain valid.   第一百五十六条 民事法律行为部分无效,不影响其他部分效力的,其他部分仍然有效。
Article 157 After a juridical act is void, revoked, or determined as having no binding force, the property obtained by the actor as a result of the act shall be restituted; if restitution is impossible or unnecessary, indemnification shall be made at an estimated price. The party at fault shall compensate the other party for any loss suffered as a result of the act; or if both parties are at fault, they shall assume corresponding liabilities respectively, except as otherwise provided for by any law.   第一百五十七条 民事法律行为无效、被撤销或者确定不发生效力后,行为人因该行为取得的财产,应当予以返还;不能返还或者没有必要返还的,应当折价补偿。有过错的一方应当赔偿对方由此所受到的损失;各方都有过错的,应当各自承担相应的责任。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Section 4 Juridical Acts Subject to Conditions or Terms 

第四节 民事法律行为的附条件和附期限

Article 158 A juridical act may be subject to a condition, unless such a condition is not allowed according to the nature of the juridical act. A juridical act subject to a condition for becoming valid shall become valid when the condition is fulfilled. A juridical act subject to a condition for rescission shall cease to be valid when the condition is fulfilled.   第一百五十八条 民事法律行为可以附条件,但是根据其性质不得附条件的除外。附生效条件的民事法律行为,自条件成就时生效。附解除条件的民事法律行为,自条件成就时失效。
Article 159 For a juridical act subject to a condition, if a party prevents the fulfillment of the condition by improper means for its own benefits, the condition shall be deemed fulfilled; or if a party hastens the fulfillment of a condition by improper means, the condition shall not be deemed fulfilled.   第一百五十九条 附条件的民事法律行为,当事人为自己的利益不正当地阻止条件成就的,视为条件已经成就;不正当地促成条件成就的,视为条件不成就。
Article 160 A juridical act may be subject to a term, unless such a term is not allowed according to the nature of the juridical act. A juridical act subject to a term for becoming valid shall become valid upon expiration of the term. A juridical act subject to a term for termination shall become invalid upon expiration of the term.   第一百六十条 民事法律行为可以附期限,但是根据其性质不得附期限的除外。附生效期限的民事法律行为,自期限届至时生效。附终止期限的民事法律行为,自期限届满时失效。
Chapter VII Agency 

第七章 代理

Section 1 General Rules 

第一节 一般规定

Article 161 The parties to civil legal relations may conduct juridical acts through agents.   第一百六十一条 民事主体可以通过代理人实施民事法律行为。
A juridical act that shall be performed in person in accordance with the provisions of laws, an agreement between the parties, or the nature of the juridical act shall not be performed by an agent. 依照法律规定、当事人约定或者民事法律行为的性质,应当由本人亲自实施的民事法律行为,不得代理。
Article 162 A juridical act performed by an agent in the name of the principal within the power conferred on the agent shall be binding on the principal.   第一百六十二条 代理人在代理权限内,以被代理人名义实施的民事法律行为,对被代理人发生效力。
Article 163 Agency includes agency by mandate and statutory agency.   第一百六十三条 代理包括委托代理和法定代理。
An agent under a mandate shall exercise the power conferred by the principal. A statutory agent shall exercise the power conferred by laws. 委托代理人按照被代理人的委托行使代理权。法定代理人依照法律的规定行使代理权。
Article 164 Where an agent fails to perform or fully perform its duties, causing damage to the principal, the agent shall assume civil liability.   第一百六十四条 代理人不履行或者不完全履行职责,造成被代理人损害的,应当承担民事责任。
Where an agent and the opposite party in malicious collusion damages the principal's lawful rights and interests, the agent and the opposite party shall be jointly and severally liable. 代理人和相对人恶意串通,损害被代理人合法权益的,代理人和相对人应当承担连带责任。
Section 2 Agency by Mandate 

第二节 委托代理

Article 165 Where the power is conferred by a mandate in a written form, the power of attorney shall clearly state the agent's name and the object of, power conferred by, and term of the mandate, to which the signature or seal of the principal shall be affixed.   第一百六十五条 委托代理授权采用书面形式的,授权委托书应当载明代理人的姓名或者名称、代理事项、权限和期限,并由被代理人签名或者盖章。
Article 166 Where the object of a mandate is to be performed by several agents, they shall jointly exercise the power conferred, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.   第一百六十六条 数人为同一代理事项的代理人的,应当共同行使代理权,但是当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 167 Where an agent knows or should have known that the object of the mandate is illegal but still performs it, or the principal knows or should have known that an agent's performance is illegal but fails to raise any objection, the principal and the agent shall be jointly and severally liable.   第一百六十七条 代理人知道或者应当知道代理事项违法仍然实施代理行为,或者被代理人知道或者应当知道代理人的代理行为违法未作反对表示的,被代理人和代理人应当承担连带责任。
Article 168 An agent shall not perform any juridical act with itself in the name of the principal, unless it is consented to or ratified by the principal.   第一百六十八条 代理人不得以被代理人的名义与自己实施民事法律行为,但是被代理人同意或者追认的除外。
An agent shall not perform any juridical act in the name of one principal with any other principal represented by it at the same time, unless it is consented to or ratified by both principals. 代理人不得以被代理人的名义与自己同时代理的其他人实施民事法律行为,但是被代理的双方同意或者追认的除外。
Article 169 Where an agent needs to appoint a third party to perform the object of the mandate in its place, the agent shall obtain the consent or ratification of the principal.   第一百六十九条 代理人需要转委托第三人代理的,应当取得被代理人的同意或者追认。
With the principal's consent to or ratification of the appointment, the principal may directly instruct the third party appointed by the agent regarding the object of the mandate, and the agent shall only be liable for the selection of the third party and its instructions to the third party. 转委托代理经被代理人同意或者追认的,被代理人可以就代理事务直接指示转委托的第三人,代理人仅就第三人的选任以及对第三人的指示承担责任。
Without the principal's consent to or ratification of the appointment, the agent shall be liable for the acts of the third party appointed by the agent, unless it is necessary for the agent to appoint the third party in case of emergency to safeguard the interests of the principal. 转委托代理未经被代理人同意或者追认的,代理人应当对转委托的第三人的行为承担责任;但是,在紧急情况下代理人为了维护被代理人的利益需要转委托第三人代理的除外。
Article 170 Where a person who performs tasks for a legal person or an unincorporated organization conducts juridical acts related to matters within his or her scope of powers in the name of the legal person or the unincorporated organization, such acts shall have binding force on the legal person or unincorporated organization.   第一百七十条 执行法人或者非法人组织工作任务的人员,就其职权范围内的事项,以法人或者非法人组织的名义实施的民事法律行为,对法人或者非法人组织发生效力。
Any restrictions imposed by a legal person or an unincorporated organization on the scope of powers of the person performing tasks for the legal person or unincorporated organization shall not be set up against bona fide opposite parties. 法人或者非法人组织对执行其工作任务的人员职权范围的限制,不得对抗善意相对人。
Article 171 Where an actor still performs an act of agency without a power of attorney, beyond his or her power of attorney, or after his or her power of attorney terminates, the act shall not be binding on the principal without the principal's ratification.   第一百七十一条 行为人没有代理权、超越代理权或者代理权终止后,仍然实施代理行为,未经被代理人追认的,对被代理人不发生效力。
The opposite party may, by a notice, urge the principal to ratify within 30 days from the date of receipt of the notice. If the principal fails to respond, ratification shall be deemed denied. Before the ratification of the act, the bona fide opposite party shall be entitled to revoke the act. The revocation shall be made by a notice. 相对人可以催告被代理人自收到通知之日起三十日内予以追认。被代理人未作表示的,视为拒绝追认。行为人实施的行为被追认前,善意相对人有撤销的权利。撤销应当以通知的方式作出。
Where ratification of the act is denied, the bona fide opposite party shall be entitled to request that the actor perform obligations or compensate it for any injury suffered by it, but such compensation shall not exceed the interest that could have been obtained by the opposite party if the act were ratified by the principal. 行为人实施的行为未被追认的,善意相对人有权请求行为人履行债务或者就其受到的损害请求行为人赔偿。但是,赔偿的范围不得超过被代理人追认时相对人所能获得的利益。
Where the opposite party knows or should have known that the actor has no power of attorney, the opposite party and the actor shall assume liability according to their respective faults. 相对人知道或者应当知道行为人无权代理的,相对人和行为人按照各自的过错承担责任。
Article 172 Where an actor still performs an act of agency without a power of agency, beyond his or her power of attorney, or after his or her power of attorney terminates, the act shall be valid if the opposite party has reason to believe that the actor has the power of attorney.   第一百七十二条 行为人没有代理权、超越代理权或者代理权终止后,仍然实施代理行为,相对人有理由相信行为人有代理权的,代理行为有效。
Section 3 Termination of Agency 

第三节 代理终止

Article 173 Agency by mandate shall terminate under any of the following circumstances:   第一百七十三条 有下列情形之一的,委托代理终止:
(1) The term of agency expires or the object of the mandate is fulfilled. (一)代理期限届满或者代理事务完成;
(2) The principal cancels the mandate or the agent surrenders the mandate. (二)被代理人取消委托或者代理人辞去委托;
(3) The agent loses capacity for civil conduct. (三)代理人丧失民事行为能力;
(4) The agent or the principal dies. (四)代理人或者被代理人死亡;
(5) The legal person or unincorporated organization as the agent or the principal is terminated. (五)作为代理人或者被代理人的法人、非法人组织终止。
Article 174 After the principal dies, the acts of agency performed by an agent under a mandate shall be valid under any of the following circumstances:   第一百七十四条 被代理人死亡后,有下列情形之一的,委托代理人实施的代理行为有效:
(1) The agent does not know and should not have known that the principal died. (一)代理人不知道且不应当知道被代理人死亡;
(2) The successors of the principal recognize such acts. (二)被代理人的继承人予以承认;
(3) The power of attorney expressly states that the power of agency shall terminate upon fulfillment of the object of the mandate. (三)授权中明确代理权在代理事务完成时终止;
(4) Such acts have been conducted before the principal dies and continue for the benefits of the principal's successors. (四)被代理人死亡前已经实施,为了被代理人的继承人的利益继续代理。
The provision of the preceding paragraph shall apply, mutatis mutandis, where a legal person or an unincorporated organization as the principal is terminated. 作为被代理人的法人、非法人组织终止的,参照适用前款规定。
Article 175 Statutory agency shall terminate under any of the following circumstances:   第一百七十五条 有下列情形之一的,法定代理终止:
(1) The principal obtains or regains full capacity for civil conduct. (一)被代理人取得或者恢复完全民事行为能力;
(2) The agent loses capacity for civil conduct. (二)代理人丧失民事行为能力;
(3) The agent or the principal dies. (三)代理人或者被代理人死亡;
(4) Any other circumstance specified by laws. (四)法律规定的其他情形。
Chapter VIII Civil Liability 

第八章 民事责任

Article 176 The parties to civil legal relations shall perform their civil obligations and assume civil liabilities in accordance with the provisions of laws or the agreements of the parties.   第一百七十六条 民事主体依照法律规定或者按照当事人约定,履行民事义务,承担民事责任。
Article 177 Where two or more persons share liability in accordance with the law, they shall assume corresponding liability respectively if their respective liabilities can be determined; or evenly assume liability if it is difficult to determine their respective liabilities.   第一百七十七条 二人以上依法承担按份责任,能够确定责任大小的,各自承担相应的责任;难以确定责任大小的,平均承担责任。
Article 178 Where two or more persons are jointly and severally liable in accordance with the law, the obligee is entitled to request assumption of liability by part or all of the persons jointly and severally liable.   第一百七十八条 二人以上依法承担连带责任的,权利人有权请求部分或者全部连带责任人承担责任。
The shares of liability of persons jointly and severally liable shall be determined based on the gravity of liability of each person; or the liability shall be evenly shared if it is difficult to determine the gravity of liability of each person. If the liability actually assumed by a person jointly and severally liable exceeds the person's share of liability, the person shall be entitled to claim indemnities from other persons jointly and severally liable. 连带责任人的责任份额根据各自责任大小确定;难以确定责任大小的,平均承担责任。实际承担责任超过自己责任份额的连带责任人,有权向其他连带责任人追偿。
The joint and several liability shall be governed by the provisions of laws or the agreements of the parties. 连带责任,由法律规定或者当事人约定。
Article 179 Civil liability shall be assumed primarily in the following manners:   第一百七十九条 承担民事责任的方式主要有:
(1) Cessation of infringement. (一)停止侵害;
(2) Removal of obstacles. (二)排除妨碍;
(3) Elimination of danger. (三)消除危险;
(4) Restitution of property. (四)返还财产;
(5) Restoration to the original condition. (五)恢复原状;
(6) Repair, reworking, or replacement. (六)修理、重作、更换;
(7) Continued performance. (七)继续履行;
(8) Compensation for loss. (八)赔偿损失;
(9) Payment of liquidated damages. (九)支付违约金;
(10) Elimination of adverse effects and rehabilitation of reputation. (十)消除影响、恢复名誉;
(11) Making an apology. (十一)赔礼道歉。
Where any law provides for punitive damages, such a law shall apply. 法律规定惩罚性赔偿的,依照其规定。
The manners of assuming civil liability as set forth in this article may be applied alone or by a combination. 本条规定的承担民事责任的方式,可以单独适用,也可以合并适用。
Article 180 Where the non-performance of civil obligations is caused by a force majeure, no civil liability shall arise therefrom, except as otherwise provided for by any law.   第一百八十条 因不可抗力不能履行民事义务的,不承担民事责任。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
A force majeure means any objective circumstance that is unforeseeable, inevitable, and insurmountable. 不可抗力是不能预见、不能避免且不能克服的客观情况。
Article 181 Where any harm is caused by self-defense, no civil liability shall arise therefrom.   第一百八十一条 因正当防卫造成损害的,不承担民事责任。
Where self-defense exceeds the limit of necessity and causes undue harm, the person in self-defense shall assume appropriate civil liability. 正当防卫超过必要的限度,造成不应有的损害的,正当防卫人应当承担适当的民事责任。
Article 182 Where any damage is caused by necessity to avoid a danger in emergency, the person causing the danger shall assume civil liability.   第一百八十二条 因紧急避险造成损害的,由引起险情发生的人承担民事责任。
Where the danger arises from any natural cause, the person acting to avoid the danger shall not assume civil liability, but may make appropriate indemnification. 危险由自然原因引起的,紧急避险人不承担民事责任,可以给予适当补偿。
Where the act of avoiding a danger in emergency is inappropriate or exceeds the limit of necessity and causes undue harm, the person acting to avoid the danger shall assume appropriate civil liability. 紧急避险采取措施不当或者超过必要的限度,造成不应有的损害的,紧急避险人应当承担适当的民事责任。
Article 183 Where a person suffers any harm in order to protect any other person's civil rights and interests, the tortfeasor shall assume civil liability, and the beneficiary may make appropriate indemnification. If there is no tortfeasor or the tortfeasor has fled or is unable to assume civil liability, the beneficiary shall make appropriate indemnification if the victim claims indemnification.   第一百八十三条 因保护他人民事权益使自己受到损害的,由侵权人承担民事责任,受益人可以给予适当补偿。没有侵权人、侵权人逃逸或者无力承担民事责任,受害人请求补偿的,受益人应当给予适当补偿。
Article 184 A person who voluntarily provides emergency assistance and causes harm to the recipient of assistance shall not assume civil liability.   第一百八十四条 因自愿实施紧急救助行为造成受助人损害的,救助人不承担民事责任。
Article 185 A person who infringes upon the name, likeness, reputation, or honor of a hero or a martyr, among others, causing damage to the public interest, shall assume civil liability.   第一百八十五条 侵害英雄烈士等的姓名、肖像、名誉、荣誉,损害社会公共利益的,应当承担民事责任。
Article 186 Where a party breaches a contract, causing damage to the other party's personal or property rights and interests, the aggrieved party shall be entitled to request the party to assume liability for breach of contract or assume tort liability.   第一百八十六条 因当事人一方的违约行为,损害对方人身权益、财产权益的,受损害方有权选择请求其承担违约责任或者侵权责任。
Article 187 Where a party to civil legal relations shall be held civilly, administratively, and criminally liable for the same act, the assumption of administrative liability or criminal liability does not affect the assumption of civil liability; and if the party's property is insufficient for payment, the property shall be used first for assumption of civil liability.   第一百八十七条 民事主体因同一行为应当承担民事责任、行政责任和刑事责任的,承担行政责任或者刑事责任不影响承担民事责任;民事主体的财产不足以支付的,优先用于承担民事责任。
Chapter IX Extinctive Prescription 

第九章 诉讼时效

Article 188 An action instituted in a people's court for protection of civil rights is prescribed by three years, except as otherwise prescribed by any law.   第一百八十八条 向人民法院请求保护民事权利的诉讼时效期间为三年。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
The prescriptive period shall be calculated from the day when the obligee knows or should have known that his or her right has been infringed upon and who the obligor is, except as otherwise provided for by any law. The people's court shall not offer protection if 20 years have elapsed since the infringement; but under special circumstances, the people's court may decide to extend the prescriptive period upon application of the obligee. 诉讼时效期间自权利人知道或者应当知道权利受到损害以及义务人之日起计算。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。但是,自权利受到损害之日起超过二十年的,人民法院不予保护,有特殊情况的,人民法院可以根据权利人的申请决定延长。
Article 189 Where the parties have agreed on the installment performance of a debt, the prescriptive period shall be calculated from the day when the time limit for the last installment expires.   第一百八十九条 当事人约定同一债务分期履行的,诉讼时效期间自最后一期履行期限届满之日起计算。
Article 190 The prescriptive period of a claim of a person without or with limited capacity for civil conduct against his or her statutory agent shall be calculated from the day when the agency by operation of law is terminated.   第一百九十条 无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人对其法定代理人的请求权的诉讼时效期间,自该法定代理终止之日起计算。
Article 191 The prescriptive period of a claim for damages of a minor who has suffered sexual assault shall be calculated from the day when the victim attains the age of eighteen.   第一百九十一条 未成年人遭受性侵害的损害赔偿请求权的诉讼时效期间,自受害人年满十八周岁之日起计算。
Article 192 When the prescriptive period expires, the obligor may use it as a defense for non-performance of obligations.   第一百九十二条 诉讼时效期间届满的,义务人可以提出不履行义务的抗辩。
Where the obligor agrees to perform after the prescriptive period expires, the obligor may not defend on the ground that the prescriptive period has expired; and if the obligor has voluntarily performed, no request for restitution may be made. 诉讼时效期间届满后,义务人同意履行的,不得以诉讼时效期间届满为由抗辩;义务人已经自愿履行的,不得请求返还。
Article 193 A people's court shall not apply the provisions on extinctive prescription of its own motion.   第一百九十三条 人民法院不得主动适用诉讼时效的规定。
Article 194 The prescriptive period shall be suspended if during the last six months of the period, a claim cannot be filed for any of the following obstacles:   第一百九十四条 在诉讼时效期间的最后六个月内,因下列障碍,不能行使请求权的,诉讼时效中止:
(1) A force majeure. (一)不可抗力;
(2) The person without or with limited capacity for civil conduct has no statutory agent, or his or her statutory agent dies, loses capacity for civil conduct, or loses the power conferred by laws. (二)无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人没有法定代理人,或者法定代理人死亡、丧失民事行为能力、丧失代理权;
(3) The successor or legacy administrator has not been determined after the commencement of succession. (三)继承开始后未确定继承人或者遗产管理人;
(4) The obligee is controlled by the obligor or any other person. (四)权利人被义务人或者其他人控制;
(5) Any other obstacle resulting in the obligee's failure to file a claim. (五)其他导致权利人不能行使请求权的障碍。
The prescriptive period shall expire six months after the day when the obstacle causing the suspension is eliminated. 自中止时效的原因消除之日起满六个月,诉讼时效期间届满。
Article 195 The prescriptive period interrupted under any of the following circumstances shall be recalculated from the time of interruption or conclusion of the relevant procedure:   第一百九十五条 有下列情形之一的,诉讼时效中断,从中断、有关程序终结时起,诉讼时效期间重新计算:
(1) The obligee requests the obligor's performance. (一)权利人向义务人提出履行请求;
(2) The obligor agrees to perform. (二)义务人同意履行义务;
(3) The obligee institutes an action or applies for arbitration. (三)权利人提起诉讼或者申请仲裁;
(4) Any other circumstance with equal effects as instituting an action or applying for arbitration. (四)与提起诉讼或者申请仲裁具有同等效力的其他情形。
Article 196 The provisions on prescriptive period shall not apply to the following claims:   第一百九十六条 下列请求权不适用诉讼时效的规定:
(1) A claim for cessation of infringement, removal of obstacles, or elimination of danger. (一)请求停止侵害、排除妨碍、消除危险;
(2) The claim of a holder of a real right in an immovable or a registered real right in a movable for restitution of property. (二)不动产物权和登记的动产物权的权利人请求返还财产;
(3) A claim for payment of child support, support for elderly parents, or spousal support. (三)请求支付抚养费、赡养费或者扶养费;
(4) Any other claim to which the prescriptive period does not apply in accordance with the law. (四)依法不适用诉讼时效的其他请求权。
Article 197 The period, calculation method, and causes of suspension or interruption of extinctive prescription shall be provided for by laws, and any agreement between the parties in this respect shall be void.   第一百九十七条 诉讼时效的期间、计算方法以及中止、中断的事由由法律规定,当事人约定无效。
A party's prior renouncement of the benefit of prescription shall be void. 当事人对诉讼时效利益的预先放弃无效。
Article 198 Where any law prescribes arbitration, such a law shall apply; otherwise, the provisions on extinctive prescription for actions shall apply.   第一百九十八条 法律对仲裁时效有规定的,依照其规定;没有规定的,适用诉讼时效的规定。
Article 199 Except as otherwise provided for by any law, the duration of rights such as the right of revocation and the right of rescission as granted by laws or agreed upon by the parties shall be calculated from the day when a right holder knows or should have known that such a right has arisen, and the provisions on the suspension, interruption, and extension of extinctive prescription shall not apply to the above duration. The right of revocation, right of rescission, and other rights shall be extinguished upon expiration of such duration.   第一百九十九条 法律规定或者当事人约定的撤销权、解除权等权利的存续期间,除法律另有规定外,自权利人知道或者应当知道权利产生之日起计算,不适用有关诉讼时效中止、中断和延长的规定。存续期间届满,撤销权、解除权等权利消灭。
Chapter X Calculation of Time Periods 

第十章 期间计算

Article 200 For the purposes of the civil law, a time period shall be calculated according to the Gregorian calendar by year, month, day, and hour.   第二百条 民法所称的期间按照公历年、月、日、小时计算。
Article 201 Where a time period is calculated by year, month, and day, the first day of the period shall not be counted, and the period shall be counted from the next day.   第二百零一条 按照年、月、日计算期间的,开始的当日不计入,自下一日开始计算。
Where a time period is calculated by hour, the period shall be counted from the time specified by laws or agreed upon by the parties. 按照小时计算期间的,自法律规定或者当事人约定的时间开始计算。
Article 202 Where a time period is calculated by year and month, the corresponding date of the expiry month shall be the last day of the time period; or if there is no corresponding date, the last day of the expiry month shall be the last day of the time period.   第二百零二条 按照年、月计算期间的,到期月的对应日为期间的最后一日;没有对应日的,月末日为期间的最后一日。
Article 203 Where the last day of a time period falls on a legal holiday, the day after the legal holiday shall be the last day of the time period.   第二百零三条 期间的最后一日是法定休假日的,以法定休假日结束的次日为期间的最后一日。
The last day of a time period shall end at 24:00; or if business hours are applicable, the last day shall end at the closing hour. 期间的最后一日的截止时间为二十四时;有业务时间的,停止业务活动的时间为截止时间。
Article 204 Time periods shall be calculated in methods specified by this Code, except as otherwise provided for by any law or agreed upon by the parties.   第二百零四条 期间的计算方法依照本法的规定,但是法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。
Book Two Real Rights 

第二编 物权

Title One General Provisions 

第一分编 通则

Chapter I General Rules 

第一章 一般规定

Article 205 This Book regulates civil relations arising from the attribution and use of property.   第二百零五条 本编调整因物的归属和利用产生的民事关系。
Article 206 The state upholds and improves the co-development of multiple forms of ownership with public ownership playing a dominant role, the co-existence of multiple modes of distribution with distribution according to the amount of labor performed playing a dominant role, the system of socialist market economy, and other basic socialist economic regimes.   第二百零六条 国家坚持和完善公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展,按劳分配为主体、多种分配方式并存,社会主义市场经济体制等社会主义基本经济制度。
The state consolidates and develops the public sector of the economy, and encourages, supports, and guides the development of the non-public sectors of the economy. 国家巩固和发展公有制经济,鼓励、支持和引导非公有制经济的发展。
The state implements the socialist market economy, and safeguards the equal legal status and development rights of all market players. 国家实行社会主义市场经济,保障一切市场主体的平等法律地位和发展权利。
Article 207 The real rights of the state, collectives, individuals, and other right holders shall be equally protected by law, and shall not be infringed upon by any organization or individual.   第二百零七条 国家、集体、私人的物权和其他权利人的物权受法律平等保护,任何组织或者个人不得侵犯。
Article 208 The creation, modification, transfer, or extinction of a real right in an immovable shall be registered in accordance with the provisions of laws. A real right in a movable shall be created or transferred upon delivery in accordance with the provisions of laws.   第二百零八条 不动产物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭,应当依照法律规定登记。动产物权的设立和转让,应当依照法律规定交付。
Chapter II Creation, Modification, Transfer and Extinction of Real Rights 

第二章 物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭

Section 1 Registration of Immovables 

第一节 不动产登记

Article 209 The creation, modification, transfer, or extinction of a real right in an immovable shall become valid after it is registered in accordance with the law; it shall have no binding force if it is not registered in accordance with the law, except as otherwise provided for by any law.   第二百零九条 不动产物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭,经依法登记,发生效力;未经登记,不发生效力,但是法律另有规定的除外。
The ownership of natural resources belonging to the state in accordance with the law is not required to be registered. 依法属于国家所有的自然资源,所有权可以不登记。
Article 210 An immovable shall be registered at the registration authority at the place where the immovable is located.   第二百一十条 不动产登记,由不动产所在地的登记机构办理。
The state implements the rules for the unified registration of immovables. The scope of unified registration, registration authorities and the measures for registration shall be provided for by laws and administrative regulations. 国家对不动产实行统一登记制度。统一登记的范围、登记机构和登记办法,由法律、行政法规规定。
Article 211 A party that applies for the registration of an immovable shall, based on different registration items, provide the certificate of ownership of the immovable and required materials such as those on the boundary and area of the immovable.   第二百一十一条 当事人申请登记,应当根据不同登记事项提供权属证明和不动产界址、面积等必要材料。
Article 212 The registration authority shall perform the following duties:   第二百一十二条 登记机构应当履行下列职责:
(1) Examining the certificate of ownership and other required materials provided by the applicant. (一)查验申请人提供的权属证明和其他必要材料;
(2) Inquiring the applicant about the relevant registration items. (二)就有关登记事项询问申请人;
(3) Registering the relevant items based on facts and in a timely manner. (三)如实、及时登记有关事项;
(4) Performing other duties provided for by laws and administrative regulations. (四)法律、行政法规规定的其他职责。
Where it is necessary to further prove the relevant situation of the immovable involved in the application for registration, the registration authority may require the applicant to submit additional materials, and may conduct on-site inspection when necessary. 申请登记的不动产的有关情况需要进一步证明的,登记机构可以要求申请人补充材料,必要时可以实地查看。
Article 213 The registration authority may not commit any of the following conduct:   第二百一十三条 登记机构不得有下列行为:
(1) Requiring the assessment of the immovable. (一)要求对不动产进行评估;
(2) Conducting repeated registration in the name of annual inspection, among others. (二)以年检等名义进行重复登记;
(3) Any other conduct beyond the scope of registration duties. (三)超出登记职责范围的其他行为。
Article 214 The creation, modification, transfer, or extinction of the real right in an immovable shall, if it shall be registered in accordance with the provisions of laws, become valid from the time when it is recorded in the register of immovables.   第二百一十四条 不动产物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭,依照法律规定应当登记的,自记载于不动产登记簿时发生效力。
Article 215 A contract entered into by the parties on the creation, modification, transfer, or extinction of the real right in an immovable shall become valid from the date when the contract is entered into, unless it is otherwise provided for by any law or agreed upon by the parties; and if the real right has not been registered, it shall not affect the validity of the contract.   第二百一十五条 当事人之间订立有关设立、变更、转让和消灭不动产物权的合同,除法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定外,自合同成立时生效;未办理物权登记的,不影响合同效力。
Article 216 The register of immovables is the basis for determining the attribution and content of a real right.   第二百一十六条 不动产登记簿是物权归属和内容的根据。
The register of immovables shall be managed by the registration authority. 不动产登记簿由登记机构管理。
Article 217 The certificate of ownership of an immovable is the certificate proving that the right holder is entitled to the real right in the immovable. The items recorded in the certificate of ownership of the immovable shall be consistent with those recorded in the register of immovables; in the case of any discrepancy, the item recorded in the register of immovables shall prevail, except that there is any evidence to prove that there is any error in the item.   第二百一十七条 不动产权属证书是权利人享有该不动产物权的证明。不动产权属证书记载的事项,应当与不动产登记簿一致;记载不一致的,除有证据证明不动产登记簿确有错误外,以不动产登记簿为准。
Article 218 The right holder or the interested party may apply for consulting or duplicating immovable registration materials, and the registration authority shall provide such materials.   第二百一十八条 权利人、利害关系人可以申请查询、复制不动产登记资料,登记机构应当提供。
Article 219 The parties of interest shall not make public or illegally use the right holder's immovable registration materials.   第二百一十九条 利害关系人不得公开、非法使用权利人的不动产登记资料。
Article 220 The right holder or the interested party may apply for correction registration if it or he is of the opinion that there is any error in the item recorded in the register of immovables. If the right holder recorded in the register of immovables agrees to correction in a written form or has evidence to prove that there is any error in the registration item, the registration authority shall make correction.   第二百二十条 权利人、利害关系人认为不动产登记簿记载的事项错误的,可以申请更正登记。不动产登记簿记载的权利人书面同意更正或者有证据证明登记确有错误的,登记机构应当予以更正。
Where the right holder recorded in the register of immovables disagrees to the correction, the interested party may apply for opposition registration. If the registration authority grants the opposition registration, but the applicant fails to institute an action within 15 days from the date of opposition registration, the opposition registration shall cease to be effective. If the opposition registration is inappropriate and causes any damage to the right holder, the right holder may claim compensation for damages from the applicant. 不动产登记簿记载的权利人不同意更正的,利害关系人可以申请异议登记。登记机构予以异议登记,申请人自异议登记之日起十五日内不提起诉讼的,异议登记失效。异议登记不当,造成权利人损害的,权利人可以向申请人请求损害赔偿。
Article 221 Where a party enters into a property purchase agreement or an agreement on a real right in any other immovable, the party may, as agreed upon, apply to the registration authority for advance notice registration so as to guarantee the exercise of the real right in the future. After the advance notice registration, any disposal of the immovable without the consent of the right holder recorded in the advance notice registration shall produce no effect of real right.   第二百二十一条 当事人签订买卖房屋的协议或者签订其他不动产物权的协议,为保障将来实现物权,按照约定可以向登记机构申请预告登记。预告登记后,未经预告登记的权利人同意,处分该不动产的,不发生物权效力。
Where, after the advance notice registration, the creditor's right is extinguished or no application for the registration of the immovable is filed within 90 days from the date when the immovable can be registered, the advance notice registration shall cease to be effective. 预告登记后,债权消灭或者自能够进行不动产登记之日起九十日内未申请登记的,预告登记失效。
Article 222 Any party that provides false application materials for registration, thus causing any damage to another person, shall assume compensatory liability.   第二百二十二条 当事人提供虚假材料申请登记,造成他人损害的,应当承担赔偿责任。
Where the registration authority causes any damage to another person due to any error in registration, it shall assume compensatory liability. After making the compensation, the registration authority may recover the amount from the person causing the error in registration. 因登记错误,造成他人损害的,登记机构应当承担赔偿责任。登记机构赔偿后,可以向造成登记错误的人追偿。
Article 223 Immovable registration fees shall be collected on each piece, and may not be collected on the basis of the area or size of the immovable or in proportion to the price.   第二百二十三条 不动产登记费按件收取,不得按照不动产的面积、体积或者价款的比例收取。
Section 2 Delivery of Movables 

第二节 动产交付

Article 224 The creation or transfer of the real right in a movable shall become valid upon delivery, except as otherwise provided for by any law.   第二百二十四条 动产物权的设立和转让,自交付时发生效力,但是法律另有规定的除外。
Article 225 The creation, modification, transfer, or extinction of the real right in a vessel, aircraft, or motor vehicle, among others, if it is not registered, shall not be set up against a bona fide third party.   第二百二十五条 船舶、航空器和机动车等的物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭,未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。
Article 226 Where the right holder has possessed a movable before the real right in the movable is created or transferred, the real right shall have binding force when the juridical act becomes valid.   第二百二十六条 动产物权设立和转让前,权利人已经占有该动产的,物权自民事法律行为生效时发生效力。
Article 227 Where a third party has possessed a movable before the real right in the movable is created or transferred, the person who is obliged to deliver the movable may transfer the right to request a third party to return the original property to replace the delivery.   第二百二十七条 动产物权设立和转让前,第三人占有该动产的,负有交付义务的人可以通过转让请求第三人返还原物的权利代替交付。
Article 228 Where it is agreed upon by the parties that the transferor continues to possess the movable when the real right in the movable is transferred, the real right shall have binding force from the time when the agreement becomes valid.   第二百二十八条 动产物权转让时,当事人又约定由出让人继续占有该动产的,物权自该约定生效时发生效力。
Section 3 Other Provisions 

第三节 其他规定

Article 229 Where a real right is created, modified, transferred, or extinguished in accordance with the legal document of a people's court or an arbitration institution or an expropriation decision made by a people's government, among others, it shall have binding force from the time when the legal document or expropriation decision, among others, becomes valid.   第二百二十九条 因人民法院、仲裁机构的法律文书或者人民政府的征收决定等,导致物权设立、变更、转让或者消灭的,自法律文书或者征收决定等生效时发生效力。
Article 230 Where a real right is acquired through succession, it shall have binding force from the time of succession.   第二百三十条 因继承取得物权的,自继承开始时发生效力。
Article 231 Where a real right is created or extinguished due to such factual behavior as lawful construction and demolition of buildings, it shall have binding force at the time when the factual behavior is committed.   第二百三十一条 因合法建造、拆除房屋等事实行为设立或者消灭物权的,自事实行为成就时发生效力。
Article 232 Any disposal of the real right in an immovable enjoyed in accordance with the provisions of this Section shall produce no effect of real right if it is not registered as required by laws.   第二百三十二条 处分依照本节规定享有的不动产物权,依照法律规定需要办理登记的,未经登记,不发生物权效力。
Chapter III Protection of Real Rights 

第三章 物权的保护

Article 233 Where a real right is infringed upon, the right holder may have the matter settled by such means as conciliation, mediation, arbitration, and litigation.   第二百三十三条 物权受到侵害的,权利人可以通过和解、调解、仲裁、诉讼等途径解决。
Article 234 Where any dispute arises over the attribution or content of a real right, the interested parties may file a claim for confirmation of the right.   第二百三十四条 因物权的归属、内容发生争议的,利害关系人可以请求确认权利。
Article 235 With respect of the untitled possession of an immovable or movable, the right holder may file a claim for return of the original property.   第二百三十五条 无权占有不动产或者动产的,权利人可以请求返还原物。
Article 236 Where a real right has been or may be interfered with, the right holder may file a claim for removal of interference or elimination of danger.   第二百三十六条 妨害物权或者可能妨害物权的,权利人可以请求排除妨害或者消除危险。
Article 237 Where an immovable or movable is damaged, the right holder may file a claim for repair, rebuilding, replacement, or restoration to the original condition, in accordance with the law.   第二百三十七条 造成不动产或者动产毁损的,权利人可以依法请求修理、重作、更换或者恢复原状。
Article 238 Where the infringement upon a real right causes any damage to the right holder, the right holder may file a claim for damages in accordance with the law, and may also file a claim for assumption of any other civil liability in accordance with the law.   第二百三十八条 侵害物权,造成权利人损害的,权利人可以依法请求损害赔偿,也可以依法请求承担其他民事责任。
Article 239 The ways for the protection of a real right as provided for in this Chapter may be applied either separately or jointly, depending on the circumstance of the infringement upon the real right.   第二百三十九条 本章规定的物权保护方式,可以单独适用,也可以根据权利被侵害的情形合并适用。
Title Two Ownership 

第二分编 所有权

Chapter IV General Rules 

第四章 一般规定

Article 240 The owner of an immovable or movable has the right to possess, use, enjoy, and dispose of such an immovable or movable in accordance with the law.   第二百四十条 所有权人对自己的不动产或者动产,依法享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权利。
Article 241 The owner of an immovable or movable has the right to create usufructs and security interests on the immovable or movable. In exercising rights, the usufructuary or security interest holder may not damage the owner's rights and interests.   第二百四十一条 所有权人有权在自己的不动产或者动产上设立用益物权和担保物权。用益物权人、担保物权人行使权利,不得损害所有权人的权益。
Article 242 No organization or individual may acquire the ownership of an immovable or movable exclusively owned by the state as provided for by laws.   第二百四十二条 法律规定专属于国家所有的不动产和动产,任何组织或者个人不能取得所有权。
Article 243 Land owned by collectives and buildings and other immovables of organizations or individuals may be expropriated in the interest of the public within the limits of power and under the procedures provided for by laws.   第二百四十三条 为了公共利益的需要,依照法律规定的权限和程序可以征收集体所有的土地和组织、个人的房屋以及其他不动产。
Where land owned by collectives is expropriated, land compensation, resettlement subsidies, and compensation for rural villagers' houses, other fixtures on land, and young crops, among others, shall be paid in full amount in accordance with law, and social security expenses for the farmers whose land is expropriated shall be arranged for, in order to guarantee the farmers' daily lives and safeguard their lawful rights and interests. 征收集体所有的土地,应当依法及时足额支付土地补偿费、安置补助费以及农村村民住宅、其他地上附着物和青苗等的补偿费用,并安排被征地农民的社会保障费用,保障被征地农民的生活,维护被征地农民的合法权益。
Where the buildings and other immovables of organizations or individuals are expropriated, indemnities for expropriation shall be given in accordance with the law, and the lawful rights and interests of the person whose land is expropriated shall be protected; and if the housing of individuals is expropriated, each individual's residential conditions shall also be guaranteed. 征收组织、个人的房屋以及其他不动产,应当依法给予征收补偿,维护被征收人的合法权益;征收个人住宅的,还应当保障被征收人的居住条件。
No organization or individual may embezzle, misappropriate, privately divide, withhold, or default on the payment of indemnities for expropriation and other expenses. 任何组织或者个人不得贪污、挪用、私分、截留、拖欠征收补偿费等费用。
Article 244 The state provides special protection for arable land, strictly restricts the repurposing of farmland as land for construction, and controls the total amount of land for construction. No land owned by the collective may be expropriated beyond the limits of power or in violation of the procedures provided for by any law.   第二百四十四条 国家对耕地实行特殊保护,严格限制农用地转为建设用地,控制建设用地总量。不得违反法律规定的权限和程序征收集体所有的土地。
Article 245 In order to meet such urgent needs as emergency rescue, disaster relief, and epidemic containment, the immovable or movable of an organization or individual may be requisitioned within the limits of power under the procedures as provided for by laws. After use, the requisitioned immovable or movable shall be returned to the organization or individual of which/whom the immovable or movable is requisitioned. If the immovable or movable of the organization or individual is requisitioned, or if it is damaged or lost after the requisition thereof, an indemnity shall be given.   第二百四十五条 因抢险救灾、疫情防控等紧急需要,依照法律规定的权限和程序可以征用组织、个人的不动产或者动产。被征用的不动产或者动产使用后,应当返还被征用人。组织、个人的不动产或者动产被征用或者征用后毁损、灭失的,应当给予补偿。
Chapter V State Ownership, Collective Ownership and Private Ownership 

第五章 国家所有权和集体所有权、私人所有权

Article 246 The property owned by the state as provided for by laws belong to the state, that is, the whole people.   第二百四十六条 法律规定属于国家所有的财产,属于国家所有即全民所有。
The State Council exercises the ownership of state-owned property on behalf of the state, except as otherwise provided for by any law. 国有财产由国务院代表国家行使所有权。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 247 All mineral resources, waters and sea areas belong to the state.   第二百四十七条 矿藏、水流、海域属于国家所有。
Article 248 Uninhabited sea islands belong to the state, and the State Council exercises the ownership of uninhabited sea islands on behalf of the state.   第二百四十八条 无居民海岛属于国家所有,国务院代表国家行使无居民海岛所有权。
Article 249 Urban land belongs to the state. Land in rural areas and suburban areas owned by the state as provided for by laws belongs to the state.   第二百四十九条 城市的土地,属于国家所有。法律规定属于国家所有的农村和城市郊区的土地,属于国家所有。
Article 250 Natural resources such as forests, mountains, grassland, waste land, and intertidal zones belong to the state, except that they are owned collectively as provided for by laws.   第二百五十条 森林、山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂等自然资源,属于国家所有,但是法律规定属于集体所有的除外。
Article 251 The wildlife resources owned by the state as provided for by laws belong to the state.   第二百五十一条 法律规定属于国家所有的野生动植物资源,属于国家所有。
Article 252 Radio-frequency spectrum resources belong to the state.   第二百五十二条 无线电频谱资源属于国家所有。
Article 253 The cultural relics owned by the state as provided for by laws belong to the state.   第二百五十三条 法律规定属于国家所有的文物,属于国家所有。
Article 254 Assets for national defense belong to the state.   第二百五十四条 国防资产属于国家所有。
Infrastructures such as railways, highways, electric power facilities, telecommunications facilities, and oil and gas pipelines that are owned by the state as provided for by laws belong to the state. 铁路、公路、电力设施、电信设施和油气管道等基础设施,依照法律规定为国家所有的,属于国家所有。
Article 255 State organs are entitled to possess and use the immovables and movables directly under their control and to dispose of them in accordance with laws and the relevant provisions issued by the State Council.   第二百五十五条 国家机关对其直接支配的不动产和动产,享有占有、使用以及依照法律和国务院的有关规定处分的权利。
Article 256 The public institutions sponsored by the state are entitled to possess and use the immovables and movables directly under their control and to enjoy and dispose of them in accordance with laws and the relevant provisions issued by the State Council.   第二百五十六条 国家举办的事业单位对其直接支配的不动产和动产,享有占有、使用以及依照法律和国务院的有关规定收益、处分的权利。
Article 257 With respect to the enterprises invested by the state, the State Council and local people's governments shall, in accordance with the provisions of laws and administrative regulations, perform the duties of investors on behalf of the state, and enjoy the rights and interests of investors.   第二百五十七条 国家出资的企业,由国务院、地方人民政府依照法律、行政法规规定分别代表国家履行出资人职责,享有出资人权益。
Article 258 The property owned by the state shall be protected by law, and no organization or individual may embezzle, loot, privately divide, withhold, or destroy them.   第二百五十八条 国家所有的财产受法律保护,禁止任何组织或者个人侵占、哄抢、私分、截留、破坏。
Article 259 The institutions performing the duties of administration and supervision of state-owned property and their staff members shall, in accordance with the law, strengthen the administration and supervision of state-owned property, promote the value preservation and increment of state-owned property, and prevent the loss of state-owned property; and whoever abuses power or neglects duty, causing any loss of state-owned property, shall assume legal liability in accordance with the law.   第二百五十九条 履行国有财产管理、监督职责的机构及其工作人员,应当依法加强对国有财产的管理、监督,促进国有财产保值增值,防止国有财产损失;滥用职权,玩忽职守,造成国有财产损失的,应当依法承担法律责任。
Whoever, in violation of the provisions on the management of state-owned property, causes any loss of state-owned property by transferring it at a low price, privately dividing it in collusion with others, using it as security without approval or by other means in the course of enterprise restructuring, business combination or division, or affiliated transaction, among others, shall assume legal liability in accordance with the law. 违反国有财产管理规定,在企业改制、合并分立、关联交易等过程中,低价转让、合谋私分、擅自担保或者以其他方式造成国有财产损失的,应当依法承担法律责任。
Article 260 The immovables and movables owned by a collective include:   第二百六十条 集体所有的不动产和动产包括:
(1) land, forests, mountains, grassland, waste land and intertidal zones owned by the collective as provided for by laws; (一)法律规定属于集体所有的土地和森林、山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂;
(2) buildings, production facilities, and water conservancy facilities of farmland that are owned by the collective; (二)集体所有的建筑物、生产设施、农田水利设施;
(3) educational, scientific, cultural, public health, sports, and other facilities that are owned by the collective; and (三)集体所有的教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育等设施;
(4) other immovables and movables owned by the collective. (四)集体所有的其他不动产和动产。
Article 261 The immovables and movables owned by a farmers' collective belong to all the members of the collective.   第二百六十一条 农民集体所有的不动产和动产,属于本集体成员集体所有。
The following matters shall be subject to decision-making by the members of the collective under statutory procedures: 下列事项应当依照法定程序经本集体成员决定:
(1) Land contracting plan, and offering land to organizations or individuals for agricultural operations other than those belonging to the collective. (一)土地承包方案以及将土地发包给本集体以外的组织或者个人承包;
(2) Adjustment of the contracted land among the holders of a conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations. (二)个别土地承包经营权人之间承包地的调整;
(3) Measures for the use and distribution of land compensation and other expenses. (三)土地补偿费等费用的使用、分配办法;
(4) Such matters as change in the ownership of any enterprise invested by the collective. (四)集体出资的企业的所有权变动等事项;
(5) Other matters provided for by laws. (五)法律规定的其他事项。
Article 262 The ownership of collectively-owned land, forest, mountain, grassland, waste land or intertidal zone, among others, shall be exercised in accordance with the following provisions:   第二百六十二条 对于集体所有的土地和森林、山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂等,依照下列规定行使所有权:
(1) If it is owned by a farmers' collective of a village, the ownership shall be exercised by a collective economic organization or the villagers' committee of the village on behalf of the collective in accordance with the law. (一)属于村农民集体所有的,由村集体经济组织或者村民委员会依法代表集体行使所有权;
(2) If it is owned by two or more farmers' collectives of a village, the ownership shall be exercised by all the collective economic organizations or the villagers' groups of the village on behalf of the collective in accordance with the law. (二)分别属于村内两个以上农民集体所有的,由村内各该集体经济组织或者村民小组依法代表集体行使所有权;
(3) If it is owned by a farmers' collective of a township or town, the ownership shall be exercised by a collective economic organization of the township or town on behalf of the collective. (三)属于乡镇农民集体所有的,由乡镇集体经济组织代表集体行使所有权。
Article 263 An urban collective has the right to possess, use, enjoy, and dispose of any immovable or movable owned by it in accordance with the provisions of laws and administrative regulations.   第二百六十三条 城镇集体所有的不动产和动产,依照法律、行政法规的规定由本集体享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权利。
Article 264 A rural collective economic organization, villager's committee or villagers' group shall publicize the status of the property owned by the collective to the members of the collective in accordance with laws, administrative regulations, its articles of association, village rules and villagers' agreements. Members of the collective have the right to consult and duplicate the relevant materials.   第二百六十四条 农村集体经济组织或者村民委员会、村民小组应当依照法律、行政法规以及章程、村规民约向本集体成员公布集体财产的状况。集体成员有权查阅、复制相关资料。
Article 265 The property owned by a collective shall be protected by law, and no organization or individual may encroach upon, loot, privately divide, or destroy such property.   第二百六十五条 集体所有的财产受法律保护,禁止任何组织或者个人侵占、哄抢、私分、破坏。
Where a decision made by a rural collective economic organization, or a villagers' committee or by the person in charge thereof infringes upon the lawful rights and interests of any member of the collective, such a member may request the people's court to revoke such a decision. 农村集体经济组织、村民委员会或者其负责人作出的决定侵害集体成员合法权益的,受侵害的集体成员可以请求人民法院予以撤销。
Article 266 An individual shall have the ownership of his or her lawfully earned income, buildings, articles for daily use, means of production, raw materials, and other immovables and movables.   第二百六十六条 私人对其合法的收入、房屋、生活用品、生产工具、原材料等不动产和动产享有所有权。
Article 267 An individual's lawful property shall be protected by law, and no organization or individual may encroach upon, loot, or destroy it.   第二百六十七条 私人的合法财产受法律保护,禁止任何组织或者个人侵占、哄抢、破坏。
Article 268 The state, any collective or individual may, in accordance with the law, make investment to form a limited liability company, a joint stock company, or any other enterprise. If the immovable or movable owned by the state, the collective or an individual is invested in an enterprise, the investor shall enjoy such rights as obtaining asset returns, making major decisions and selecting business managers, and shall perform duties as agreed upon or in proportion to the amount of investment.   第二百六十八条 国家、集体和私人依法可以出资设立有限责任公司、股份有限公司或者其他企业。国家、集体和私人所有的不动产或者动产投到企业的,由出资人按照约定或者出资比例享有资产收益、重大决策以及选择经营管理者等权利并履行义务。
Article 269 A for-profit legal person has the right to possess, use, enjoy, and dispose of its immovables and movables in accordance with laws and administrative regulations as well as its bylaws.   第二百六十九条 营利法人对其不动产和动产依照法律、行政法规以及章程享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权利。
The rights enjoyed by a legal person other than for-profit legal persons over its immovables and movables shall be governed by the provisions of relevant laws and administrative regulations as well as its bylaws. 营利法人以外的法人,对其不动产和动产的权利,适用有关法律、行政法规以及章程的规定。
Article 270 The immovables and movables legally owned by social organization legal persons and legal persons making donations shall be protected by law.   第二百七十条 社会团体法人、捐助法人依法所有的不动产和动产,受法律保护。
Chapter VI Owners' Separate Ownership in a Building 

第六章 业主的建筑物区分所有权

Article 271 The owners have the ownership of private portions within a building, such as housing units and commercial units, and have the right to co-own and jointly manage the common portions other than the private portions.   第二百七十一条 业主对建筑物内的住宅、经营性用房等专有部分享有所有权,对专有部分以外的共有部分享有共有和共同管理的权利。
Article 272 The owners have the right to possess, use, enjoy, and dispose of the private portions of a building. No owner may, in exercising rights, endanger the safety of the building or infringe upon the lawful rights and interests of any other owner.   第二百七十二条 业主对其建筑物专有部分享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权利。业主行使权利不得危及建筑物的安全,不得损害其他业主的合法权益。
Article 273 An owner shall enjoy the rights and fulfill the obligations over the common portions other than the private portions of a building, and may not refuse to fulfill the obligations on the excuse of waiver of rights.   第二百七十三条 业主对建筑物专有部分以外的共有部分,享有权利,承担义务;不得以放弃权利为由不履行义务。
When an owner transfers its housing unit or commercial unit within a building, the owner's right to co-own and jointly manage the common portions shall be transferred along with it. 业主转让建筑物内的住宅、经营性用房,其对共有部分享有的共有和共同管理的权利一并转让。
Article 274 The roads within the zoning lot shall be co-owned by owners, except those belonging in the public roads of a city or town. The green spaces within the zoning lot shall be co-owned by owners, except those belonging in the public green spaces of a city or town or, as it is clearly indicated, belonging to individuals. Other public spaces, public facilities and buildings used for property management services within the zoning lot shall be co-owned by owners.   第二百七十四条 建筑区划内的道路,属于业主共有,但是属于城镇公共道路的除外。建筑区划内的绿地,属于业主共有,但是属于城镇公共绿地或者明示属于个人的除外。建筑区划内的其他公共场所、公用设施和物业服务用房,属于业主共有。
Article 275 In the zoning lot, the attribution of the planned parking spaces and garages shall be agreed upon by the parties by such means as sale, additional gift, and lease.   第二百七十五条 建筑区划内,规划用于停放汽车的车位、车库的归属,由当事人通过出售、附赠或者出租等方式约定。
The roads or other spaces co-owned by the owners, which are used for parking vehicles, shall belong to all the owners. 占用业主共有的道路或者其他场地用于停放汽车的车位,属于业主共有。
Article 276 In the zoning lot, the planned parking spaces and garages shall first be used to meet the needs of the owners.   第二百七十六条 建筑区划内,规划用于停放汽车的车位、车库应当首先满足业主的需要。
Article 277 The owners may establish an owners' assembly to elect an owners' committee. The specific conditions and procedures for the establishment of the owners' assembly and owners' committee shall be governed by the provisions of laws and regulations.   第二百七十七条 业主可以设立业主大会,选举业主委员会。业主大会、业主委员会成立的具体条件和程序,依照法律、法规的规定。
The relevant departments of local people's governments and neighborhood committees shall provide guidance and assistance for the establishment of the owners' assembly and the election of the owners' committee. 地方人民政府有关部门、居民委员会应当对设立业主大会和选举业主委员会给予指导和协助。
Article 278 The following matters shall be decided on by all the owners:   第二百七十八条 下列事项由业主共同决定:
(1) Developing and amending the rules of procedures of the owners' assembly. (一)制定和修改业主大会议事规则;
(2) Developing and amending management rules and agreements. (二)制定和修改管理规约;
(3) Electing the owners' committee or replacing members of the owners' committee. (三)选举业主委员会或者更换业主委员会成员;
(4) Selecting or dismissing the property management service enterprise or any other manager. (四)选聘和解聘物业服务企业或者其他管理人;
(5) Using funds for the maintenance of a building and its ancillary facilities. (五)使用建筑物及其附属设施的维修资金;
(6) Raising funds for the maintenance of a building and its ancillary facilities. (六)筹集建筑物及其附属设施的维修资金;
(7) Transforming and reconstructing a building and its ancillary facilities. (七)改建、重建建筑物及其附属设施;
(8) Changing the use of common portions or using common portions to conduct business activities. (八)改变共有部分的用途或者利用共有部分从事经营活动;
(7) Other major matters relating to co-ownership and joint management rights. (九)有关共有和共同管理权利的其他重大事项。
The matters to be decided on by all the owners shall be voted on by two-thirds or more of all the owners, provided that the area of private portions owned by such owners accounts for two-thirds or more of the total area. The decisions on the matters set out in subparagraphs (6) through (8) of the preceding paragraph shall be subject to the consent of three quarters or more of the owners participating in the voting, provided that the area of private portions owned by such owners accounts for three quarters or more of the total area. The decisions on other matters set out in the preceding paragraph shall be subject to the consent of over a half of the owners participating in the voting, provided that the area of private portions owned by such owners accounts for over a half of the total area. 业主共同决定事项,应当由专有部分面积占比三分之二以上的业主且人数占比三分之二以上的业主参与表决。决定前款第六项至第八项规定的事项,应当经参与表决专有部分面积四分之三以上的业主且参与表决人数四分之三以上的业主同意。决定前款其他事项,应当经参与表决专有部分面积过半数的业主且参与表决人数过半数的业主同意。
Article 279 No owner may change a housing unit into a commercial unit in violation of any law, regulation or management rule or agreement. If an owner intends to change a housing unit into a commercial unit, the owner shall, in addition to observing laws, regulations and management rules and agreements, obtain the consensus of the owners that have an interest in the change.   第二百七十九条 业主不得违反法律、法规以及管理规约,将住宅改变为经营性用房。业主将住宅改变为经营性用房的,除遵守法律、法规以及管理规约外,应当经有利害关系的业主一致同意。
Article 280 The decisions made by an owners' assembly or an owners' committee are legally binding upon all the owners.   第二百八十条 业主大会或者业主委员会的决定,对业主具有法律约束力。
Where any decision made by the owners' assembly or the owners' committee infringes upon the lawful rights and interests of any owner, such an owner may request a people's court to revoke the decision. 业主大会或者业主委员会作出的决定侵害业主合法权益的,受侵害的业主可以请求人民法院予以撤销。
Article 281 The funds for the maintenance of a building and its ancillary facilities are co-owned by owners, which, upon their common decision, may be used for maintaining, renovating and reconstructing the common portions such as elevators, roofs, outer walls, and barrier-free facilities. The information on the raising and use of funds for the maintenance of a building and its ancillary facilities shall be published on a periodical basis.   第二百八十一条 建筑物及其附属设施的维修资金,属于业主共有。经业主共同决定,可以用于电梯、屋顶、外墙、无障碍设施等共有部分的维修、更新和改造。建筑物及其附属设施的维修资金的筹集、使用情况应当定期公布。
Where a building and its ancillary facilities need to be repaired in case of emergency, the owners' assembly or the owners' committee may apply for the use of funds for the maintenance of a building and its ancillary facilities in accordance with the law. 紧急情况下需要维修建筑物及其附属设施的,业主大会或者业主委员会可以依法申请使用建筑物及其附属设施的维修资金。
Article 282 The income derived from the use of common portions of the owners by the project owner, property management service enterprise or any other manager, among others, after the deduction of reasonable costs, shall belong to all the owners.   第二百八十二条 建设单位、物业服务企业或者其他管理人等利用业主的共有部分产生的收入,在扣除合理成本之后,属于业主共有。
Article 283 Where there is an agreement on such matters as the apportioning of expenses for a building and its ancillary facilities and the distribution of proceeds therefrom, such an agreement shall prevail; in the absence of such an agreement or if such an agreement is ambiguous, such matters shall be determined based on the proportion of the area of the owners' private portions to the total area of the building.   第二百八十三条 建筑物及其附属设施的费用分摊、收益分配等事项,有约定的,按照约定;没有约定或者约定不明确的,按照业主专有部分面积所占比例确定。
Article 284 The owners may manage the building and its ancillary facilities by themselves, or entrust a property management service enterprise or any other manager to do so.   第二百八十四条 业主可以自行管理建筑物及其附属设施,也可以委托物业服务企业或者其他管理人管理。
The owners have the right to legally replace the property management service enterprise or any other manager retained by the project owner. 对建设单位聘请的物业服务企业或者其他管理人,业主有权依法更换。
Article 285 The property management service enterprise or any other manager shall, as authorized by the owners, manage the building and its ancillary facilities within the zoning lot according to the provisions of Book Three of this Code governing property management service contracts, accept the supervision from the owners, and give replies to the inquiries made by the owners on property management services in a timely manner.   第二百八十五条 物业服务企业或者其他管理人根据业主的委托,依照本法第三编有关物业服务合同的规定管理建筑区划内的建筑物及其附属设施,接受业主的监督,并及时答复业主对物业服务情况提出的询问。
The property management service enterprise or any other manager shall execute the emergency response measures and other management measures legally taken by the government, and actively cooperate in the relevant work. 物业服务企业或者其他管理人应当执行政府依法实施的应急处置措施和其他管理措施,积极配合开展相关工作。
Article 286 The owners shall abide by laws, regulations and management rules and agreements, and their relevant acts shall comply with the requirements for the conservation of resources and the protection of ecology and environment. The owners shall, in accordance with the law, cooperate with the property management service enterprise or any other manager in the execution of emergency response measures and other management measures legally taken by the government.   第二百八十六条 业主应当遵守法律、法规以及管理规约,相关行为应当符合节约资源、保护生态环境的要求。对于物业服务企业或者其他管理人执行政府依法实施的应急处置措施和其他管理措施,业主应当依法予以配合。
With respect to any act that damages the lawful rights and interests of any other person, such as discarding wastes at will, discharging pollutants, making noises, feeding animals in violation of the relevant provisions, illegally building shelters, occupying passages, and refusing to pay property management fees, the owners' assembly or the owners' committee has the right to request the actor to cease the infringement, remove the obstacles, eliminate the danger, restore to the original conditions, and compensate for the losses in accordance with the relevant laws, regulations, and management rules and agreements. 业主大会或者业主委员会,对任意弃置垃圾、排放污染物或者噪声、违反规定饲养动物、违章搭建、侵占通道、拒付物业费等损害他人合法权益的行为,有权依照法律、法规以及管理规约,请求行为人停止侵害、排除妨碍、消除危险、恢复原状、赔偿损失。
Where the owner or any actor refuses to fulfill relevant obligations, the relevant party may file a report or complaint with the relevant administrative department, and the relevant administrative department shall handle it in accordance with the law. 业主或者其他行为人拒不履行相关义务的,有关当事人可以向有关行政主管部门报告或者投诉,有关行政主管部门应当依法处理。
Article 287 An owner whose lawful rights and interests are infringed upon by the project owner, a property management service enterprise, any other manager, or any other owner has the right to request the latter to assume civil liability.   第二百八十七条 业主对建设单位、物业服务企业或者其他管理人以及其他业主侵害自己合法权益的行为,有权请求其承担民事责任。
Chapter VII Neighboring Relations 

第七章 相邻关系

Article 288 The right holders of neighboring immovables shall properly handle their neighboring relations under the principles of being conducive to production, convenience for daily life, unity and mutual assistance, and fairness and rationality.   第二百八十八条 不动产的相邻权利人应当按照有利生产、方便生活、团结互助、公平合理的原则,正确处理相邻关系。
Article 289 Where the handling of neighboring relations is provided for any by law or regulation, the provisions thereof shall prevail; or if the law or regulation is silent, such relations may be handled according to local customs.   第二百八十九条 法律、法规对处理相邻关系有规定的,依照其规定;法律、法规没有规定的,可以按照当地习惯。
Article 290 The right holder of an immovable shall provide necessary convenience for water use and drainage by the right holder of the neighboring immovable.   第二百九十条 不动产权利人应当为相邻权利人用水、排水提供必要的便利。
Natural running water shall be rationally used by the right holders of neighboring immovables. The natural flow shall be observed with respect to the drainage of natural running water. 对自然流水的利用,应当在不动产的相邻权利人之间合理分配。对自然流水的排放,应当尊重自然流向。
Article 291 The right holder of an immovable shall provide necessary convenience if the right holder of a neighboring immovable has to use the land thereof for passage or any other purpose.   第二百九十一条 不动产权利人对相邻权利人因通行等必须利用其土地的,应当提供必要的便利。
Article 292 Where the right holder of an immovable has to use the neighboring land or building for constructing or maintaining a building, or laying wires, cables, water pipes, heating pipelines, or fuel gas pipelines, among others, the right holder of such land or building shall provide necessary convenience.   第二百九十二条 不动产权利人因建造、修缮建筑物以及铺设电线、电缆、水管、暖气和燃气管线等必须利用相邻土地、建筑物的,该土地、建筑物的权利人应当提供必要的便利。
Article 293 In the construction of a building, the relevant engineering construction standards of the state shall not be violated, and the ventilation, light and sunshine of the neighboring building shall not be interfered with.   第二百九十三条 建造建筑物,不得违反国家有关工程建设标准,不得妨碍相邻建筑物的通风、采光和日照。
Article 294 The right holder of an immovable shall not, in violation of the provisions issued by the state, discard solid waste, discharge air, water, or soil pollutants, make noise, produce optical or electromagnetic radiation, or discharge other hazardous substances.   第二百九十四条 不动产权利人不得违反国家规定弃置固体废物,排放大气污染物、水污染物、土壤污染物、噪声、光辐射、电磁辐射等有害物质。
Article 295 The right holder of an immovable shall not endanger the safety of the neighboring immovable when excavating land, constructing a building, laying pipelines, or installing equipment, among others.   第二百九十五条 不动产权利人挖掘土地、建造建筑物、铺设管线以及安装设备等,不得危及相邻不动产的安全。
Article 296 Where the right holder of an immovable uses the neighboring immovable for water use, drainage, passage, laying pipelines, or any other purpose, the right holder shall do the best to avoid causing any damage to the right holder of the neighboring immovable.   第二百九十六条 不动产权利人因用水、排水、通行、铺设管线等利用相邻不动产的,应当尽量避免对相邻的不动产权利人造成损害。
Chapter VIII Co-ownership 

第八章 共有

Article 297 Immovables or movables may be co-owned by two or more organizations or individuals. Co-ownership consists of divided co-ownership and undivided co-ownership.   第二百九十七条 不动产或者动产可以由两个以上组织、个人共有。共有包括按份共有和共同共有。
Article 298 Co-owners in divided co-ownership have the ownership of a co-owned immovable or movable in proportion to their shares.   第二百九十八条 按份共有人对共有的不动产或者动产按照其份额享有所有权。
Article 299 Co-owners in undivided co-ownership jointly enjoy the ownership of a co-owned immovable or movable.   第二百九十九条 共同共有人对共有的不动产或者动产共同享有所有权。
Article 300 Co-owners shall manage the co-owned immovable or movable as agreed upon; in the absence of such an agreement or if such an agreement is ambiguous, all co-owners have the management rights and obligations.   第三百条 共有人按照约定管理共有的不动产或者动产;没有约定或者约定不明确的,各共有人都有管理的权利和义务。
Article 301 The disposal or major repair, or modification of nature or use of a co-owned immovable or movable shall be subject to the consent of co-owners in divided co-ownership holding two-thirds or more of shares or all co-owners in undivided co-ownership, unless it is otherwise agreed upon by the co-owners.   第三百零一条 处分共有的不动产或者动产以及对共有的不动产或者动产作重大修缮、变更性质或者用途的,应当经占份额三分之二以上的按份共有人或者全体共同共有人同意,但是共有人之间另有约定的除外。
Article 302 Where the co-owners have agreed upon the fees for managing the co-owned property and other expenses, such an agreement shall apply; in the absence of such an agreement or if such an agreement is ambiguous, such expenses shall be borne by co-owners in divided co-ownership in proportion to their shares, or be jointly borne by co-owners in undivided co-ownership.   第三百零二条 共有人对共有物的管理费用以及其他负担,有约定的,按照其约定;没有约定或者约定不明确的,按份共有人按照其份额负担,共同共有人共同负担。
Article 303 Where the co-owners have agreed not to partition the co-owned immovable or movable in order to maintain the co-ownership, such an agreement shall prevail; however, a co-owner that has any material reason for partition may request partition; in the absence of such an agreement or if the agreement is ambiguous, a co-owner in divided ownership may request partition at any time, while a co-owner in undivided ownership may request partition only if the basis for co-ownership has ceased to exist or partition is justified by any material reason. If the partition causes any damage to any other co-owner, compensation shall be made.   第三百零三条 共有人约定不得分割共有的不动产或者动产,以维持共有关系的,应当按照约定,但是共有人有重大理由需要分割的,可以请求分割;没有约定或者约定不明确的,按份共有人可以随时请求分割,共同共有人在共有的基础丧失或者有重大理由需要分割时可以请求分割。因分割造成其他共有人损害的,应当给予赔偿。
Article 304 Co-owners may determine the way of partition through consultation. If no agreement is reached and the co-owned immovable or movable may be partitioned without reducing its value, the property shall be partitioned; if it is difficult to partition the property or the partition will decrease its value, the proceeds obtained from the conversion into money, auction or sell-off of the immovable or movable shall be distributed.   第三百零四条 共有人可以协商确定分割方式。达不成协议,共有的不动产或者动产可以分割且不会因分割减损价值的,应当对实物予以分割;难以分割或者因分割会减损价值的,应当对折价或者拍卖、变卖取得的价款予以分割。
Where the immovable or movable obtained by a co-owner through partition has any defect, other co-owners shall share the losses. 共有人分割所得的不动产或者动产有瑕疵的,其他共有人应当分担损失。
Article 305 A co-owner in divided co-ownership may transfer its share of the co-owned immovable or movable. Other co-owners have the preemptive right under equal conditions.   第三百零五条 按份共有人可以转让其享有的共有的不动产或者动产份额。其他共有人在同等条件下享有优先购买的权利。
Article 306 A co-owner in divided co-ownership that transfers its share of a co-owned immovable or movable shall notify other co-owners of the conditions for transfer in a timely manner. Other co-owners shall exercise the preemptive right within a reasonable period.   第三百零六条 按份共有人转让其享有的共有的不动产或者动产份额的,应当将转让条件及时通知其他共有人。其他共有人应当在合理期限内行使优先购买权。
Where two or more other co-owners claim the exercise of the preemptive right, they shall determine their respective purchase ratio through consultation; if such consultation fails, they shall exercise the preemptive right in proportion to their respective shares at the time of transfer. 两个以上其他共有人主张行使优先购买权的,协商确定各自的购买比例;协商不成的,按照转让时各自的共有份额比例行使优先购买权。
Article 307 In external relations, the co-owners shall have joint and several rights and obligations arising from the co-owned immovable or movable, unless it is otherwise provided for by any law or a third party knows that the co-owners do not have joint and several rights and obligations; in internal relations among the co-owners, unless it is otherwise agreed upon by the co-owners, the co-owners in divided co-ownership shall have joint and several rights and obligations in proportion to their shares, while the co-owners in undivided ownership shall jointly have rights and obligations. A co-owner in divided ownership that pays the debt in excess of its share has the right to recover the overpaid amount from other co-owners.   第三百零七条 因共有的不动产或者动产产生的债权债务,在对外关系上,共有人享有连带债权、承担连带债务,但是法律另有规定或者第三人知道共有人不具有连带债权债务关系的除外;在共有人内部关系上,除共有人另有约定外,按份共有人按照份额享有债权、承担债务,共同共有人共同享有债权、承担债务。偿还债务超过自己应当承担份额的按份共有人,有权向其他共有人追偿。
Article 308 Where the co-owners fail to agree that the co-owned immovable or movable is subject to divided co-ownership or undivided co-ownership, or such an agreement is ambiguous, the ownership shall be deemed as divided ownership, unless the co-owners are of a family or have other relations.   第三百零八条 共有人对共有的不动产或者动产没有约定为按份共有或者共同共有,或者约定不明确的,除共有人具有家庭关系等外,视为按份共有。
Article 309 Where the co-owners in divided co-ownership fail to agree on the shares of the co-owned immovable or movable or such an agreement is ambiguous, the shares shall be determined based on their amount of investment. If the amount of investment cannot be determined, it shall be deemed that they have equal shares.   第三百零九条 按份共有人对共有的不动产或者动产享有的份额,没有约定或者约定不明确的,按照出资额确定;不能确定出资额的,视为等额享有。
Article 310 The provisions of this Chapter shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to usufruct or security interest enjoyed by two or more organizations or individuals.   第三百一十条 两个以上组织、个人共同享有用益物权、担保物权的,参照适用本章的有关规定。
Chapter IX Special Provisions on the Obtainment of Ownership 

第九章 所有权取得的特别规定

Article 311 Where a person transfers to the transferee an immovable or movable which such a person has no right to dispose of, the owner has the right to recover the immovable or movable; except as otherwise provided for by any law, the transferee shall obtain the ownership of the immovable or movable under any of the following circumstances:   第三百一十一条 无处分权人将不动产或者动产转让给受让人的,所有权人有权追回;除法律另有规定外,符合下列情形的,受让人取得该不动产或者动产的所有权:
(1) The transferee is in good faith when accepting the transferred immovable or movable. (一)受让人受让该不动产或者动产时是善意;
(2) The transfer is made at a reasonable price. (二)以合理的价格转让;
(3) The transferred immovable or movable has been registered as provided for by laws, or has been delivered to the transferee if no registration is required. (三)转让的不动产或者动产依照法律规定应当登记的已经登记,不需要登记的已经交付给受让人。
Where the transferee obtains the ownership of the immovable or movable in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the original owner has the right to claim compensation for damages from the person that has no right to dispose of the immovable or movable. 受让人依据前款规定取得不动产或者动产的所有权的,原所有权人有权向无处分权人请求损害赔偿。
The preceding two paragraphs shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to a party's obtainment of any other real right in good faith. 当事人善意取得其他物权的,参照适用前两款规定。
Article 312 The owner or any other right holder has the right to recover lost property. If the lost property is possessed by any other person through transfer, the holder has the right to claim compensation for damages from the person that has no right to dispose of the lost property, or request the transferee to return the original property within two years from the date when he knows or should have known the transferee; however, if the lost property is purchased by the transferee through auction or from a qualified trader, the right holder shall, when requesting the transferee to return the original property, compensate the transferee for the expenses the latter has paid for the property. After compensating the transferee for the expenses the latter has paid for the property, the holder has the right to recover the amount from the person that has no right to dispose of the property.   第三百一十二条 所有权人或者其他权利人有权追回遗失物。该遗失物通过转让被他人占有的,权利人有权向无处分权人请求损害赔偿,或者自知道或者应当知道受让人之日起二年内向受让人请求返还原物;但是,受让人通过拍卖或者向具有经营资格的经营者购得该遗失物的,权利人请求返还原物时应当支付受让人所付的费用。权利人向受让人支付所付费用后,有权向无处分权人追偿。
Article 313 After the transferee in good faith obtains a movable, the original rights on the movable shall be extinguished, unless the transferee in good faith knows or should have known such rights at the time of transfer.   第三百一十三条 善意受让人取得动产后,该动产上的原有权利消灭。但是,善意受让人在受让时知道或者应当知道该权利的除外。
Article 314 A person who finds the lost property shall return it to the right holder. The finder shall, in a timely manner, notify the right holder to take the property back, or deliver it to the public security organ or any other relevant department.   第三百一十四条 拾得遗失物,应当返还权利人。拾得人应当及时通知权利人领取,或者送交公安等有关部门。
Article 315 Where the relevant department that receives the found property knows the right holder of the property, it shall, in a timely manner, notify the right holder to take the property back; otherwise, it shall publish a notice on the finding of the lost property in a timely manner.   第三百一十五条 有关部门收到遗失物,知道权利人的,应当及时通知其领取;不知道的,应当及时发布招领公告。
Article 316 Lost property shall be properly kept by the finder before it is handed over to the relevant department and by the relevant department before it is taken back. Whoever causes any damage to or loss of the lost property intentionally or for gross negligence shall assume the civil liability.   第三百一十六条 拾得人在遗失物送交有关部门前,有关部门在遗失物被领取前,应当妥善保管遗失物。因故意或者重大过失致使遗失物毁损、灭失的,应当承担民事责任。
Article 317 The right holder shall, when taking back the found property, pay to the finder or the relevant department the necessary expenses such as the cost for the safekeeping of the property.   第三百一十七条 权利人领取遗失物时,应当向拾得人或者有关部门支付保管遗失物等支出的必要费用。
The right holder that offers a reward to find the lost property shall fulfill his or her obligation as promised when taking the property back. 权利人悬赏寻找遗失物的,领取遗失物时应当按照承诺履行义务。
A finder that illegally possesses the found property shall have no right to claim the expenses paid for the safekeeping of the property, among others, or to request the right holder to fulfill the obligation as promised. 拾得人侵占遗失物的,无权请求保管遗失物等支出的费用,也无权请求权利人按照承诺履行义务。
Article 318 Lost property shall belong to the state if it is not claimed within one year from the date when the notice of the finding of the lost property is published.   第三百一十八条 遗失物自发布招领公告之日起一年内无人认领的,归国家所有。
Article 319 The provisions on the finding of lost property shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to the finding of drifting property, or buried or hidden property, except as otherwise provided for by any law.   第三百一十九条 拾得漂流物、发现埋藏物或者隐藏物的,参照适用拾得遗失物的有关规定。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 320 Where the principal property is transferred, the accessory property shall be transferred along with it, except as otherwise agreed by the parties.   第三百二十条 主物转让的,从物随主物转让,但是当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 321 Natural fruits shall be obtained by the owner; if there are both the owner and the usufructuary, natural fruits shall be obtained by the usufructuary. If it is otherwise agreed upon by the parties, their agreement shall prevail.   第三百二十一条 天然孳息,由所有权人取得;既有所有权人又有用益物权人的,由用益物权人取得。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。
Where the parties have agreed on legal fruits, the fruits shall be obtained as agreed upon; in the absence of such an agreement or if such an agreement is ambiguous, the fruits shall be obtained according to the usage of trade. 法定孳息,当事人有约定的,按照约定取得;没有约定或者约定不明确的,按照交易习惯取得。
Article 322 Where there is an agreement on the attribution of the property arising from processing, attachment, or mixing, such an agreement shall prevail; in the absence of such an agreement or if such an agreement is ambiguous, the ownership shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of laws; if it is not provided for by laws, the ownership shall be determined under the principles of maximum use of the property and protection of innocent parties. If one party's fault or the determination of attribution of the property has caused any damage to the other party, compensation shall be made.   第三百二十二条 因加工、附合、混合而产生的物的归属,有约定的,按照约定;没有约定或者约定不明确的,依照法律规定;法律没有规定的,按照充分发挥物的效用以及保护无过错当事人的原则确定。因一方当事人的过错或者确定物的归属造成另一方当事人损害的,应当给予赔偿或者补偿。
Title Three Usufruct 

第三分编 用益物权

Chapter X General Rules 

第十章 一般规定

Article 323 A usufructuary shall, in accordance with the law, have the right to possess, use and enjoy the immovable or movable owned by any other person.   第三百二十三条 用益物权人对他人所有的不动产或者动产,依法享有占有、使用和收益的权利。
Article 324 An organization or individual may, in accordance with the law, possess, use and enjoy the natural resources that are owned by the state, or owned by the state but are used by the collective, or owned by the collective as provided for by laws.   第三百二十四条 国家所有或者国家所有由集体使用以及法律规定属于集体所有的自然资源,组织、个人依法可以占有、使用和收益。
Article 325 The state implements the rules for the compensated use of natural resources, except as otherwise provided for by any law.   第三百二十五条 国家实行自然资源有偿使用制度,但是法律另有规定的除外。
Article 326 A usufructuary exercising rights shall comply with the provisions of laws on the protection, reasonable exploitation and utilization of resources, and the protection of ecology and environment. The owner shall not interfere with the exercise of rights by the usufrustuary.   第三百二十六条 用益物权人行使权利,应当遵守法律有关保护和合理开发利用资源、保护生态环境的规定。所有权人不得干涉用益物权人行使权利。
Article 327 Where an immovable or movable is expropriated or requisitioned, which results in the extinction of the usufruct or affects the use of usufruct, the usufructuary has the right to compensation according to Articles 243 and 245 of this Code.   第三百二十七条 因不动产或者动产被征收、征用致使用益物权消灭或者影响用益物权行使的,用益物权人有权依据本法第二百四十三条、第二百四十五条的规定获得相应补偿。
Article 328 The right to use sea areas that is obtained in accordance with law shall be protected by law.   第三百二十八条 依法取得的海域使用权受法律保护。
Article 329 The mineral exploration right, the mining right, the water intake right and the right to use water areas or intertidal zones for aquaculture or fishery, which are obtained in accordance with the law, shall be protected by law.   第三百二十九条 依法取得的探矿权、采矿权、取水权和使用水域、滩涂从事养殖、捕捞的权利受法律保护。
Chapter XI Conventional Usufruct on Rural Land for Agricultural Operations 

第十一章 土地承包经营权

Article 330 Rural collective economic organizations shall implement the two-level management system characterized by the combination of centralized operation with decentralized operation on the basis of household contracted management.   第三百三十条 农村集体经济组织实行家庭承包经营为基础、统分结合的双层经营体制。
The system of land contracting for agricultural operations shall, in accordance with the law, be applied to arable land, forest land, grassland and other land for agricultural use, which are owned by farmers collectively or owned by the state but are used by farmers collectively. 农民集体所有和国家所有由农民集体使用的耕地、林地、草地以及其他用于农业的土地,依法实行土地承包经营制度。
Article 331 The holder of a conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations shall, in accordance with the law, have the right to possess, use, and enjoy the arable land, forest land, grassland, among others, which are under their contracting for agricultural operations, and shall have the right to engage in agricultural production, including but not limited to crop cultivation, forestry and animal husbandry.   第三百三十一条 土地承包经营权人依法对其承包经营的耕地、林地、草地等享有占有、使用和收益的权利,有权从事种植业、林业、畜牧业等农业生产。
Article 332 The term of a usufruct on arable land shall be 30 years. The term of a usufruct on grassland shall range from 30 years to 50 years. The term of a usufruct on forest land shall range from 30 years and 70 years.   第三百三十二条 耕地的承包期为三十年。草地的承包期为三十年至五十年。林地的承包期为三十年至七十年。
The term of a usufruct set out in the preceding paragraph may be renewed upon expiration by the holder of a conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations in accordance with the provisions of laws on the contracting of rural land. 前款规定的承包期限届满,由土地承包经营权人依照农村土地承包的法律规定继续承包。
Article 333 A conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations shall be created from the date when the contract for the usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations becomes valid.   第三百三十三条 土地承包经营权自土地承包经营权合同生效时设立。
The registration authority shall issue to the holder of a conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations the certificate of a conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations, a certificate of a forest right, or any other certificate for such a purpose, and register it in archives to confirm the conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations. 登记机构应当向土地承包经营权人发放土地承包经营权证、林权证等证书,并登记造册,确认土地承包经营权。
Article 334 The holder of a conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations shall have the right to exchange and transfer the conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations in accordance with the provisions of laws. No contracted land may be used for non-agricultural construction without approval in accordance with the law.   第三百三十四条 土地承包经营权人依照法律规定,有权将土地承包经营权互换、转让。未经依法批准,不得将承包地用于非农建设。
Article 335 In case of the exchange or transfer of the conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations, the party may apply to the registration authority for registration; and if it is not registered, it shall not be set up against a bona fide third party.   第三百三十五条 土地承包经营权互换、转让的,当事人可以向登记机构申请登记;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。
Article 336 During the term of a usufruct, the landowner shall not adjust the contracted land.   第三百三十六条 承包期内发包人不得调整承包地。
When the contracted arable land or grassland needs to be adjusted appropriately due to special circumstances, such as serious damage to the contracted land or grassland caused by a natural disaster, the matter shall be handled in accordance with the provisions of laws on the contracting of rural land. 因自然灾害严重毁损承包地等特殊情形,需要适当调整承包的耕地和草地的,应当依照农村土地承包的法律规定办理。
Article 337 During the term of a usufruct, the landowner may not recover the contracted land, except as otherwise provided for by any law.   第三百三十七条 承包期内发包人不得收回承包地。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 338 Where the contracted land is expropriated, the holder of a conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations has the right to compensation in accordance with Article 243 of this Code.   第三百三十八条 承包地被征收的,土地承包经营权人有权依据本法第二百四十三条的规定获得相应补偿。
Article 339 The holder of a conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations may, at its own discretion, circulate the land operating right to others by leasing, contribution for shares, or other means in accordance with the law.   第三百三十九条 土地承包经营权人可以自主决定依法采取出租、入股或者其他方式向他人流转土地经营权。
Article 340 The holder of the land operating right has the right to occupy rural land, carry out agricultural production and operation independently, and obtain proceeds, during the period as agreed upon in the contract.   第三百四十条 土地经营权人有权在合同约定的期限内占有农村土地,自主开展农业生产经营并取得收益。
Article 341 The land operating right with a circulation period of five years or more shall be created when the circulation contract becomes valid. A party may apply to the registration authority for the registration of the land operating right; and if it is not registered, it shall not be set up against a bona fide third party.   第三百四十一条 流转期限为五年以上的土地经营权,自流转合同生效时设立。当事人可以向登记机构申请土地经营权登记;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。
Article 342 Where rural land is contracted by bidding, auction, open consultation, or other means, and the certificate of ownership has been obtained upon registration in accordance with the law, the land operating right may be legally circulated by leasing, contribution for shares, mortgage, or other means.   第三百四十二条 通过招标、拍卖、公开协商等方式承包农村土地,经依法登记取得权属证书的,可以依法采取出租、入股、抵押或者其他方式流转土地经营权。
Article 343 The relevant provisions of this Book shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to the contracting of land for agricultural use owned by the state for agricultural operations.   第三百四十三条 国家所有的农用地实行承包经营的,参照适用本编的有关规定。
Chapter XII Right to Use Land for Construction 

第十二章 建设用地使用权

Article 344 The holder of the right to use land for construction shall, in accordance with the law, have the right to possess, use and enjoy the land owned by the state, and shall have the right to use such land to construct buildings, structures and their ancillary facilities.   第三百四十四条 建设用地使用权人依法对国家所有的土地享有占有、使用和收益的权利,有权利用该土地建造建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施。
Article 345 The right to use land for construction may be created separately on the surface of, above or under the ground.   第三百四十五条 建设用地使用权可以在土地的地表、地上或者地下分别设立。
Article 346 The right to use land for construction shall be created in compliance with the requirements for the conservation of resources and protection of ecological environment, and the provisions of laws and administrative regulations on land use, and shall not damage the usufruct that has already been created.   第三百四十六条 设立建设用地使用权,应当符合节约资源、保护生态环境的要求,遵守法律、行政法规关于土地用途的规定,不得损害已经设立的用益物权。
Article 347 The right to use land for construction may be created by assignment, allocation, or other means.   第三百四十七条 设立建设用地使用权,可以采取出让或者划拨等方式。
Where land is used for industrial, commercial, tourist, or entertaining purposes, constructing commercial residential buildings, or for other profit-making purposes, or two or more persons are willing to use the same tract of land, the right to use land for construction shall be assigned through bidding, auction, or other open bidding methods. 工业、商业、旅游、娱乐和商品住宅等经营性用地以及同一土地有两个以上意向用地者的,应当采取招标、拍卖等公开竞价的方式出让。
The creation of the right to use land for construction by means of allocation shall be strictly controlled. 严格限制以划拨方式设立建设用地使用权。
Article 348 Where the right to use land for construction is created through bidding, auction, agreement, or by other means of assignment, the parties shall enter into a written contract on the assignment of the right to use land for construction.   第三百四十八条 通过招标、拍卖、协议等出让方式设立建设用地使用权的,当事人应当采用书面形式订立建设用地使用权出让合同。
The contract on the assignment of the right to use land for construction shall generally include the following clauses: 建设用地使用权出让合同一般包括下列条款:
(1) Names and domiciles of the parties. (一)当事人的名称和住所;
(2) The boundary and area, among others, of the land. (二)土地界址、面积等;
(3) The space occupied by buildings, structures and their ancillary facilities. (三)建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施占用的空间;
(4) Use of the land and conditions for planning. (四)土地用途、规划条件;
(5) Term of the right to use land for construction. (五)建设用地使用权期限;
(6) Land transaction fees and other expenses and the methods for the payment thereof. (六)出让金等费用及其支付方式;
(7) Methods for the resolution of disputes. (七)解决争议的方法。
Article 349 For the creation of the right to use land for construction, an application for the registration of the right to use land for construction shall be filed with the registration authority. The right to use land for construction shall be created at the time of registration. The registration authority shall issue a certificate of ownership to the holder of the right to use land for construction.   第三百四十九条 设立建设用地使用权的,应当向登记机构申请建设用地使用权登记。建设用地使用权自登记时设立。登记机构应当向建设用地使用权人发放权属证书。
Article 350 The holder of the right to use land for construction shall make rational use of the land, and shall not change the use of the land; and if the use of the land needs to be changed, it shall be subject to the approval of the relevant administrative department in accordance with the law.   第三百五十条 建设用地使用权人应当合理利用土地,不得改变土地用途;需要改变土地用途的,应当依法经有关行政主管部门批准。
Article 351 The holder of the right to use land for construction shall pay land transaction fees and other expenses according to the provisions of laws and as agreed upon in the contract.   第三百五十一条 建设用地使用权人应当依照法律规定以及合同约定支付出让金等费用。
Article 352 The ownership of the buildings, structures and their ancillary facilities constructed by the holder of the right to use land for construction shall belong to the holder of the right to use land for construction, unless it is otherwise proved by contrary evidence.   第三百五十二条 建设用地使用权人建造的建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施的所有权属于建设用地使用权人,但是有相反证据证明的除外。
Article 353 The holder of the right to use land for construction has the right to transfer, exchange, contribute as capital, gift, or mortgage the right to use land for construction, except as otherwise provided for by any law.   第三百五十三条 建设用地使用权人有权将建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资、赠与或者抵押,但是法律另有规定的除外。
Article 354 Where the right to use land for construction is transferred, exchanged, contributed as capital, gifted, or mortgaged, the parties shall enter into a corresponding contract in a written form. The use term shall be agreed upon by the parties, provided that it shall not exceed the remaining term of the right to use land for construction.   第三百五十四条 建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资、赠与或者抵押的,当事人应当采用书面形式订立相应的合同。使用期限由当事人约定,但是不得超过建设用地使用权的剩余期限。
Article 355 Where the right to use land for construction is transferred, exchanged, contributed as capital, or gifted, an application for modification registration shall be filed with the registration authority.   第三百五十五条 建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资或者赠与的,应当向登记机构申请变更登记。
Article 356 Where the right to use land for construction is transferred, exchanged, contributed as capital, or gifted, the buildings, structures and their ancillary facilities on the land shall be disposed of along with the right.   第三百五十六条 建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资或者赠与的,附着于该土地上的建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施一并处分。
Article 357 Where buildings, structures and their ancillary facilities are transferred, exchanged, contributed as capital, or gifted, the right to use land for construction within the area occupied by such buildings, structures and their ancillary facilities shall be disposed of along with them.   第三百五十七条 建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施转让、互换、出资或者赠与的,该建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施占用范围内的建设用地使用权一并处分。
Article 358 Where, before the expiration of the term of the right to use land for construction, the land needs to be recovered in advance in the interest of the public, indemnities for the buildings and other immovables on the land shall be given in accordance with Article 243 of this Code, and the corresponding land transaction fees shall be refunded.   第三百五十八条 建设用地使用权期限届满前,因公共利益需要提前收回该土地的,应当依据本法第二百四十三条的规定对该土地上的房屋以及其他不动产给予补偿,并退还相应的出让金。
Article 359 The term of the right to use land for the construction of housing units shall be automatically renewed upon expiration. The payment, reduction or exemption of the renewal fee shall be handled in accordance with the provisions of laws and administrative regulations.   第三百五十九条 住宅建设用地使用权期限届满的,自动续期。续期费用的缴纳或者减免,依照法律、行政法规的规定办理。
The term of the right to use land not for the construction of housing units shall be renewed upon expiration in accordance with the provisions of laws. If there is an agreement on the attribution of buildings and other immovables on the aforesaid land, such an agreement shall prevail; in the absence of such an agreement or if such an agreement is ambiguous, the ownership shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of laws and administrative regulations. 非住宅建设用地使用权期限届满后的续期,依照法律规定办理。该土地上的房屋以及其他不动产的归属,有约定的,按照约定;没有约定或者约定不明确的,依照法律、行政法规的规定办理。
Article 360 Where the right to use land for construction is extinguished, the assignor shall undergo deregistration in a timely manner. The registration authority shall take back the ownership certificate.   第三百六十条 建设用地使用权消灭的,出让人应当及时办理注销登记。登记机构应当收回权属证书。
Article 361 Where a tract of land owned by the collective is to be used for construction, the matter shall be handled according to the provisions of laws on land administration.   第三百六十一条 集体所有的土地作为建设用地的,应当依照土地管理的法律规定办理。
Chapter XIII Right to Use Rural Land as a Residential Lot 

第十三章 宅基地使用权

Article 362 The holder of the right to use rural land as a residential lot shall, in accordance with the law, have the right to possess and use collectively-owned land, and use the land for constructing houses and their ancillary facilities.   第三百六十二条 宅基地使用权人依法对集体所有的土地享有占有和使用的权利,有权依法利用该土地建造住宅及其附属设施。
Article 363 The laws on land administration and the relevant provisions issued by the state shall apply to the acquisition, exercise and transfer of the right to use rural land as a residential lot.   第三百六十三条 宅基地使用权的取得、行使和转让,适用土地管理的法律和国家有关规定。
Article 364 When rural land as a residential lot is destroyed or lost due to a natural disaster or any other reason, the right to use rural land as a residential lot is extinguished. New rural land as a residential lot shall be allocated to the villagers who have lost their rural land as a residential lot in accordance with the law.   第三百六十四条 宅基地因自然灾害等原因灭失的,宅基地使用权消灭。对失去宅基地的村民,应当依法重新分配宅基地。
Article 365 Where the registered right to use rural land as a residential lot is transferred or extinguished, modification registration or deregistration shall be undergone in a timely manner.   第三百六十五条 已经登记的宅基地使用权转让或者消灭的,应当及时办理变更登记或者注销登记。
Chapter XIV Right of Habitation 

第十四章 居住权

Article 366 As agreed upon in a contract, a person having a right of habitation enjoys the usufruct to occupy and use another's housing unit so as to meet the needs of living.   第三百六十六条 居住权人有权按照合同约定,对他人的住宅享有占有、使用的用益物权,以满足生活居住的需要。
Article 367 To create a right of habitation, the parties shall enter into a contract on the right of habitation in a written form.   第三百六十七条 设立居住权,当事人应当采用书面形式订立居住权合同。
The contract on the right of habitation shall generally include the following clauses: 居住权合同一般包括下列条款:
(1) Names or titles, and domiciles of the parties. (一)当事人的姓名或者名称和住所;
(2) Location of the housing unit. (二)住宅的位置;
(3) The conditions and requirements for habitation. (三)居住的条件和要求;
(4) Term of the right of habitation. (四)居住权期限;
(5) Methods for the resolution of disputes. (五)解决争议的方法。
Article 368 The right of habitation shall be created free of charge, unless it is otherwise agreed upon by the parties. If the right of habitation is created, an application for the registration of the right of habitation shall be filed with the registration authority. The right of habitation is created at the time of registration.   第三百六十八条 居住权无偿设立,但是当事人另有约定的除外。设立居住权的,应当向登记机构申请居住权登记。居住权自登记时设立。
Article 369 The right of habitation may not be transferred or inherited. A housing unit with the right of habitation created shall not be leased, unless it is otherwise agreed upon by the parties.   第三百六十九条 居住权不得转让、继承。设立居住权的住宅不得出租,但是当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 370 The right of habitation is extinguished when the term of the right of habitation expires or the person having the right of habitation dies. If the right of habitation is extinguished, deregistration shall be undergone in a timely manner.   第三百七十条 居住权期限届满或者居住权人死亡的,居住权消灭。居住权消灭的,应当及时办理注销登记。
Article 371 The relevant provisions of this Chapter shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to the creation of the right of habitation by testament.   第三百七十一条 以遗嘱方式设立居住权的,参照适用本章的有关规定。
Chapter XV Servitude 

第十五章 地役权

Article 372 The owner of the land to which the servitude is owed has the right to use another's immovable as agreed upon in the contract, so as to enhance the benefits of its own immovable.   第三百七十二条 地役权人有权按照合同约定,利用他人的不动产,以提高自己的不动产的效益。
For the purposes of the preceding paragraph, another's immovable is the servient land, and one's own immovable is the dominant land. 前款所称他人的不动产为供役地,自己的不动产为需役地。
Article 373 To create servitude, the parties shall enter into a servitude contract in a written form.   第三百七十三条 设立地役权,当事人应当采用书面形式订立地役权合同。
The servitude contract shall generally include the following clauses: 地役权合同一般包括下列条款:
(1) Names or titles, and domiciles of the parties. (一)当事人的姓名或者名称和住所;
(2) Locations of the servient land and dominant land. (二)供役地和需役地的位置;
(3) Purposes and methods of use. (三)利用目的和方法;
(4) Term of servitude. (四)地役权期限;
(5) Fees and methods for the payment thereof. (五)费用及其支付方式;
(6) Methods for the resolution of disputes. (六)解决争议的方法。
Article 374 Servitude is created when the servitude contract becomes valid. If the parties request registration, they may apply to the registration authority for the registration of servitude; and if it is not registered, it shall not be used to set up against a bona fide third party.   第三百七十四条 地役权自地役权合同生效时设立。当事人要求登记的,可以向登记机构申请地役权登记;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。
Article 375 The owner of the servient land shall, as agreed upon in the contract, allow the owner of the land to which the servitude is owed to use its immovable, and shall not interfere with the latter's exercise of servitude.   第三百七十五条法宝 供役地权利人应当按照合同约定,允许地役权人利用其不动产,不得妨害地役权人行使权利。
Article 376 The owner of the land to which the servitude is owed shall use the servient land according to the purposes and methods of use as agreed upon in the contract and to reduce as much as possible the restrictions on the real right of the owner of the servient land.   第三百七十六条 地役权人应当按照合同约定的利用目的和方法利用供役地,尽量减少对供役地权利人物权的限制。
Article 377 The term of servitude shall be agreed upon by the parties, provided that it shall not exceed the remaining term of usufruct, such as the conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations and the right to use land for construction.   第三百七十七条 地役权期限由当事人约定;但是,不得超过土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等用益物权的剩余期限。
Article 378 Where the landowner enjoys or is burdened by servitude, when the conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations, the right to use rural land as a residential lot, or any other usufruct is created, the usufructuary shall continue to enjoy or be burdened by the created servitude.   第三百七十八条 土地所有权人享有地役权或者负担地役权的,设立土地承包经营权、宅基地使用权等用益物权时,该用益物权人继续享有或者负担已经设立的地役权。
Article 379 Where the conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations, the right to use land for construction, the right to use rural land as a residential lot, or any other usufruct has been created on land, the landowner shall not create servitude without the consent of the usufructuary.   第三百七十九条 土地上已经设立土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权、宅基地使用权等用益物权的,未经用益物权人同意,土地所有权人不得设立地役权。
Article 380 Servitude shall not be transferred separately. If the conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations, or the right to use land for construction, among others, is transferred, servitude shall be transferred along with it, unless it is otherwise agreed upon in the contract.   第三百八十条 地役权不得单独转让。土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等转让的,地役权一并转让,但是合同另有约定的除外。
Article 381 Servitude shall not be mortgaged separately. If the usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations, or the right to use land for construction, among others, is mortgaged, servitude shall be transferred along with it when mortgage is exercised.   第三百八十一条 地役权不得单独抵押。土地经营权、建设用地使用权等抵押的,在实现抵押权时,地役权一并转让。
Article 382 When the dominant land and the conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations or the right to use land for construction thereon, among others, is partially transferred, if servitude is involved in the transferred part, the transferee shall enjoy the servitude at the same time.   第三百八十二条 需役地以及需役地上的土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等部分转让时,转让部分涉及地役权的,受让人同时享有地役权。
Article 383 When the servient land and the conventional usufruct on rural land for agricultural operations or the right to use land for construction thereon, among others, is partially transferred, if servitude is involved in the transferred part, the servitude shall be legally binding upon the transferee.   第三百八十三条 供役地以及供役地上的土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等部分转让时,转让部分涉及地役权的,地役权对受让人具有法律约束力。
Article 384 Where the owner of the land to which the servitude is owed falls under any of the following circumstances, the owner of the servient land has the right to rescind the servitude contract, and servitude is extinguished.   第三百八十四条 地役权人有下列情形之一的,供役地权利人有权解除地役权合同,地役权消灭:
(1) Abusing servitude in violation of the provisions of any law or those agreed upon in the contract. (一)违反法律规定或者合同约定,滥用地役权;
(2) Failing to pay fees for the compensated use of the servient land after being urged to do so for two times within a reasonable period, after the expiration of the agreed term for payment. (二)有偿利用供役地,约定的付款期限届满后在合理期限内经两次催告未支付费用。
Article 385 Where a registered servitude is modified, transferred, or extinguished, modification registration or deregistration shall be undergone in a timely manner.   第三百八十五条 已经登记的地役权变更、转让或者消灭的,应当及时办理变更登记或者注销登记。
Title Four Security Interests 

第四分编 担保物权

Chapter XVI General Rules 

第十六章 一般规定

Article 386 The security interest holder shall, in accordance with the law, have the priority of compensation made from the property posted as security if the debtor fails to pay the due debt or falls under any circumstance where security interest shall be exercised as agreed upon by the parties, except as otherwise provided for by any law.   第三百八十六条 担保物权人在债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现担保物权的情形,依法享有就担保财产优先受偿的权利,但是法律另有规定的除外。
Article 387 The creditor may, in loans, sales or other civil activities, create security interest in accordance with the provisions of this Code and other laws, if security is required to guarantee the performance of obligation.   第三百八十七条 债权人在借贷、买卖等民事活动中,为保障实现其债权,需要担保的,可以依照本法和其他法律的规定设立担保物权。
A third party that provides security to the creditor for the debtor may require the debtor to provide counter guarantee. The relevant provisions of this Code and other laws shall apply to counter guarantee. 第三人为债务人向债权人提供担保的,可以要求债务人提供反担保。反担保适用本法和其他法律的规定。
Article 388 For the creation of security interest, a contract on the provision of security shall be entered into in accordance with the provisions of this Code and other laws. Contracts on the provision of security include mortgage contracts, pledge contracts and other contracts with security functions. A contract on the provision of security is a collateral contract of the master contract on obligations. When the master contract on obligations ceases to be effective, the contract on the provision of security shall cease to be effective accordingly, except as otherwise provided for by any law.   第三百八十八条 设立担保物权,应当依照本法和其他法律的规定订立担保合同。担保合同包括抵押合同、质押合同和其他具有担保功能的合同。担保合同是主债权债务合同的从合同。主债权债务合同无效的,担保合同无效,但是法律另有规定的除外。
After a contract on the provision of security is confirmed null and void, if the debtor, the guarantor and the creditor are at fault, they shall assume corresponding civil liability in light of their respective fault. 担保合同被确认无效后,债务人、担保人、债权人有过错的,应当根据其过错各自承担相应的民事责任。
Article 389 The scope of security interest covers the principal claim and the interest therefrom, default fine, compensation for damages, and the expenses for keeping the property posted as security and for exercising security interest. If it is otherwise agreed upon by the parties, such an agreement shall prevail.   第三百八十九条 担保物权的担保范围包括主债权及其利息、违约金、损害赔偿金、保管担保财产和实现担保物权的费用。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。
Article 390 Where the property posted as security is damaged, lost, or expropriated, among others, during the term of provision of security, the security interest holder has the priority of compensation made with the insurance money, compensatory damages, or indemnity, among others. The insurance money, compensatory damages, or indemnity, among others, may also be set aside before the term for performing the obligation as secured expires.   第三百九十条 担保期间,担保财产毁损、灭失或者被征收等,担保物权人可以就获得的保险金、赔偿金或者补偿金等优先受偿。被担保债权的履行期限未届满的,也可以提存该保险金、赔偿金或者补偿金等。
Article 391 Where a security is provided by a third party, if the creditor permits the debtor's transfer of all or part of its obligations without the written consent of the third party, the guarantor shall no longer assume the corresponding suretyship.   第三百九十一条 第三人提供担保,未经其书面同意,债权人允许债务人转移全部或者部分债务的,担保人不再承担相应的担保责任。
Article 392 Where both property posted as security and suretyship are provided to secure a creditor's right, if the debtor fails to pay the due debt or falls under any circumstance where security interest shall be exercised as agreed upon by the parties, the creditor shall exercise the creditor's right as agreed; in the absence of such an agreement or if such an agreement is ambiguous, if the debtor itself or himself provides a property as security, the creditor shall first exercise the creditor's right with such a property; if a third party provides a property as security, the creditor may either exercise the creditor's right with such a property or claim the guarantor's assumption of suretyship. The third party has the right of recourse against the debtor after performing the suretyship.   第三百九十二条 被担保的债权既有物的担保又有人的担保的,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现担保物权的情形,债权人应当按照约定实现债权;没有约定或者约定不明确,债务人自己提供物的担保的,债权人应当先就该物的担保实现债权;第三人提供物的担保的,债权人可以就物的担保实现债权,也可以请求保证人承担保证责任。提供担保的第三人承担担保责任后,有权向债务人追偿。
Article 393 Security interest is extinguished under any of following circumstances:   第三百九十三条 有下列情形之一的,担保物权消灭:
(1) The principal claim is extinguished. (一)主债权消灭;
(2) The security interest is exercised. (二)担保物权实现;
(3) The creditor waives the security interest. (三)债权人放弃担保物权;
(4) Any other circumstance where security interest shall be extinguished as provided for by any law. (四)法律规定担保物权消灭的其他情形。
Chapter XVII Mortgage 

第十七章 抵押权

Section 1 Ordinary Mortgage 

第一节 一般抵押权

Article 394 Where, for securing the performance of an obligation, the debtor or a third party mortgages a property to the creditor instead of transferring the possession of such a property, if the debtor fails to pay the due debt or falls under any circumstance where mortgage shall be exercised as agreed upon by the parties, the creditor shall have the priority of compensation made from such a property.   第三百九十四条 为担保债务的履行,债务人或者第三人不转移财产的占有,将该财产抵押给债权人的,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,债权人有权就该财产优先受偿。
For the purposes of the preceding paragraph, the debtor or the third party is the mortgagor, the creditor is the mortgagee, and the property posted as security is the mortgaged property. 前款规定的债务人或者第三人为抵押人,债权人为抵押权人,提供担保的财产为抵押财产。
Article 395 The following property which the debtor or a third party has the right to dispose of may be mortgaged:   第三百九十五条 债务人或者第三人有权处分的下列财产可以抵押:
(1) Buildings and other fixtures on land. (一)建筑物和其他土地附着物;
(2) The right to use land for construction. (二)建设用地使用权;
(3) The right to use sea areas. (三)海域使用权;
(4) Production equipment, raw materials, semi-finished products, and products. (四)生产设备、原材料、半成品、产品;
(5) Buildings, vessels, and aircrafts under construction. (五)正在建造的建筑物、船舶、航空器;
(6) Means of transportation. (六)交通运输工具;
(7) Any other property that is not prohibited from being mortgaged by any law or administrative regulation. (七)法律、行政法规未禁止抵押的其他财产。
The mortgagor may mortgage all the property set out in the preceding paragraph at the same time. 抵押人可以将前款所列财产一并抵押。
Article 396 An enterprise, industrial and commercial household, or agricultural producer or trader may mortgage its existing and anticipated production equipment, raw materials, semi-finished products, and products, and if the debtor fails to pay the due debt or falls under any circumstance where mortgage shall be exercised as agreed upon by the parties, the creditor shall have the priority of compensation made with the movable determined as the mortgaged property.   第三百九十六条 企业、个体工商户、农业生产经营者可以将现有的以及将有的生产设备、原材料、半成品、产品抵押,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,债权人有权就抵押财产确定时的动产优先受偿。
Article 397 Where a building is mortgaged, the right to use land for construction within the area occupied by the building shall be mortgaged along with the building. If the right to use land for construction is mortgaged, the buildings on the land shall be mortgaged along with such a right.   第三百九十七条 以建筑物抵押的,该建筑物占用范围内的建设用地使用权一并抵押。以建设用地使用权抵押的,该土地上的建筑物一并抵押。
Where the mortgagor fails to mortgage as provided for in the preceding paragraph, the property not mortgaged shall be deemed to have been mortgaged along with the mortgaged property. 抵押人未依据前款规定一并抵押的,未抵押的财产视为一并抵押。
Article 398 The right to use land for construction enjoyed by a township (town) or village enterprise may not be mortgaged separately. If the workshop or any other building of a township (town) or village enterprise is mortgaged, the right to use land for construction within the area occupied by the workshop or building shall be mortgaged along with the workshop or building.   第三百九十八条 乡镇、村企业的建设用地使用权不得单独抵押。以乡镇、村企业的厂房等建筑物抵押的,其占用范围内的建设用地使用权一并抵押。
Article 399 The following property may not be mortgaged:   第三百九十九条 下列财产不得抵押:
(1) Land ownership. (一)土地所有权;
(2) The right to use the land owned by the collective, such as rural land as a residential lot, private plots and hilly land allotted for private use, except that it may be mortgaged as provided for by any law. (二)宅基地、自留地、自留山等集体所有土地的使用权,但是法律规定可以抵押的除外;
(3) Educational, medical and health, and other public welfare facilities of schools, kindergartens, medical institutions, and other non-profit legal persons formed for public welfare purposes. (三)学校、幼儿园、医疗机构等为公益目的成立的非营利法人的教育设施、医疗卫生设施和其他公益设施;
(4) Property of which the ownership or the right to use is ambiguous or controversial. (四)所有权、使用权不明或者有争议的财产;
(5) Property seized, detained, or overseen in accordance with the law. (五)依法被查封、扣押、监管的财产;
(6) Any other property which may not be mortgaged as provided for by laws and administrative regulations. (六)法律、行政法规规定不得抵押的其他财产。
Article 400 To create mortgage, the parties shall enter into a mortgage contract in a written form.   第四百条 设立抵押权,当事人应当采用书面形式订立抵押合同。
The mortgage contract shall generally include the following clauses: 抵押合同一般包括下列条款:
(1) The type and amount of the secured claim. (一)被担保债权的种类和数额;
(2) The term for the debtor to perform the obligation. (二)债务人履行债务的期限;
(3) The name, quality and other information of the mortgaged property. (三)抵押财产的名称、数量等情况;
(4) The scope of security. (四)担保的范围。
Article 401 Where, before the expiration of the term for performing obligations, the mortgagee agree with the mortgagor that the mortgaged property shall belong to the creditor when the debtor fails to pay the due debt, the creditor may only have the priority of compensation made from the mortgaged property.   第四百零一条 抵押权人在债务履行期限届满前,与抵押人约定债务人不履行到期债务时抵押财产归债权人所有的,只能依法就抵押财产优先受偿。
Article 402 Where a property set out in subparagraphs (1) through (3) or a building under construction set out in subparagraph (5), paragraph 1 of Article 395 of this Code is mortgaged, mortgage registration shall be undergone. Mortgage is created at the time of registration.   第四百零二条 以本法第三百九十五条第一款第一项至第三项规定的财产或者第五项规定的正在建造的建筑物抵押的,应当办理抵押登记。抵押权自登记时设立。
Article 403 Where a movable is mortgaged, mortgage is created at the time when the mortgage contract becomes valid; and if it is not registered, it shall not be set up against a bona fide third party.   第四百零三条 以动产抵押的,抵押权自抵押合同生效时设立;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。
Article 404 Where a movable is mortgaged, it shall not be set up against the buyer that has paid reasonable price and obtained the mortgaged property in ordinary business activities.   第四百零四条 以动产抵押的,不得对抗正常经营活动中已经支付合理价款并取得抵押财产的买受人。
Article 405 Where the mortgaged property has been leased and the possession thereof has been transferred before the creation of mortgage, the original lease relations shall not be affected by the mortgage.   第四百零五条 抵押权设立前,抵押财产已经出租并转移占有的,原租赁关系不受该抵押权的影响。
Article 406 The mortgagor may transfer the mortgaged property during the mortgage term. If it is otherwise agreed upon by the parties, their agreement shall prevail. Mortgage is not affected if the mortgaged property is transferred.   第四百零六条 抵押期间,抵押人可以转让抵押财产。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。抵押财产转让的,抵押权不受影响。
The mortgagor that transfers the mortgaged property shall notify the mortgagee in a timely manner. If the mortgagee is able to prove that mortgage may be damaged due to the transfer of the mortgaged property, the mortgagee may request the mortgagor to pay off the debt with the proceeds obtained from such transfer to the mortgagee in advance or set aside the proceeds. The part of proceeds obtained from transfer exceeding the amount of claim shall belong to the mortgagor, and if the proceeds are insufficient to pay the debt, the shortfall shall be paid off by the debtor. 抵押人转让抵押财产的,应当及时通知抵押权人。抵押权人能够证明抵押财产转让可能损害抵押权的,可以请求抵押人将转让所得的价款向抵押权人提前清偿债务或者提存。转让的价款超过债权数额的部分归抵押人所有,不足部分由债务人清偿。
Article 407 Mortgage may not be separated from the creditor's right and transferred alone, or be used as a security for any other creditor's right. If the creditor's right is transferred, the mortgage to secure the creditor's right shall be transferred along with it, unless it is otherwise provided for by any law or agreed upon by the parties.   第四百零七条 抵押权不得与债权分离而单独转让或者作为其他债权的担保。债权转让的,担保该债权的抵押权一并转让,但是法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 408 Where the mortgagor's act is sufficient to decrease the value of the mortgaged property, the mortgagee has the right to request the mortgagor to cease such an act. If the value of the mortgaged property decreases, the mortgagee has the right to claim the restoration of the original value of the mortgaged property or the provision of security corresponding to the amount of the value reduced. If the mortgagor fails to restore the original value of the mortgaged property or to provide security, the mortgagee has the right to request the debtor to pay off the debt in advance.   第四百零八条 抵押人的行为足以使抵押财产价值减少的,抵押权人有权请求抵押人停止其行为;抵押财产价值减少的,抵押权人有权请求恢复抵押财产的价值,或者提供与减少的价值相应的担保。抵押人不恢复抵押财产的价值,也不提供担保的,抵押权人有权请求债务人提前清偿债务。
Article 409 The mortgagee may waive the mortgage or its place in the order of mortgage. The mortgagee and the mortgagor may, upon agreement, modify such content as the place in the order of mortgage and the amount of secured claim, provided that such modification shall not have any adverse effect on any other mortgagee without the written consent of any other mortgagee.   第四百零九条 抵押权人可以放弃抵押权或者抵押权的顺位。抵押权人与抵押人可以协议变更抵押权顺位以及被担保的债权数额等内容。但是,抵押权的变更未经其他抵押权人书面同意的,不得对其他抵押权人产生不利影响。
Where the debtor creates mortgage with the property thereof, if the mortgagee waives the mortgage or place in the order of mortgage or makes any modification in respect of the mortgage thereof, other guarantors shall be exempted from the suretyship to the extent that the mortgagee forfeits the priority of compensation, unless other guarantors are still committed to the suretyship. 债务人以自己的财产设定抵押,抵押权人放弃该抵押权、抵押权顺位或者变更抵押权的,其他担保人在抵押权人丧失优先受偿权益的范围内免除担保责任,但是其他担保人承诺仍然提供担保的除外。
Article 410 Where the debtor fails to pay the due debt or falls under any circumstance where mortgage shall be exercised as agreed upon by the parties, the mortgagee may agree with the mortgagor that it has priority of compensation made with the money into which the mortgaged property is converted or the proceeds obtained from the auction or sell-off of the property. If such an agreement damages the interests of any other creditor, the other creditor may request the people's court to revoke the agreement.   第四百一十条 债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,抵押权人可以与抵押人协议以抵押财产折价或者以拍卖、变卖该抵押财产所得的价款优先受偿。协议损害其他债权人利益的,其他债权人可以请求人民法院撤销该协议。
Where the mortgagee and the mortgagor fail to reach an agreement on the means of exercising mortgage, the mortgagee may request the people's court to have the mortgaged property auctioned or sold off. 抵押权人与抵押人未就抵押权实现方式达成协议的,抵押权人可以请求人民法院拍卖、变卖抵押财产。
Where the mortgaged property is converted into money or sold off, its market price shall be taken as the reference. 抵押财产折价或者变卖的,应当参照市场价格。
Article 411 Where mortgage is created in accordance with Article 396 of this Code, the mortgaged property shall be determined under any of the following circumstances:   第四百一十一条 依据本法第三百九十六条规定设定抵押的,抵押财产自下列情形之一发生时确定:
(1) The creditor's right is not exercised upon the expiration of the term for performing the obligation. (一)债务履行期限届满,债权未实现;
(2) The mortgagor is declared bankrupt or is dissolved. (二)抵押人被宣告破产或者解散;
(3) Any circumstance where mortgage shall be exercised as agreed upon by the parties. (三)当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形;
(4) Any other circumstance that seriously affects the exercise of the creditor's right. (四)严重影响债权实现的其他情形。
Article 412 Where the mortgaged property is detained by a people's court in accordance with law since the debtor fails to pay the due debt or falls under any circumstance where mortgage shall be exercised as agreed upon by the parties, from the date when the property is detained, the mortgagee has the right to collect the natural or legal fruits accrued from the mortgaged property, except that the mortgagee fails to notify the obligor to pay off the legal fruits.   第四百一十二条 债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,致使抵押财产被人民法院依法扣押的,自扣押之日起,抵押权人有权收取该抵押财产的天然孳息或者法定孳息,但是抵押权人未通知应当清偿法定孳息义务人的除外。
The fruits as mentioned in the preceding paragraph shall first be used to pay the expenses for collecting such fruits. 前款规定的孳息应当先充抵收取孳息的费用。
Article 413 After the mortgaged property is converted into money, or auctioned or sold off, the part of proceeds therefrom exceeding the amount of claim shall belong to the mortgagor; and if the proceeds are insufficient to cover the claim, the shortfall shall be paid off by the debtor.   第四百一十三条 抵押财产折价或者拍卖、变卖后,其价款超过债权数额的部分归抵押人所有,不足部分由债务人清偿。
Article 414 Where a same property is mortgaged to two or more creditors, the proceeds from the auction or sell-off of the mortgaged property shall be used for payment according to the following provisions:
......
   第四百一十四条 同一财产向两个以上债权人抵押的,拍卖、变卖抵押财产所得的价款依照下列规定清偿:
......

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