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Common Program of The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference [Expired]
中国人民政治协商会议共同纲领 [失效]
【法宝引证码】

 
Common Program of The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference 

中国人民政治协商会议共同纲领


(Adopted by the First Plenary Session of the Chinese People's PCC on September 29th, 1949)
 
(一九四九年九月二十九日中国人民政治协商会议第一届全体会议通过)


 
PREAMBLE 

序 言


The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, representing the will of the people of the whole country, proclaims the establishment of the People's Republic of China and is organizing the people's own central government. The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference unanimously agrees that New Democracy, or the People's Democracy, shall be the political foundation for the national construction of the People's Republic of China. It has also adopted the following Common Program which should be jointly observed by all units participating in the Conference, by the people's government of all levels, and by the people of the whole country.
 
中国人民解放战争和人民革命的伟大胜利,已使帝国主义、封建主义和官僚资本主义在中国的统治时代宣告结束。中国人民由被压迫的地位变成为新社会新国家的主人,而以人民民主专政的共和国代替那封建买办法西斯专政的国民党反动统治。中国人民民主专政是中国工人阶级、农民阶级、小资产阶级、民族资产阶级及其他爱国民主分子的人民民主统一战线的政权,而以工农联盟为基础,以工人阶级为领导。由中国共产党、各民主党派、各人民团体、各地区、人民解放军、各少数民族、国外华侨及其他爱国民主分子的代表们所组成的中国人民政治协商会议,就是人民民主统一战线的组织形式。中国人民政治协商会议代表全国人民的意志,宣告中华人民共和国的成立,组织人民自己的中央政府。中国人民政治协商会议一致同意以新民主主义即人民民主主义为中华人民共和国建国的政治基础,并制定以下的共同纲领,凡参加人民政治协商会议的各单位、各级人民政府和全国人民均应共同遵守。

 
CHAPTER I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES 

第一章 总 纲


 
Article 1. The People's Republic of China is a New Democratic or a People's Democratic state. It carries out the people's democratic dictatorship led by the working class, based on the alliance of workers and peasants, and uniting all democratic classes and all nationalities in China. It opposes imperialism, feudalism and bureaucratic capitalism and strives for independence, democracy, peace, unity, prosperity and strength of China.   第一条 中华人民共和国为新民主主义即人民民主主义的国家,实行工人阶级领导的、以工农联盟为基础的、团结各民主阶级和国内各民族的人民民主专政,反对帝国主义、封建主义和官僚资本主义,为中国的独立、民主、和平、统一和富强而奋斗。

 
Article 2. The Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China must undertake to wage the people's war of liberation to the very end, to liberate all the territory of China, and to achieve the unification of China.   第二条 中华人民共和国中央人民政府必须负责将人民解放战争进行到底,解放中国全部领土,完成统一中国的事业。

 
Article 3. The People's Republic of China must abolish all the prerogatives of imperialist countries in China. It must confiscate bureaucratic capital and put it into the possession of the people's state. It must systematically transform the feudal and semi-feudal land ownership system into a system of peasant land ownership; it must protect the public property of the state and of the cooperatives and must protect the economic interests and private property of workers, peasants, the petty bourgeoisie and the national bourgeoisie. It must develop the people's economy of New Democracy and steadily transform the country from an agricultural into an industrial one.   第三条 中华人民共和国必须取消帝国主义国家在中国的一切特权,没收官僚资本归人民的国家所有,有步骤地将封建半封建的土地所有制改变为农民的土地所有制,保护国家的公共财产和合作社的财产,保护工人、农民、小资产阶级和民族资产阶级的经济利益及其私有财产,发展新民主主义的人民经济,稳步地变农业国为工业国。

 
Article 4. The people of the People's Republic of China shall have the right to elect and to be elected according to law.   第四条 中华人民共和国人民依法有选举权和被选举权。

 
Article 5. The people of the People's Republic of China shall have freedom of thought, speech, publication, assembly, association, correspondence, person, domicile, change of domicile, religious belief and the freedom of holding processions and demonstrations.   第五条 中华人民共和国人民有思想、言论、出版、集会、结社、通讯、人身、居住、迁徙、宗教信仰及示威游行的自由权。

 
Article 6. The People's Republic of China shall abolish the feudal system which holds women in bondage. Women shall enjoy equal rights with men in political, economic, cultural, educational and social life. Freedom of marriage for men and women shall be put into effect.   第六条 中华人民共和国废除束缚妇女的封建制度。妇女在政治的、经济的、文化教育的、社会的生活各方面,均有与男子平等的权利。实行男女婚姻自由。

 
Article 7. The People's Republic of China shall suppress all counter-revolutionary, activities, severely punish all Kuomintang counter-revolutionary war criminals and other leading incorrigible counter-revolutionary, elements who collaborate with imperialism, commit treason against the fatherland and oppose the cause of people's democracy. Feudal landlords, bureaucratic capitalists and reactionary elements in general, after they have been disarmed and have had their special powers abolished, shall, in addition, be deprived of their political rights in accordance with law for a necessary period. But, at the same time, they shall be given some means of livelihood and shall be compelled to reform themselves through labour so as to become new men. If they continue their counter-revolutionary activities, they will be severely punished.   第七条 中华人民共和国必须镇压一切反革命活动,严厉惩罚一切勾结帝国主义、背叛祖国、反对人民民主事业的国民党反革命战争罪犯和其他怙恶不悛的反革命首要分子。对于一般的反动分子、封建地主、官僚资本家,在解除其武装、消灭其特殊势力后,仍须依法在必要时期内剥夺他们的政治权利,但同时给以生活出路,并强迫他们在劳动中改造自己,成为新人。假如他们继续进行反革命活动,必须予以严厉的制裁。

 
Article 8. It is the duty of every national of the People's Republic of China to defend the fatherland, to abide by the law, to observe labour discipline, to protect public property, to perform public and military service, and to pay taxes.   第八条 中华人民共和国国民均有保卫祖国、遵守法律、遵守劳动纪律、爱护公共财产、应征公役兵役和缴纳赋税的义务。

 
Article 9. All nationalities in the People's Republic of China shall have equal rights and duties.   第九条 中华人民共和国境内各民族,均有平等的权利和义务。

 
Article 10. The armed forces of the People's Republic of China, namely, the People's Liberation Army, the people's public security forces and the people's police belong to the people. It is the task of these armed forces to defend the independence, territorial integrity and sovereignty of China, and to defend the revolutionary gains and all legitimate rights and interests of the Chinese people. The Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China shall endeavour to consolidate and strengthen the people's armed forces, so as to enable them to accomplish their tasks effectively.   第十条 中华人民共和国的武装力量,即人民解放军、人民公安部队和人民警察,是属于人民的武力。其任务为保卫中国的独立和领土主权的完整,保卫中国人民的革命成果和一切合法权益。中华人民共和国中央人民政府应努力巩固和加强人民武装力量,使其能够有效地执行自己的任务。

 
Article 11. The People's Republic of China shall unite with all peace-loving and freedom-loving countries and peoples throughout the world, first of all, with the USSR, all Peoples' Democracies and all oppressed nations. It shall take its stand in the camp of international peace and democracy, to oppose imperialist aggression to defend lasting world peace.   第十一条 中华人民共和国联合世界上一切爱好和平、自由的国家和人民,首先是联合苏联、各人民民主国家和各被压迫民族,站在国际和平民主阵营方面,共同反对帝国主义侵略,以保障世界的持久和平。

 
CHAPTER II ORGANS OF STATE POWER 

第二章 政权机关


 
ARTICLE 12. The state power of the People's Republic of China belongs to the people. The people's congresses and the people's governments of all levels are the organs for the exercise of state power by the people. The people's congresses of all levels shall be popularly elected by universal franchise. The people's congresses of all levels shall elect the people's governments of their respective levels. The people's governments shall be the organs for exercising state power at their respective levels when the people's congresses of their respective levels are not in session.   第十二条 中华人民共和国的国家政权属于人民。人民行使国家政权的机关为各级人民代表大会和各级人民政府。各级人民代表大会由人民用普选方法产生之。各级人民代表大会选举各级人民政府。各级人民代表大会闭会期间,各级人民政府为行使各级政权的机关。

The All-China People's Congress shall be the supreme organ of state power. The Central People's Government shall be the supreme organ for exercising state power when the All-China People's Congress is not in session.
 
国家最高政权机关为全国人民代表大会。全国人民代表大会闭会期间,中央人民政府为行使国家政权的最高机关。

 
ARTICLE 13. The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference is the organisational form of the people's democratic united front. It shall be composed of the representatives of the working class, the peasantry, members of the revolutionary armed forces, intellectuals, the petty bourgeoisie, the national bourgeoisie, national minorities, the overseas Chinese and other patriotic democratic elements.   第十三条 中国人民政治协商会议为人民民主统一战线的组织形式。其组织成分,应包含有工人阶级、农民阶级、革命军人、知识分子、小资产阶级、民族资产阶级、少数民族、国外华侨及其他爱国民主分子的代表。

Pending the convocation of the All-China People's Congress elected by universal franchise, the Plenary Session of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference shall exercise the functions and powers of the All-China People's Congress, enact the Organic Law of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China北京大学互联网法律中心都拉黑名单了,还接个P, elect the Central People's Government Council of the People's Republic of China and vest it with the authority to exercise state power.
 
在普选的全国人民代表大会召开以前,由中国人民政治协商会议的全体会议执行全国人民代表大会的职权,制定中华人民共和国中央人民政府组织法,选举中华人民共和国中央人民政府委员会,并付之以行使国家权力的职权。

After the convocation of the All-China People's Congress elected by universal franchise, the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference may submit proposals on fundamental policies relating to national construction work and on other important measures to the All-China People's Congress or to the Central People's Government.
 
在普选的全国人民代表大会召开以后,中国人民政治协商会议得就有关国家建设事业的根本大计及其他重要措施,向全国人民代表大会或中央人民政府提出建议案。

 
ARTICLE 14. In all places newly liberated by the People's Liberation Army, military control shall be exercised and the Kuomintang reactionary organs of state power shall be abolished. The Central People's Government or military, and political organs at the front shall appoint personnel to organise Military Control Committees and local People's Governments.These shall lead the people in establishing revolutionary order and suppressing counter-revolutionary activities and, when conditions permit, shall convene All-Circles Representative Conferences.   第十四条 凡人民解放军初解放的地方,应一律实施军事管制,取消国民党反动政权机关,由中央人民政府或前线军政机关委任人员组织军事管制委员会和地方人民政府,领导人民建立革命秩序,镇压反革命活动,并在条件许可时召集各界人民代表会议。

Pending the convocation of the local people's congresses elected by universal franchise, the local All-Circles Representative Conferences shall gradually assume the functions and powers of the local people's congresses.
 
在普选的地方人民代表大会召开以前,由地方各界人民代表会议逐步地代行人民代表大会的职权。

The duration of military control shall be determined by the Central People's Government according to the military and political conditions prevailing in the different localities.
 
军事管制时间的长短,由中央人民政府依据各地的军事政治情况决定之。

In all places where military operations have completely ended, agrarian reform has been thoroughly carried out and people of all circles have been fully organized, elections based on universal franchise shall be held immediately for the purpose of convening local People's Congresses.
 
凡在军事行动已经完全结束、土地改革已经彻底实现、各界人民已有充分组织的地方,即应实行普选,召开地方的人民代表大会。

 
ARTICLE 15. The organs of state power at all levels shall practice democratic centralism. In doing this the main principles shall be: the People's Congresses shall be responsible and accountable to the people; the People's Government Councils shall be responsible and accountable to the People's Congresses. Within the People's Congresses and within the People's Government Councils, the minority shall abide by the decisions of the majority; the appointment of the People's Governments of each level shall be ratified by the People's Government of the higher level; the People's Governments of the lowe11 levels shall obey the People-s Governments of the higher levels and all Local People's Governments throughout the country shall obey the Central People's Government.   第十五条 各级政权机关一律实行民主集中制。其主要原则为:人民代表大会向人民负责并报告工作。人民政府委员会向人民代表大会负责并报告工作。在人民代表大会和人民政府委员会内,实行少数服从多数的制度。各下级人民政府均由上级人民政府加委并服从上级人民政府。全国各地方人民政府均服从中央人民政府。

 
ARTICLE 16. The jurisdiction of the Central People's Government and the local People's Governments shall be defined according to the nature of the various matters involved, and shall be prescribed by decrees of the Central People's Government Council so as to satisfy the requirements of both national unity and local expediency.
......
   第十六条 中央人民政府与地方人民政府间职权的划分,应按照各项事务的性质,由中央人民政府委员会以法令加以规定,使之既利于国家统一,又利于因地制宜。
......

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