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Yang Qiaoli v. Zhongzhou Pump Company (Case of Dispute over Infringement of Preemptive Right)
杨巧丽诉中州泵业公司优先购买权侵权纠纷案
【法宝引证码】

Yang Qiaoli v. Zhongzhou Pump Company (Case of Dispute over Infringement of Preemptive Right)
(Case of Dispute over Infringement of Preemptive Right)
杨巧丽诉中州泵业公司优先购买权侵权纠纷案

Yang Qiaoli v. Zhongzhou Pump Company
(Case of Dispute over Infringement of Preemptive Right)

 

杨巧丽诉中州泵业公司优先购买权侵权纠纷案

[Summary]

 【裁判摘要】

Under Article 230 of the Contract Law, if a leaser intends to sell the rented housing, the tenant's preemptive right under the same condition entitles him to buy the housing he leases but not other property to be sold by the leaser.

 根据合同法二百三十条法宝的规定,房屋出租人出卖租赁房屋时,承租人在同等条件下享有的优先购买权,应为购买自己承租的房屋,而不是出租人出卖的其他房屋。
BASIC FACTS 
Plaintiff: Yang Qiaoli, female, 35, domiciled at Chengguan Township, Yingyang City, Henan Province. 原告:杨巧丽,女,35岁,住河南省荥阳市城关镇。
Defendant: Henan Zhongzhou Pump Co., Ltd., situated at Suohe Road, Yingyang City, Henan Province. 被告:河南中州泵业有限公司,住所地:河南省荥阳市索河路。
Legal Representative: Wang Haichao, chairman of the board of directors of this company. 法定代表人:王海潮,该公司董事长。
Yang Qiaoli (hereinafter referred to as Yang) lodged a lawsuit to the Yingyang People's Court of Henan Province against Henan Zhongzhou Pump Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as Zhongzhou Company) for dispute over infringement of preemptive right. 原告杨巧丽因与被告河南中州泵业有限公司(以下简称中州泵业公司)发生优先购买权侵权纠纷,向河南省荥阳市人民法院提起诉讼。
Yang complained that: since June 1995, Yang has leased a suite of shops of Zhongzhou Company for engaging in the photography business, and the tenancy contract would not expire until December 30, 2002. Within the period of tenancy, Yang received a notice from Zhongzhou Company, which said that: this house has been sold to any other, and she should discuss the tenancy matter with the new owner. This act of Zhongzhou Company has deprived Yang of the preemptive right. Please adjudicate to cancel the house selling act of Zhongzhou Company and confirm Yang's preemptive right to this house. 原告诉称:自1995年6月以来,原告一直承租被告的一套门市房屋经营照相业务,租赁合同于2002年12月30日才到期。承租期内,原告接到被告的通知称,该房屋已出卖给他人,让原告与新的产权人协商租赁事宜。被告这一行为剥夺了原告的优先购买权。请求判令撤销被告的房屋出卖行为,确认原告对该房屋享有优先购买权。
Yang submitted the following evidences: 原告提交的证据有:
1. a notice, on which Zhongzhou Company affixes its seal and the date of inscription is June 22, 2002, which proves the facts of infringement. 1.加盖中州泵业公司公章、落款日期为2002年6月22日的通知一份,用以证明侵权事实。
2. the house tenancy agreement concluded on June 1, 2001, three receipts of rents of December 25, 2001, April 5, 2002 and July 22, 2002, which prove the fact of house tenancy and that the whole 2002 is within the period of house tenancy. 2.2001年6月1日签订的租房协议一份,2001年12月25日、2002年4月5日、2002年7月22日的房租收据三份,用以证明承租房屋以及2002年全年为房屋租赁期间的事实。
3. the testimonies of witnesses Xu Weidong, Shen Qingmei and Feng Weilin, which prove that Zhongzhou Company has sold out 12 suites and totally 24 shops including the shop leased by Yang as a whole from the end of May to the beginning of June 2002 at the price of 1,580,000 yuan; and Zhongzhou Company has posted the announcement on the aforesaid sales on the pillar of the gate of the company. 3.证人许卫东、申青梅、冯伟琳的证言,用以证明中州泵业公司已在2002年5月底、6月初,将包括杨巧丽承租房屋在内的12套共24间门面房整体出售,售价158万元;中州泵业公司还将有上述出售内容的公告张贴在单位门口柱子上。
Zhongzhou Company argued that: Zhongzhou Company has sold out houses, but the house leased by Yang has not been sold out, and it has never sent any notice on alteration of the property right of houses to Yang, instead it still keeps a normal tenancy relationship with Yang. The allegations of Yang are not true to the fact and shall be rejected. 被告辩称:被告虽然出售房屋,但原告承租的房屋却未出售,也从未向原告发出房屋产权已经变更的通知,原告与被告至今保持着正常的租赁关系。原告所诉不实,应当驳回其诉讼请求。
Zhongzhou Company submitted the following evidences: 被告提交的证据有:
1. a counterfoil of the receipt of rents of July 22, 2002, which says that it received 2,400 yuan of rents for the period of July-September 2002 paid by Yang, which proves that both parties are still in the tenancy relationship after Yang lodged this lawsuit, and the house leased by Yang has not been sold out. 1.2002年7月22日的房租收据存根一份,内容为:“今收到杨巧丽照相馆2002年7—9月房租人民币2400元。”用以证明至杨巧丽起诉后,双方仍存在租赁关系,杨巧丽承租的房屋并未出售。
2. the house selling agreement of June 1, 2002 and the receipt of May 29, 2002, which says that it received 1,380,000 yuan paid by Zhang Wenxue for purchasing 11 suites of shops at the first floor of the two buildings around the eastern gate of the company, which prove that the houses that Zhongzhou Company sold to Zhang Wenxue do not include the house leased by Yang. 2.2002年6月1日的门面房出售协议一份、2002年5月29日的收据一份,内容为:“今收到张文学交来购房款,厂东门口两幢家属楼11套一楼门市房138万元整。”用以证明中州泵业公司出售给张文学的房屋中,不包括杨巧丽的承租房。
The court presided over the cross-examination and attestation of both parties. Zhongzhou Company held that: evidence No. 1 submitted by Yang is true, however, the selling as a whole stated in the notice does not include the house leased by Yang, and Yang's name is not included in the notice, and which proves that the notice was not sent to Yang; evidence No. 2 is also true; however, the house tenancy agreement only proves that there is an non-fixed-term tenancy relationship between both parties, and can not prove that the whole year of 2002 is a period of tenancy; the testimonies in evidence No. 3 are not in line with the facts, and the true announcement states that: “Upon study and decision of the board of directors, as to the 12 suites of shops at the first floor of the east of the building, of which, the second suite from the west to the east will be preserved as the pump fittings shops of the company and will not be sold out, and the other 11 suites will be sold out as a whole at the price of 1,380,000 yuan. Any potential buyer may sign up at the office of the company and the bid winner will be decided according to the sequential order of payment.” This announcement was posted on May 28, 2002, and was ripped off in the afternoon of May 29 since there was someone who has paid the money for purchasing houses. 法庭主持双方当事人进行质证、认证。被告中州泵业公司认为:原告杨巧丽提交的证据1是真实的,但通知上所说的整体出售不包括杨巧丽承租的房屋,并且通知上没有受送达人的姓名,不能证明是送达给杨巧丽;证据2也是真实的,但租房协议只能证明双方之间存在着不定期的租赁关系,不能证明2002年全年是租赁期;证据3的证人证言均与事实不符,真实的公告内容是:“经董事会研究决定,大楼东侧一楼门面房12套,其中由西向东第2套留做公司水泵配件门市部不出售外,其他11套整体出售,价格为138万元,有意竞买者请到公司办公室报名,以交款先后顺序决定中标者。”该公告于2002年5月28日张贴,因有人交钱购买,5月29日下午就被撕掉了。
Yang argued that: the evidence No. 1 submitted by Zhongzhou Company is true; however, it can not prove that Zhongzhou Company did not sell the house she leased; and the contents in evidence No. 2 are conflicting with each other and are forged, and thus should not be adopted. 原告杨巧丽认为:被告中州泵业公司提交的证据1是真实的,但不能证明中州泵业公司没有将杨巧丽的承租房出售;证据2的内容互相矛盾,系伪造,不应采信。
Yingyang People's Court found that: 荥阳市人民法院查明:
Since June 1995, Yang has leased a suite of Zhongzhou Company for engaging in the photography business. Article 4 of the house tenancy agreement concluded on June 1, 2001 between Yang and Zhongzhou Company stipulates that: “The lessee shall conclude a house tenancy contract for the coming year with the lessor before December 25 of the present year, and shall pay all the rents for a half or one year once and for all, and Yang can not use the house unless the rents has been paid.” On December 25, 2001 and April 5, 2002, Yang paid the rents to Zhongzhou Company. On June 22, 2002, Ma Rulong, an employee of Zhongzhou Company taking charge of the water, power and rents thereof, sent a notice of Zhongzhou Company to Yang, which said that the houses of the company will be sold out to others as a whole, and the property right thereof has been altered, the tenancy agreement concluded between this company and Yang will expire on June 30, 2002, and Yang is required to discuss the tenancy matter with the present purchaser upon receipt of this Notice. Yang deemed that this notice has damaged her preemptive right and thus lodged the lawsuit. After that, Yang paid rents to Zhongzhou Company on July 22, 2002, for which Zhongzhou Company issued a receipt to Yang. 原告杨巧丽从1995年6月以来,一直承租被告中州泵业公司的一套房屋经营照相业务。杨巧丽与中州泵业公司于2001年6月1日签订的租房协议第四条约定:“承租方必须在当年12月25日以前与出租方续签下年租房合同,并一次性交齐半年或一年的全部租金,必须先交款,后使用。”2001年12月25日、2002年4月5日,杨巧丽向中州泵业公司交纳了房租。2002年6月22日,中州泵业公司内负责水电与房租的工作人员马如龙给杨巧丽送来中州泵业公司的通知一份,内容为:“因公司门面房整体出售他人,产权已发生变更,我公司原与你所签的租赁协议到2002年6月30日已执行到期,望你接通知后与现购房人协商具体租赁事宜。特此通知。”杨巧丽认为该通知事项侵犯了其享有的优先购买权,故提起诉讼。起诉后,杨巧丽又于2002年7月22日向中州泵业公司交纳房租,中州泵业公司也给杨巧丽出具了房租收据。
Yingyang People's Court held that: 荥阳市人民法院认为:
Article 230 of the Contract Law of the People's Republic of China 好饿但是不想动prescribes that: “If the lessor sells out a leased house, it/he shall, within a reasonable time limit before the sale, notify the lessee, and the lessee shall have the preemptive right to buy the leased house under the same conditions.” And Article 118 of the Opinions of the Supreme People's Court on Several Issues concerning the Implementation of the General Principles of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China (For Trial Implementation) prescribes that: “If a lessor plans to sell out his leased house, it/he shall notify the lessee three months in advance, and the lessee shall have preemptive right under the same conditions; if a lessor fails to sell the house according to these provisions, the lessee may claim to the people's court for declaration of the invalidity of the sale of the house.” According to the aforesaid provisions, the following conditions shall be met if a lessee wishes to exercise the preemptive right: 1. there shall be a lawful and valid tenancy contract between the lessee and the lessor. If the tenancy contract is not established, is invalid, cancelled or terminated due to the expiration of the performance period, the lessee shall not have this right. 2. The preemptive right can be enjoyed only after the lessor decides to sell the leased house, and shall be exercised within 3 months upon receipt of the selling notice. 3. The lessee shall enjoy preemptive right under the same conditions, which mainly refer to the price, time of payment and method of payment, etc. When the conditions of payment of any third person are better than those of the lessee, the lessee shall have no preemptive right. As to the lessor, if he/it sells out a leased house without notification to the lessee, or sells out the house without soliciting the opinions of the lessee within the valid term of the notice, or does not sell the leased house to the lessee when the lessee gives the same price as that of the third person, it/he has damaged the preemptive right of the lessee. 中华人民共和国合同法》第二百三十条规定:“出租人出卖租赁房屋,应当在合理期限内通知承租人,承租人享有以同等条件优先购买的权利。”最高人民法院《关于贯彻执行<中华人民共和国民法通则>若干问题的意见(试行)我我我什么都没做》第118条规定:“出租人出卖出租房屋,应提前三个月通知承租人。承租人在同等条件下,享有优先购买权;出租人未按此规定出卖房屋的,承租人可以请求人民法院宣告该房屋买卖无效。”依照上述规定,承租人行使优先购买权,应当具备以下条件:1.承租人与出租人之间必须存在合法有效的租赁合同。如果租赁合同不成立、无效、被撤销或者因履行期届满而终止,则承租人不享有此项权利。2.优先购买权只能在出租人决定出卖租赁房屋后享有,并且必须在接到出卖通知后三个月内行使。3.承租人必须是在同等条件下享有优先购买权。所谓同等条件,主要是指价格以及价款的给付时间、给付方式等。第三人的出价条件优于承租人时,承租人没有优先购买权。从出租人一方说,如果出卖租赁房屋而不通知承租人,或者在通知的有效期内不征求承租人的意见即出卖房屋,或者当承租人与第三人的出价同等时不把租赁房屋卖给承租人,都是侵犯承租人优先购买权的违法行为。
The house tenancy agreement concluded between Yang and Zhongzhou Company is an expression of true wills and meets the law, and has been performed for many years, thus it shall be a valid contract. When the lessor sells out the house leased by Yang, Yang shall enjoy preemptive right. 原告杨巧丽与被告中州泵业公司签订的租房协议,意思表示真实,符合法律规定,且已履行多年,是有效合同。当出租人出卖杨巧丽承租的房屋时,杨巧丽享有优先购买权。
Paragraph 1 of Article 64 of the Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China 请你喝茶prescribes that: “Any party shall have the responsibility to provide evidence in support of its/his own allegations.” Article 2 of Some Provisions of the Supreme People's Court on Evidence in Civil Procedures prescribes that: “The parties concerned shall be responsible for producing evidences to prove the facts on which their own allegations are based or the facts on which the allegations of the other party are refuted”, “Where any party cannot produce evidence or the evidences produced cannot support the facts on which the allegations are based, the party concerned that bears the burden of proof shall undertake unfavorable consequences.” Since Yang deemed that her preemptive right has been damaged, she shall be responsible for producing evidences proving the facts of infringement, which include: 1. there is a lawful and valid tenancy relationship between both parties; 2. the lessor has decided to sell out or has sold out the leased house without notification to the lessee, or sells out the leased house to the third person within the valid term of the notice although it/he has notified the lessee of the planned sale of house, or does not sell the leased house to the lessee when the lessee offers the same price as a third person. Based on the evidences submitted by Yang, they only can prove that Zhongzhou Company committed an act of selling houses, but can not prove that Zhongzhou Company decided to sell out or has sold out the house leased by Yang, and Zhongzhou Company did not recognize the allegations of Yang either; furthermore, Yang paid rents to Zhongzhou Company after lodging the lawsuit, and Zhongzhou Company also accepted the rents paid by Yang for this time. This fact proves that there is still a house tenancy relationship between both parties. So, the lawsuit lodged by Yang for the reason that her preemptive right has been injured lacks factual evidence, and her allegations can not be supported. 中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》第六十四条第一款规定:“当事人对自己提出的主张,有责任提供证据。”最高人民法院在《关于民事诉讼证据若干问题的规定》第二条规定:“当事人对自己提出的诉讼请求所依据的事实或者反驳对方诉讼请求所依据的事实有责任提供证据加以证明。”“没有证据或者证据不足以证明当事人的事实主张的,由负有举证责任的当事人承担不利后果。”原告杨巧丽既然认为其享有的优先购买权受到侵害,就有责任提供能够证明侵害事实存在的证据。需要证明的事实包括:1.双方之间存在着合法有效的租赁关系;2.出租人决定出卖或者已经出卖租赁房屋而不通知承租人,或者虽然通知但在通知的有效期未过时即将租赁房屋卖与第三人,或者在承租人与第三人出价同等的情况下将租赁房屋卖给第三人。纵观杨巧丽提交的证据,只能证明中州泵业公司有出卖房屋的行为,却不能证明中州泵业公司决定将或者已将杨巧丽承租的房屋出售,中州泵业公司也不承认杨巧丽的诉讼主张;况且杨巧丽在提起诉讼后,又向中州泵业公司交纳了房租,中州泵业公司也收取了杨巧丽此次交纳的房租。这一事实证明,双方当事人之间的房屋租赁关系依然存在。故杨巧丽以其优先购买权受到侵犯为由提起的诉讼,缺乏事实证据,其请求不予支持。
PROCEDURAL POSTURE 
Based thereon, Yingyang People's Court adjudicated as follows on November 7, 2002: 据此,荥阳市人民法院于2002年11月7日判决:
The allegations of Yang should be rejected. 驳回原告杨巧丽的诉讼请求。
The 100 yuan of case acceptance fee should be borne by Yang. 案件受理费100元,由原告杨巧丽负担。
Yang was not satisfied with the judgment of first instance and filed an appeal for the reasons that: it is a true fact that Zhongzhou Company sold the leased house to others within the period of tenancy and thus deprived the lessee of the preemptive right. Zhongzhou Company not only sold the leased house, but also accepted the money from selling houses, and the evidence proving that the house is not sold out yet is forged. Please cancel the original judgment and support her allegations. 杨巧丽不服一审判决,提起上诉称:被上诉人中州泵业公司在承租期限内将租赁房屋出卖给他人,剥夺承租人优先购买权的事实俱在。被上诉人不仅出卖了租赁的房屋,且已收取了卖房款,所谓尚未出卖的证据均系伪造。请求撤销原判,改判支持上诉人的诉讼请求。
Zhongzhou Company defended that: the allegations of Yang of course can not be supported since she claimed that the property right of the leased house has been altered but failed to produce convincible evidences proving her own allegations. The judgment of first instance is correct and shall be maintained. 中州泵业公司答辩称:上诉人主张其承租房屋的产权已经变更,却无法出示确凿的证据证实自己的主张,其诉讼请求当然不应支持。一审判决正确,应当维持。
Apart from the facts verified by the first instance, the Intermediate People's Court of Zhengzhou City also found after trial that: the transfer formalities for the houses sold by Zhongzhou Company to Zhang Wenxue have not been conducted; and Zhongzhou Company have mortgaged other houses (including the house leased by Yang) under its name to the bank, and has handled the mortgage registration formalities at the real estate administrative department. 郑州市中级人民法院经审理,除确认一审查明的事实外,还查明:被上诉人中州泵业公司转让给张文学的房屋,尚未办理房产过户手续;中州泵业公司已将其名下的其他房屋(包括上诉人杨巧丽承租的房屋)抵押给银行,并已在房产部门办理了抵押登记。
JUDGMENT'S REASONING 
The Intermediate People's Court of Zhengzhou City held that: 郑州市中级人民法院认为:
 最高人民法院《关于民事诉讼证据若干问题的规定》第六十三条规定:“人民法院应当以证据能够证明的案件事实为依据依法作出裁判。”第六十四条规定:“审判人员应当依照法定程序,全面、客观地审核证据,依据法律的规定,遵循法官职业道德,运用逻辑推理和日常生活经验,对证据有无证明力和证明力大小独立进行判断,并公开判断的理由和结果。”法律规定的优先购买权,是指当出租人出卖租赁房屋时,承租人在同等条件下可以优先购买自己承租的房屋;对出租人出卖的其他房屋,承租人不享有优先购买权。上诉人杨巧丽提交的证据,只能证明中州泵业公司出卖过房屋并且收取过卖房款,不能证明其承租的房屋已被中州泵业公司出卖。而只要杨巧丽不能证明其承租的房屋已被中州泵业公司出卖,就不能因中州泵业公司出卖其他房屋而主张享有优先购买权,中州泵业公司出卖其他房屋与杨巧丽无关。二审查明,争议房屋已被中州泵业公司抵押给银行,再次证明房屋所有权人仍是中州泵业公司,该房屋的所有权并未发生转移。杨巧丽的上诉理由没有事实根据,不能成立,其上诉请求不予支持。原审依照法定程序对本案证据进行全面、客观审核后认定的事实清楚,适用法律正确,应当维持。
Article 63 of Some Provisions of the Supreme People's Court on Evidence in Civil Procedures prescribes that: “The people's court shall take the facts that can be proved by evidences as the basis of judgment according to law.” Article 64 prescribes that: “The judges shall comprehensively and objectively verify the evidences according to the legal procedures, observe the provisions of law, follow the professional ethics of judges, use logic reasoning and daily life experiences to make independent judgments concerning the validity and forcefulness of the evidences, and publicize the reasons and results of judgment.” The preemptive right prescribed in the laws means that the lessee can purchase the house it or he leases with priority under the same conditions when the lessor sells out the leased house; and as to other houses to be sold out by the lessor, the lessee shall have no preemptive right. The evidences submitted by Yang only proves that Zhongzhou Company has sold out the houses and collected the money incurred therefrom, but can not prove that the leased house has already been sold out by Zhongzhou Company. So Yang can not exercise preemptive right for other houses sold out by Zhongzhou Company if she can not prove the house leased thereby has been sold out by Zhongzhou Company, because it has nothing to do with Yang for Zhongzhou Company to sell out other houses. The court of second instance found that Zhongzhou Company has mortgaged the house in question to the bank, which further proves that the ownership of the house in question still belongs to Zhongzhou Company and has not been transferred. There is no factual basis for the appeal of Yang, and her appeal can not be established and thus can not be supported. The facts are clearly ascertained and the laws are correctly applied in the first trial after the court of first instance comprehensively and objectively verified the evidences of this case according the statutory procedures, and thus the original judgment shall be maintained. 
JUDGMENT 据此,郑州市中级人民法院依照《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》第一百五十三条第一款第一项的规定,于2003年3月14日判决:
Based thereon, the Intermediate People's Court of Zhengzhou City adjudicated as follows on March 14, 2003 according to Item 1 of Paragraph 1 of Article 153 of the Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China: 驳回上诉,维持原判。
The appeal should be rejected and the original judgment should be maintained. 二审案件受理费100元,由上诉人杨巧丽负担。
The 100 yuan of case acceptance fee for the second instance should be borne by Yang.

 

     
     
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