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No.3 of Second Group of Model Cases regarding Guaranteeing People's Livelihood Issued by the Supreme People's Court: A/S Dan-Bunkering Ltd. v. Owner of the "Xing Yao" Vessel (dispute over pre-litigation arrest of vessels)
最高人民法院公布保障民生第二批典型案例之三:丹麦供油有限公司与 “星耀”(XING YAO)轮船舶所有人诉前海事请求保全扣押船舶案
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No.3 of Second Group of Model Cases regarding Guaranteeing People's Livelihood Issued by the Supreme People's Court: A/S Dan-Bunkering Ltd. v. Owner of the "Xing Yao" Vessel (dispute over pre-litigation arrest of vessels)
(dispute over pre-litigation arrest of vessels)
最高人民法院公布保障民生第二批典型案例之三:丹麦供油有限公司与 “星耀”(XING YAO)轮船舶所有人诉前海事请求保全扣押船舶案
[Key Terms]
foreign vessel ; pre-litigation security for maritime claims ; Chinese territory
[核心术语]
外籍船舶;诉前海事请求保全;中国领域
[Disputed Issues]
If the parties file petition for pre-litigation security for maritime claims against a ship, what conditions shall be satisfied?
[争议焦点]
当事人申请法院对外籍船舶采取诉前海事请求保全的,应当符合哪些条件?
[Case Summary]
Security for Maritime Claims refers to the compulsory preservation measures maritime courts take, based upon application by maritime claimants, against property of the respondent in order to ensure the realization of such claims, and it is a special form of property preservation in civil actions. Under the provisions of the Special Maritime Procedure Law, where a party files petition of pre-litigation security for maritime claims against a ship, the following conditions shall be satisfied: (1) the application shall be filed with the maritime court of the place where the property subject to preservation located; (2) a written application shall be filed with the maritime court. The application shall state the maritime claims, application reasons, objects to be arrested and guaranty amount demanded, and submitted with relevant evidence. Therefore, when a party files petition of pre-litigation security for maritime claims against a foreign vessel, the above-mentioned conditions shall be satisfied. It needs noted that Chinese courts have jurisdiction over a foreign vessel to be arrested only when she entered into the China territory.
[案例要旨]
海事请求保全是指海事法院根据海事请求人的申请,为保障其海事请求的实现,对被请求人的财产所采取的强制措施,属于民事诉讼中财产保全的特殊形态。根据《海事诉讼特别程序法》的规定,当事人申请法院对船舶采取诉前海事请求保全的,应当符合下列条件:(1)应当向被保全的财产所在地海事法院提出。(2)应当向海事法院提交书面申请。申请书应当载明海事请求事项、申请理由、保全的标的物以及要求提供担保的数额,并附有关证据。因此,当事人申请法院对外籍船舶采取诉前海事请求保全的,应当符合上述条件,尤其注意的是,被保全外籍船舶必须进入中国领域,我国法院才有管辖权。
No.3 of Second Group of Model Cases regarding Guaranteeing People's Livelihood Issued by the Supreme People's Court: A/S Dan-Bunkering Ltd. v. Owner of the "Xing Yao" Vessel (case of dispute over maritime claim preservation before an action began and seizure of the vessel) 最高人民法院公布保障民生第二批典型案例之三:丹麦供油有限公司与 “星耀”(XING YAO)轮船舶所有人诉前海事请求保全扣押船舶案
1. Basic Facts 基本案情
On December 12, 2012, the Applicant A/S Dan-Bunkering Ltd. provided bunker oil for the Panamanian “Xing Yao” Vessel owned by the Respondent in the water areas of Hong Kong, including 485.1820 metric tons of Fol80Cst and 158.5280 metric tons of Gas-Oil, with the total costs of 461,238.21 US dollars. The Respondent only paid 1,000,000 yuan (converted to 158,730 US dollars) and still owed 302,508 US dollars. Afterwards, the vessel sailed into the water areas of Shantou City, Guangdong Province and the Respondent has contacted the buyer and prepared to deliver it to a new owner. Under urgent circumstances, in order to prevent failure of the creditor's right, on January 22, 2013, the Applicant filed a petition for maritime claim preservation before an action began with the Guangzhou Maritime Court, applied for the seizure of the “Xing Yao” vessel before an action began, and ordered the Respondent to provide a guarantee of 302,508 US dollars or equivalent RMB. The “Xing Yao” vessel was 225 m in length, 32 m in width, 17.81 m in moulded depth, and 62,343 tons in carrying capacity. Due to its large tonnage, it failed to dock at the port. It anchored in the water areas 25 sea miles away from the Shantou Port and it may leave at any time. 申请人丹麦供油有限公司(A/S Dan-Bunkering Ltd.)于2012年12月12日在香港海域为被申请人所属的巴拿马籍“星耀”(Xing Yao)轮提供485.1820公吨Fol80Cst及158.5280公吨Gas-Oil的船用油,费用为461,238.21美元。被申请人仅支付人民币1,000,000元(折合美元为158,730美元),仍欠302,508美元。后该轮驶入广东汕头水域,被申请人已联系好买家正准备向新的船东交船,情况较为紧急。为防止债权落空,申请人于2013年1月22日紧急向广州海事法院提出诉前海事请求保全申请,申请诉前扣押“星耀”轮,并责令被申请人提供302,508美元或等值人民币的担保。“星耀”轮船长225米,船宽32米,型深17.81,载重吨62343,因吨位大无法靠泊码头,在汕头港离岸约25海里水域抛锚,随时可能驶离。
2. Judgment 裁判结果
Upon receipt of the petition, the Guangzhou Maritime Court immediately formed a collegial bench to examine the petition and required the Applicant to provide specific location of the vessel; and prepared the ruling and order on the seizure of the vessel. According to legal provisions, a maritime claimant should file a petition for maritime claim preservation before an action began with the maritime court at the place where the vessel is located. In this case, the maritime claimant provided evidence that the “Xing Yao” vessel has left the water areas of Hong Kong and entered or anchored in the water areas of Shantou City, Guangdong Province. Therefore, the Guangzhou Maritime Court should legally exercise the maritime jurisdiction and seize the vessel. The Applicant claimed the seizure of the vessel before an action began under urgent circumstances, which met the statutory conditions for maritime claim preservation before an action began. Upon examination, the Guangzhou Maritime Court held that the petition of the Applicant complied with legal provisions and should be approved. In accordance with item (12) of Article 21请你喝茶, items (1) and (2) of paragraph 1 of Article 23, and paragraph 1 of Article 28 of the Special Maritime Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China, the court ruled to approve the petition for maritime claim preservation before an action began filed by the Applicant; seize the “Xing Yao” vessel owned by the Respondent that anchored near the Shantou Port; and order the Respondent to provide a guarantee of 302,508 US dollars or equivalent RMB. On January 24, 2013, after traveling by water taxi for nearly seven hours in strong waves in the sea, judges got aboard 25 sea miles away from the port and seized the 60,000 ton-level “Xing Yao” vessel; after the seizure of the vessel, judges actively brought about the negotiation between the Applicant and the Respondent and conducted pre-trial mediation under the auspice of the court. On January 29, the Applicant obtained full indemnity from the Respondent. 广州海事法院收到申请后,立即组成合议庭对申请进行审查,要求申请人提供被扣船舶的具体地点;另一方面制作扣押船舶裁定书及扣船令。根据法律规定,海事请求权人应向船舶所在地的海事法院提出诉前海事请求保全申请,本案海事请求权人提供了“星耀”轮已驶离香港海域进入广东汕头海域抛锚的证据,应由广州海事法院依法行使海事司法管辖权扣船。申请人选择诉前扣押该轮,且情况较为紧急,符合诉前海事请求保全的法定条件。经审查,广州海事法院认为,申请人的申请符合法律规定,应予准许。依照《中华人民共和国海事诉讼特别程序法》第二十一条第十二项、第二十三条第一款第一、二项、第二十八条北大法宝第一款的规定,裁定准许申请人的诉前海事请求保全申请;扣押被申请人所属的停泊于汕头港的“星耀”轮;责令被申请人提供302,508美元或等值人民币的担保。2013年1月24日,法官乘坐交通艇往返近七个小时,冒着海上风浪,在离岸25海里水域登轮扣押了六万吨级的“星耀”轮;扣押船舶后,法官又积极促成申请人与被申请人进行协商,在法院主持下进行了诉前调解,1月29日,申请人即从被申请人处得到全额赔款。
3. Significance 典型意义
This case involved disputes among parties from different countries including the Kingdom of Denmark and Panama and the laws of Hong Kong, China. After the vessel involved entered the water areas of Guangdong Province, the court of the Chinese mainland efficiently dissolved the disputes among the parties concerned only in five days through seizure of the vessel before an action began by effectively performing the judicial jurisdiction and carrying out pre-trial mediation, and actually achieved the dissolution of disputes upon case closure. On March 26, 2013, the Guangzhou Maritime Court received a letter from the Applicant, which expressed its gratitude to the Chinese court's timely and efficient seizure of the vessel. 本案是一宗涉及丹麦王国、巴拿马等不同国家当事人及中国香港法域的纠纷,涉案船舶进入中国广东海域后,中国内地法院通过及时有效地行使司法管辖权诉前扣押船舶,并开展诉前调解工作,仅用5天时间便高效地解决了当事人之间的纠纷,真正做到了“案结事了”。2013年3月26日,广州海事法院收到申请人致函,对中国法院及时高效扣船解决纠纷表示感谢。
This case has set three records of the Guangzhou Maritime Court and the people's court of Shantou City, namely, “the largest tonnage of a foreign vessel that was seized,” “the farthest away from the port for seizing a vessel by water taxi,” and “the shortest time taken for dispute settlement.” The timely and efficient seizure of a vessel was a crucial approach for safeguarding rights for a foreign party that came to a Chinese court for litigation for the first time and was also a window through which the foreign party actually felt China's judicial credibility. The satisfactory closure of this case embodied the significances of China's maritime judicial practice of “implementing the strategy of fine works and creating first-class brands,” increased the confidence of foreign parties concerned in China's maritime judicial practice, and was favorable to the establishment of Chinese courts' judicial credibility and good images of Chinese judges. 本案创下了广州海事法院汕头法庭的三项纪录:“扣押外轮吨位最大”、“乘艇扣船离岸最远”和“解决纠纷时间最短”。及时有效的扣船工作,对于首次到中国法院进行诉讼活动的外国当事人而言,是至关重要的维权途径,是切实感受中国司法公信力的窗口。这一案件的圆满解决体现了中国海事司法“实施精品战略,打造一流品牌”工作的重大意义,增强了国外当事人对中国海事司法的信任度,有利于树立中国法院的司法公信力和法官良好的司法形象。
     
     
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