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Guiding Case No. 47:FERRERO S.p.A. v. Montresor Food (Zhangjiagang) Co., Ltd. and Zhengyuan Marketing Co., Ltd. in Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Zone (Dispute over unfair competition)
  • Type of Dispute: IPR-->Others
  • Legal document: Judgment
  • Judgment date: 03-24-2008
  • Procedural status: Retrial

Guiding Case No. 47:FERRERO S.p.A. v. Montresor Food (Zhangjiagang) Co., Ltd. and Zhengyuan Marketing Co., Ltd. in Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Zone (Dispute over unfair competition) 指导案例47号:意大利费列罗公司诉蒙特莎(张家港)食品有限公司、天津经济技术开发区正元行销有限公司不正当竞争纠纷案
 (最高人民法院审判委员会讨论通过 2015年4月15日发布)

Guiding Case No. 47


Civil; unfair competition; well-known commodities; unique packaging and decorations 民事 不正当竞争 知名商品 特有包装、装潢
Key Points of 裁判要点
1. For the purpose of the Anti-Unfair Competition Law, “well-known commodities” means commodities that have a certain degree of knowledge in the Chinese market and in the relevant public. As for internationally well-known commodities, the knowledge of them in the relevant public within China is necessary for the protection of their names, packaging, and decorations. Therefore, in the determination of a well-known commodity, a variety of factors should be taken into account, including but not limited to the sales duration, sales territory, sales volume, and target customers of the commodity in China, the duration, extent, and geographical area of promotion of the commodity in China, and existing protection received as a well-known commodity, and the well-known status of such commodity abroad should also be appropriately considered, so as to draw a conclusion on a comprehensive basis. 1.反不正当竞争法所称的知名商品,是指在中国境内具有一定的市场知名度,为相关公众所知悉的商品。在国际上已知名的商品,我国对其特有的名称、包装、装潢的保护,仍应以其在中国境内为相关公众所知悉为必要。故认定该知名商品,应当结合该商品在中国境内的销售时间、销售区域、销售额和销售对象,进行宣传的持续时间、程度和地域范围,作为知名商品受保护的情况等因素,并适当考虑该商品在国外已知名的情况,进行综合判断。
2. Packaging and decorations of a well-known commodity protected by the Anti-Unfair Competition Law refer to packaging, such as a container of or a vessel used for protection of the commodity, and decorations on the commodity or packaging composed of words, patterns, colors, and the arrangement and combination thereof, as far as they can identify the source of the commodity. 2.反不正当竞争法所保护的知名商品特有的包装、装潢,是指能够区别商品来源的盛装或者保护商品的容器等包装,以及在商品或者其包装上附加的文字、图案、色彩及其排列组合所构成的装潢。
3. The imitation of the unique packaging and decorations of another person's commodity which can distinguish the source of the commodity in such an extensive manner that may lead to market confusion and misidentification should be held as unfair competition. 3.对他人能够区别商品来源的知名商品特有的包装、装潢,进行足以引起市场混淆、误认的全面模仿,属于不正当竞争行为。
Legal Provisions 相关法条
Item (2) of Article 5 of the Anti-Unfair Competition Law of the People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国反不正当竞争法》第五条第二项
Basic Facts 基本案情
Plaintiff FERRERO S.p.A (hereinafter referred to as “FERRERO S.p.A”) alleged that: Defendant Montresor Food (Zhangjiagang) Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as “Montresor Company”) had produced mimic products illegally using packaging and decorations identical with or similar to those unique to the well-known product of the plaintiff to mislead and confuse consumers. The aforesaid acts of defendant Montresor Company and the marketing of the counterfeit products by defendant Zhengyuan Marketing Company in Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Zone (hereinafter referred to as “Zhengyuan Company”) had caused significant economic losses to the plaintiff. The plaintiff requested the court to order that Montresor Company should cease producing and selling and Zhengyuan Company should cease marketing any product identical with any or any combination of the above packaging and decorations unique to the chocolate products of FERRERO S.p.A or any other chocolate product with packaging and decorations similar to those of FERRERO S.p.A which would cause misidentification by consumers; that both defendants should make a formal apology, eliminate adverse effects, and assume all litigation costs; and that Montresor Company should compensate plaintiff for economic losses in the amount of three million yuan. 原告意大利费列罗公司(以下简称费列罗公司)诉称:被告蒙特莎(张家港)食品有限公司(以下简称蒙特莎公司)仿冒原告产品,擅自使用与原告知名商品特有的包装、装潢相同或近似的包装、装潢,使消费者产生混淆。被告蒙特莎公司的上述行为及被告天津经济技术开发区正元行销有限公司(以下简称正元公司)销售仿冒产品的行为已给原告造成重大经济损失。请求判令蒙特莎公司不得生产、销售,正元公司不得销售符合前述费列罗公司巧克力产品特有的任意一项或者几项组合的包装、装潢的产品或者任何与费列罗公司的上述包装、装潢相似的足以引起消费者误认的巧克力产品,并赔礼道歉、消除影响、承担诉讼费用,蒙特莎公司赔偿损失300万元。
Defendant Montresor Company contended that: The involved products of the plaintiff were not well known in the Chinese market by the relevant public; on the contrary, the 金莎 (which read “Jinsha”) chocolate products of Montresor Company enjoyed a high degree of knowledge among Chinese consumers and were well-known products. The packaging and decorations of which the plaintiff claimed protection were common packaging and decorations used for the same kind of chocolate products at home and abroad, without originality or uniqueness. The packaging and decorations used for the 金莎 chocolate produced by Montresor Company were jointly developed by the staff members of Montresor Company and professional designers, rather than by imitating any existing packaging and decorations of others. Common consumers with normal attention would not confuse the chocolate products of the plaintiff and the defendant. The plaintiff alleged that its product packaging contained multiple intellectual property rights such as trademark, design, and copyright, but failed to specify which particular rights the packaging and decorations of the alleged infringing product had infringed upon, meaning that the object of protection which the plaintiff claimed was unclear. As the action instituted by the plaintiff lacked both factual and legal basis, Montresor Company requested the court to dismiss the claims of the plaintiff. 被告蒙特莎公司辩称:原告涉案产品在中国境内市场并没有被相关公众所知悉,而蒙特莎公司生产的金莎巧克力产品在中国境内消费者中享有很高的知名度,属于知名商品。原告诉请中要求保护的包装、装潢是国内外同类巧克力产品的通用包装、装潢,不具有独创性和特异性。蒙特莎公司生产的金莎巧克力使用的包装、装潢是其和专业设计人员合作开发的,并非仿冒他人已有的包装、装潢。普通消费者只需施加一般的注意,就不会混淆原、被告各自生产的巧克力产品。原告认为自己产品的包装涵盖了商标、外观设计、著作权等多项知识产权,但未明确指出被控侵权产品的包装、装潢具体侵犯了其何种权利,其起诉要求保护的客体模糊不清。故原告起诉无事实和法律依据,请求驳回原告的诉讼请求。
Upon trial, the courts found that: FERRERO S.p.A was formed in Italy in 1946, and the FERRERO chocolate produced by it was put onto the market in 1982, with advertisements once published on televisions, newspapers, periodicals, and magazines of many Asian countries and regions. In Taiwan and Hong Kong of China, FERRERO chocolates were entitled “金莎” chocolates, and the trademark “金莎” was registered in Taiwan and Hong Kong in June 1990 and 1993 respectively. In February 1984, FERRERO chocolate products entered the Chinese market by means of consignment sales through China National Cereals, Oils, and Foodstuffs Import and Export Corporation, and were mainly sold in duty-free shops, airport shops, and other premises permitted by policies at that time until 1993. In October 1986, FERRERO S.p.A registered a series of trademarks of “FERRERO ROCHER” and a device (an ellipse lacy pattern) as well as the combination thereof for usage on chocolate products sold within the territory of China. The main characteristics of the packaging and decorations used for FERRERO chocolates include: (1) a ball-shaped golden paper packaging; (2) a label fitted with an elliptical golden brim and a print of “FERRERO ROCHER,” the trademark of the plaintiff, on the ball-shaped golden paper packaging as a decoration; (3) a coffee-colored paper base as a decoration for each chocolate ball wrapped in golden paper; (4) transparent packaging in plastic paper in certain shapes to display the ball-shaped golden packaging inside; and (5) a transparent plastic packaging fitted with an elliptical golden-brimmed pattern as a decoration, with product pattern and trademark inside the ellipse and a red ribbon-like pattern stretching out from the mark. In 1984, FERRERO S.p.A applied for a three-dimensional mark for its volumetric packaging of eight pieces, 16 pieces, 24 pieces, and 30 pieces of chocolate products. Since 1993, FERRERO S.p.A had gradually increased its promotional efforts for its FERRERO chocolates via domestic newspapers, periodicals, and outdoor advertisements in core regions including Guangdong, Shanghai, and Beijing. It had set up special sales counters in some large and medium-sized cities and sponsored some commercial and sports events to improve the popularity of its products. In June 2000, its trademark “FERRERO ROCHER” was included by the State Administration for Industry and Commerce in the List of Major Trademarks for Nationwide Protection. The administrations for industry and commerce in Guangdong, Hebei, and other places of China repeatedly investigated and punished acts of counterfeiting the packaging and decorations of FERRERO chocolates. 法院经审理查明:费列罗公司于1946年在意大利成立,1982年其生产的费列罗巧克力投放市场,曾在亚洲多个国家和地区的电视、报刊、杂志发布广告。在我国台湾和香港地区,费列罗巧克力取名“金莎”巧克力,并分别于1990年6月和1993年在我国台湾和香港地区注册“金莎”商标。1984年2月,费列罗巧克力通过中国粮油食品进出口总公司采取寄售方式进入了国内市场,主要在免税店和机场商店等当时政策所允许的场所销售,并延续到1993年前。1986年10月,费列罗公司在中国注册了“FERRERO ROCHER”和图形(椭圆花边图案)以及其组合的系列商标,并在中国境内销售的巧克力商品上使用。费列罗巧克力使用的包装、装潢的主要特征是:1.每一粒球状巧克力用金色纸质包装;2.在金色球状包装上配以印有“FERRERO ROCHER”商标的椭圆形金边标签作为装潢;3.每一粒金球状巧克力均有咖啡色纸质底托作为装潢;4.若干形状的塑料透明包装,以呈现金球状内包装;5.塑料透明包装上使用椭圆形金边图案作为装潢,椭圆形内配有产品图案和商标,并由商标处延伸出红金颜色的绶带状图案。费列罗巧克力产品的8粒装、16粒装、24粒装以及30粒装立体包装于1984年在世界知识产权组织申请为立体商标。费列罗公司自1993年开始,以广东、上海、北京地区为核心逐步加大费列罗巧克力在国内的报纸、期刊和室外广告的宣传力度,相继在一些大中城市设立专柜进行销售,并通过赞助一些商业和体育活动,提高其产品的知名度。2000年6月,其“FERRERO ROCHER”商标被国家工商行政管理部门列入全国重点商标保护名录。我国广东、河北等地工商行政管理部门曾多次查处仿冒费列罗巧克力包装、装潢的行为。
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