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Guiding Case No. 47:FERRERO S.p.A. v. Montresor Food (Zhangjiagang) Co., Ltd. and Zhengyuan Marketing Co., Ltd. in Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Zone (Dispute over unfair competition)
指导案例47号:意大利费列罗公司诉蒙特莎(张家港)食品有限公司、天津经济技术开发区正元行销有限公司不正当竞争纠纷案
【法宝引证码】
  • Type of Dispute: IPR-->Others
  • Legal document: Judgment
  • Judgment date: 03-24-2008
  • Procedural status: Retrial

Guiding Case No. 47:FERRERO S.p.A. v. Montresor Food (Zhangjiagang) Co., Ltd. and Zhengyuan Marketing Co., Ltd. in Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Zone (Dispute over unfair competition) 指导案例47号:意大利费列罗公司诉蒙特莎(张家港)食品有限公司、天津经济技术开发区正元行销有限公司不正当竞争纠纷案
 (最高人民法院审判委员会讨论通过 2015年4月15日发布)

Guiding Case No. 47

 指导案例47号

Keywords
 关键词
Civil; unfair competition; well-known commodities; unique packaging and decorations 民事 不正当竞争 知名商品 特有包装、装潢
Key Points of 裁判要点
1. For the purpose of the Anti-Unfair Competition Law, “well-known commodities” means commodities that have a certain degree of knowledge in the Chinese market and in the relevant public. As for internationally well-known commodities, the knowledge of them in the relevant public within China is necessary for the protection of their names, packaging, and decorations. Therefore, in the determination of a well-known commodity, a variety of factors should be taken into account, including but not limited to the sales duration, sales territory, sales volume, and target customers of the commodity in China, the duration, extent, and geographical area of promotion of the commodity in China, and existing protection received as a well-known commodity, and the well-known status of such commodity abroad should also be appropriately considered, so as to draw a conclusion on a comprehensive basis. 1.反不正当竞争法所称的知名商品,是指在中国境内具有一定的市场知名度,为相关公众所知悉的商品。在国际上已知名的商品,我国对其特有的名称、包装、装潢的保护,仍应以其在中国境内为相关公众所知悉为必要。故认定该知名商品,应当结合该商品在中国境内的销售时间、销售区域、销售额和销售对象,进行宣传的持续时间、程度和地域范围,作为知名商品受保护的情况等因素,并适当考虑该商品在国外已知名的情况,进行综合判断。
2. Packaging and decorations of a well-known commodity protected by the Anti-Unfair Competition Law爱法律,有未来 refer to packaging, such as a container of or a vessel used for protection of the commodity, and decorations on the commodity or packaging composed of words, patterns, colors, and the arrangement and combination thereof, as far as they can identify the source of the commodity. 2.反不正当竞争法所保护的知名商品特有的包装、装潢,是指能够区别商品来源的盛装或者保护商品的容器等包装,以及在商品或者其包装上附加的文字、图案、色彩及其排列组合所构成的装潢。
3. The imitation of the unique packaging and decorations of another person's commodity which can distinguish the source of the commodity in such an extensive manner that may lead to market confusion and misidentification should be held as unfair competition. 3.对他人能够区别商品来源的知名商品特有的包装、装潢,进行足以引起市场混淆、误认的全面模仿,属于不正当竞争行为。
Legal Provisions 相关法条
Item (2) of Article 5 of the Anti-Unfair Competition Law of the People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国反不正当竞争法》第五条第二项
Basic Facts 基本案情人丑就要多读书
Plaintiff FERRERO S.p.A (hereinafter referred to as “FERRERO S.p.A”) alleged that: Defendant Montresor Food (Zhangjiagang) Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as “Montresor Company”) had produced mimic products illegally using packaging and decorations identical with or similar to those unique to the well-known product of the plaintiff to mislead and confuse consumers. The aforesaid acts of defendant Montresor Company and the marketing of the counterfeit products by defendant Zhengyuan Marketing Company in Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Zone (hereinafter referred to as “Zhengyuan Company”) had caused significant economic losses to the plaintiff. The plaintiff requested the court to order that Montresor Company should cease producing and selling and Zhengyuan Company should cease marketing any product identical with any or any combination of the above packaging and decorations unique to the chocolate products of FERRERO S.p.A or any other chocolate product with packaging and decorations similar to those of FERRERO S.p.A which would cause misidentification by consumers; that both defendants should make a formal apology, eliminate adverse effects, and assume all litigation costs; and that Montresor Company should compensate plaintiff for economic losses in the amount of three million yuan. 原告意大利费列罗公司(以下简称费列罗公司)诉称:被告蒙特莎(张家港)食品有限公司(以下简称蒙特莎公司)仿冒原告产品,擅自使用与原告知名商品特有的包装、装潢相同或近似的包装、装潢,使消费者产生混淆。被告蒙特莎公司的上述行为及被告天津经济技术开发区正元行销有限公司(以下简称正元公司)销售仿冒产品的行为已给原告造成重大经济损失。请求判令蒙特莎公司不得生产、销售,正元公司不得销售符合前述费列罗公司巧克力产品特有的任意一项或者几项组合的包装、装潢的产品或者任何与费列罗公司的上述包装、装潢相似的足以引起消费者误认的巧克力产品,并赔礼道歉、消除影响、承担诉讼费用,蒙特莎公司赔偿损失300万元。
Defendant Montresor Company contended that: The involved products of the plaintiff were not well known in the Chinese market by the relevant public; on the contrary, the 金莎 (which read “Jinsha”) chocolate products of Montresor Company enjoyed a high degree of knowledge among Chinese consumers and were well-known products. The packaging and decorations of which the plaintiff claimed protection were common packaging and decorations used for the same kind of chocolate products at home and abroad, without originality or uniqueness. The packaging and decorations used for the 金莎 chocolate produced by Montresor Company were jointly developed by the staff members of Montresor Company and professional designers, rather than by imitating any existing packaging and decorations of others. Common consumers with normal attention would not confuse the chocolate products of the plaintiff and the defendant. The plaintiff alleged that its product packaging contained multiple intellectual property rights such as trademark, design, and copyright, but failed to specify which particular rights the packaging and decorations of the alleged infringing product had infringed upon, meaning that the object of protection which the plaintiff claimed was unclear. As the action instituted by the plaintiff lacked both factual and legal basis, Montresor Company requested the court to dismiss the claims of the plaintiff. 被告蒙特莎公司辩称:原告涉案产品在中国境内市场并没有被相关公众所知悉,而蒙特莎公司生产的金莎巧克力产品在中国境内消费者中享有很高的知名度,属于知名商品。原告诉请中要求保护的包装、装潢是国内外同类巧克力产品的通用包装、装潢,不具有独创性和特异性。蒙特莎公司生产的金莎巧克力使用的包装、装潢是其和专业设计人员合作开发的,并非仿冒他人已有的包装、装潢。普通消费者只需施加一般的注意,就不会混淆原、被告各自生产的巧克力产品。原告认为自己产品的包装涵盖了商标、外观设计、著作权等多项知识产权,但未明确指出被控侵权产品的包装、装潢具体侵犯了其何种权利,其起诉要求保护的客体模糊不清。故原告起诉无事实和法律依据,请求驳回原告的诉讼请求。
Upon trial, the courts found that: FERRERO S.p.A was formed in Italy in 1946, and the FERRERO chocolate produced by it was put onto the market in 1982, with advertisements once published on televisions, newspapers, periodicals, and magazines of many Asian countries and regions. In Taiwan and Hong Kong of China, FERRERO chocolates were entitled “金莎” chocolates, and the trademark “金莎” was registered in Taiwan and Hong Kong in June 1990 and 1993 respectively. In February 1984, FERRERO chocolate products entered the Chinese market by means of consignment sales through China National Cereals, Oils, and Foodstuffs Import and Export Corporation, and were mainly sold in duty-free shops, airport shops, and other premises permitted by policies at that time until 1993. In October 1986, FERRERO S.p.A registered a series of trademarks of “FERRERO ROCHER” and a device (an ellipse lacy pattern) as well as the combination thereof for usage on chocolate products sold within the territory of China. The main characteristics of the packaging and decorations used for FERRERO chocolates include: (1) a ball-shaped golden paper packaging; (2) a label fitted with an elliptical golden brim and a print of “FERRERO ROCHER,” the trademark of the plaintiff, on the ball-shaped golden paper packaging as a decoration; (3) a coffee-colored paper base as a decoration for each chocolate ball wrapped in golden paper; (4) transparent packaging in plastic paper in certain shapes to display the ball-shaped golden packaging inside; and (5) a transparent plastic packaging fitted with an elliptical golden-brimmed pattern as a decoration, with product pattern and trademark inside the ellipse and a red ribbon-like pattern stretching out from the mark. In 1984, FERRERO S.p.A applied for a three-dimensional mark for its volumetric packaging of eight pieces, 16 pieces, 24 pieces, and 30 pieces of chocolate products. Since 1993, FERRERO S.p.A had gradually increased its promotional efforts for its FERRERO chocolates via domestic newspapers, periodicals, and outdoor advertisements in core regions including Guangdong, Shanghai, and Beijing. It had set up special sales counters in some large and medium-sized cities and sponsored some commercial and sports events to improve the popularity of its products. In June 2000, its trademark “FERRERO ROCHER” was included by the State Administration for Industry and Commerce in the List of Major Trademarks for Nationwide Protection. The administrations for industry and commerce in Guangdong, Hebei, and other places of China repeatedly investigated and punished acts of counterfeiting the packaging and decorations of FERRERO chocolates. 法院经审理查明:费列罗公司于1946年在意大利成立,1982年其生产的费列罗巧克力投放市场,曾在亚洲多个国家和地区的电视、报刊、杂志发布广告。在我国台湾和香港地区,费列罗巧克力取名“金莎”巧克力,并分别于1990年6月和1993年在我国台湾和香港地区注册“金莎”商标。1984年2月,费列罗巧克力通过中国粮油食品进出口总公司采取寄售方式进入了国内市场,主要在免税店和机场商店等当时政策所允许的场所销售,并延续到1993年前。1986年10月,费列罗公司在中国注册了“FERRERO ROCHER”和图形(椭圆花边图案)以及其组合的系列商标,并在中国境内销售的巧克力商品上使用。费列罗巧克力使用的包装、装潢的主要特征是:1.每一粒球状巧克力用金色纸质包装;2.在金色球状包装上配以印有“FERRERO ROCHER”商标的椭圆形金边标签作为装潢;3.每一粒金球状巧克力均有咖啡色纸质底托作为装潢;4.若干形状的塑料透明包装,以呈现金球状内包装;5.塑料透明包装上使用椭圆形金边图案作为装潢,椭圆形内配有产品图案和商标,并由商标处延伸出红金颜色的绶带状图案。费列罗巧克力产品的8粒装、16粒装、24粒装以及30粒装立体包装于1984年在世界知识产权组织申请为立体商标。费列罗公司自1993年开始,以广东、上海、北京地区为核心逐步加大费列罗巧克力在国内的报纸、期刊和室外广告的宣传力度,相继在一些大中城市设立专柜进行销售,并通过赞助一些商业和体育活动,提高其产品的知名度。2000年6月,其“FERRERO ROCHER”商标被国家工商行政管理部门列入全国重点商标保护名录。我国广东、河北等地工商行政管理部门曾多次查处仿冒费列罗巧克力包装、装潢的行为。
Montresor Company was a Chinese-foreign joint venture formed by Zhangjiagang First Diary Plant, China and MONTRESOR ET FITRADEAL S.A., Belgium to produce and sell various chocolate products. Zhangjiagang First Diary Plant began producing 金莎 chocolates in 1990, and on April 23, 1990, it applied for the registration of the word trademark “金莎,” which was granted registration in April 1991 by the Trademark Office of the State Administration for Industry and Commerce. In 2002, Zhangjiagang First Diary Plant assigned the trademark “金莎” to Montresor Company. The application for assignment was filed on November 25, 2002, and was approved by the Trademark Office of the State Administration for Industry and Commerce on April 21, 2004. Montresor Company therefore started to produce and sell 金莎 chocolate products. In the production and sale of 金莎 chocolate products, except that “金莎” was changed into the composite mark of “金莎 TRESOR DORE,” Montresor Company continued to use the packaging and decorations of 金莎 chocolate products used by Zhangjiagang First Diary Plant. The alleged infringing 金莎TRESOR DORE chocolates had the following packaging and decorations: each piece of 金莎 TRESOR DORE chocolates is ball-shaped and packaged in golden silver paper; there was an oval gilt-edged label for the trademark “金莎 TRESOR DORE” on the top of the golden globular packaging; each piece of golden globular chocolate had a brown bowl-shaped paper base with a smooth and wrinkleless bottom and wavy and wrinkling sides; the external packaging was a piece of transparent plastic paper or plastic case; there was a golden oval gilt-edged pattern in the middle of the external packaging, in which there were the product pattern and the trademark “金莎 TRESOR DORE,” and a red golden ribbon stretched from the middle. The aforesaid characteristics were similar to the general image and main part of the packaging and decorations to be protected in the claim of FERRERO S.p.A. Zhengyuan Company was the dealer of 金莎 TRESOR DORE chocolates of Montresor Company in Tianjin Municipality. In January 2003, upon notarization by Tianjin Notary Public Office, FERRERO S.p.A purchased the alleged infringing products from Zhengyuan Company in Hedong District, Tianjin Municipality. 蒙特莎公司是1991年12月张家港市乳品一厂与比利时费塔代尔有限公司合资成立的生产、销售各种花色巧克力的中外合资企业。张家港市乳品一厂自1990年开始生产金莎巧克力,并于1990年4月23日申请注册“金莎”文字商标,1991年4月经国家工商行政管理局商标局核准注册。2002年,张家港市乳品一厂向蒙特莎公司转让“金莎”商标,于2002年11月25日提出申请,并于2004年4月21日经国家工商管理总局商标局核准转让。由此蒙特莎公司开始生产、销售金莎巧克力。蒙特莎公司生产、销售金莎巧克力产品,其除将“金莎”更换为“金莎TRESOR DORE”组合商标外,仍延续使用张家港市乳品一厂金莎巧克力产品使用的包装、装潢。被控侵权的金莎TRESOR DORE巧克力包装、装潢为:每粒金莎TRESOR DORE巧克力呈球状并均由金色锡纸包装;在每粒金球状包装顶部均配以印有“金莎TRESOR DORE”商标的椭圆形金边标签;每粒金球状巧克力均配有底面平滑无褶皱、侧面带波浪褶皱的呈碗状的咖啡色纸质底托;外包装为透明塑料纸或塑料盒;外包装正中处使用椭圆金边图案,内配产品图案及金莎TRESOR DORE商标,并由此延伸出红金色绶带。以上特征与费列罗公司起诉中请求保护的包装、装潢在整体印象和主要部分上相近似。正元公司为蒙特莎公司生产的金莎TRESOR DORE巧克力在天津市的经销商。2003年1月,费列罗公司经天津市公证处公证,在天津市河东区正元公司处购买了被控侵权产品。
Judgement北京大学互联网法律中心 裁判结果
On February 7, 2005, the No. 2 Intermediate People's Court of Tianjin Municipality rendered a civil  (No. 63 [2003], First, Civil DivisionIII, No. 2 IPC, Tianjin) that the claims of FERRERO S.p.A against Montresor Company and Zhengyuan Company should be dismissed. FERRERO S.p.A appealed. On January 9, 2006, the Higher People's Court of Tianjin Municipality rendered a  (No. 36 [2005], Final, Civil DivisionIII, HPC, Tianjin) that: (1) the  of the court of first instance should be revoked; (2) Montresor Company should immediately cease using the infringing packaging and decorations of the series of 金莎 TRESOR DORE chocolates; (3) Montresor Company should compensate FERRERO S.p.A in the amount of 700, 000 yuan, which should be paid within 15 days after the  took effect; (4) Zhengyuan Company should immediately cease selling the series of 金莎 TRESOR DORE chocolates using the infringing packaging and decorations; and (5) other claims of FERRERO S.p.A should be dismissed. Against the  of the court of second instance, Montresor Company filed a petition for retrial with the Supreme People's Court. On March 24, 2008, the Supreme People's Court rendered a civil  (No. 3 [2006], Review, Civil DivisionIII, Supreme People's Court) that: (1) items (1) and (5) of the civil  (No. 36 [2005], Final, Civil DivisionIII, HPC, Tianjin) should be affirmed; (2) item (2) of the civil  (No. 36 [2005], Final, Civil DivisionIII, HPC, Tianjin) should be changed into “Montresor Company should immediately cease its unfair competition by using the packaging and decorations similar to the unique packaging and decorations of FERRERO chocolate products on its 金莎 TRESOR DORE chocolate products; (3) item (3) of the civil  (No. 36 [2005], Final, Civil DivisionIII, HPC, Tianjin) should be changed into “Montresor Company should, within 15 days after the service of the , compensate FERRERO S.p.A in the amount of 500,000 yuan; and (4) item (4) of the civil  (No. 36 [2005], Final, Civil DivisionIII, HPC, Tianjin) should be changed into “Zhengyuan Company should immediately cease selling the aforesaid series of 金莎 TREDOR DORE chocolate products.” 天津市第二中级人民法院于2005年2月7日作出(2003)二中民三初字第63号民事判决:判令驳回费列罗公司对蒙特莎公司、正元公司的诉讼请求。费列罗公司提起上诉,天津市高级人民法院于2006年1月9日作出(2005)津高民三终字第36号判决:1.撤销一审判决;2.蒙特莎公司立即停止使用金莎TRESOR DORE系列巧克力侵权包装、装潢;3.蒙特莎公司赔偿费列罗公司人民币700000元,于本判决生效后十五日内给付;4.责令正元公司立即停止销售使用侵权包装、装潢的金莎TRESOR DORE系列巧克力;5.驳回费列罗公司其他诉讼请求。蒙特莎公司不服二审判决,向最高人民法院提出再审申请。最高人民法院于2008年3月24日作出(2006)民三提字第3号民事判决:1.维持天津市高级人民法院(2005)津高民三终字第36号民事判决第一项、第五项;2.变更天津市高级人民法院(2005)津高民三终字第36号民事判决第二项为:蒙特莎公司立即停止在本案金莎TRESOR DORE系列巧克力商品上使用与费列罗系列巧克力商品特有的包装、装潢相近似的包装、装潢的不正当竞争行为;3.变更天津市高级人民法院(2005)津高民三终字第36号民事判决第三项为:蒙特莎公司自本判决送达后十五日内,赔偿费列罗公司人民币500000元;4.变更天津市高级人民法院(2005)津高民三终字第36号民事判决第四项为:责令正元公司立即停止销售上述金莎TREDOR DORE系列巧克力商品。
Judgement's Reasoning 裁判理由
The Supreme People's Court held that: The disputes in this case focused on whether FERRERO chocolates were prior well-known commodities, whether the packaging and decorations used by FERRERO chocolates were unique, and whether the use of packaging and decorations on 金莎 TRESOR DORE chocolates produced by Montresor Company constituted unfair competition. 最高人民法院认为:本案主要涉及费列罗巧克力是否为在先知名商品,费列罗巧克力使用的包装、装潢是否为特有的包装、装潢,以及蒙特莎公司生产的金莎TRESOR DORE巧克力使用包装、装潢是否构成不正当竞争行为等争议焦点问题。
1. Whether FERRERO chocolates were prior well-known commodities 一、关于费列罗巧克力是否为在先知名商品
According to the consignment sales contract and the letter of confirmation of the consignment sales contract entered into between China National Cereals, Oils, and Foodstuffs Import and Export Corporation and FERRERO S.p.A and other relevant evidence, it was correct for the court of second instance to determine that FERRERO chocolates entered the Chinese market in 1984. For the purpose of the Anti-Unfair Competition Law, “well-known commodities” means commodities that had a certain degree of knowledge in the Chinese market and in the relevant public. As for internationally well-known commodities, the knowledge of them in the relevant public within China is necessary for the legal protection in China of their names, packaging, and decorations. The claimed degree of knowledge of a product or service was generally derived from the production, sales, or operations in China. To recognize a well-known commodity, one must consider the sales duration, territory, volume, and target customers of the commodity, the duration, extent, and geographical area of promotion, any existing protection of it as a well-known commodity, and other factors, so as to draw a conclusion on a comprehensive basis, and its well-known status abroad may also be considered appropriately. In the  of the court of second instance, the expression that “the degree of knowledge of a commodity should be evaluated comprehensively based on that in specific markets at home and abroad, rather than that only in the Chinese market” was flawed, but it was correct for the court of second instance to determine that FERRERO chocolates were well-known commodities with a higher degree of knowledge in the relevant market in China on the basis of the time of its debut in China, its sales status, and various promotional activities carried out by FERRERO S.p.A. The claim of Montresor Company that FERRERO chocolates became well-known in Chinese domestic market later than 金莎TRESOR DORE chocolates was unfounded. Moreover, the packaging and decorations for FERRERO chocolates of FERRERO S.p.A were used earlier. The claim of Montresor Company that the alleged packaging and decorations used by it were developed and designed independently by it was not supported by sufficient evidence. It was correct for the court of second instance to determine that Montresor Company used packaging and decorations unique to FERRERO chocolates without authorization. 根据中国粮油食品进出口总公司与费列罗公司签订的寄售合同、寄售合同确认书等证据,二审法院认定费列罗巧克力自1984年开始在中国境内销售无误。反不正当竞争法所指的知名商品,是在中国境内具有一定的市场知名度,为相关公众所知悉的商品。在国际已知名的商品,我国法律对其特有名称、包装、装潢的保护,仍应以在中国境内为相关公众所知悉为必要。其所主张的商品或者服务具有知名度,通常系由在中国境内生产、销售或者从事其他经营活动而产生。认定知名商品,应当考虑该商品的销售时间、销售区域、销售额和销售对象,进行宣传的持续时间、程度和地域范围,作为知名商品受保护的情况等因素,进行综合判断;也不排除适当考虑国外已知名的因素。本案二审判决中关于“对商品知名状况的评价应根据其在国内外特定市场的知名度综合判定,不能理解为仅指在中国境内知名的商品”的表述欠当,但根据费列罗巧克力进入中国市场的时间、销售情况以及费列罗公司进行的多种宣传活动,认定其属于在中国境内的相关市场中具有较高知名度的知名商品正确。蒙特莎公司关于费列罗巧克力在中国境内市场知名的时间晚于金莎TRESOR DORE巧克力的主张不能成立。此外,费列罗公司费列罗巧克力的包装、装潢使用在先,蒙特莎公司主张其使用的涉案包装、装潢为自主开发设计缺乏充分证据支持,二审判决认定蒙特莎公司擅自使用费列罗巧克力特有包装、装潢正确。
2. Whether the packaging and decorations used by FERRERO chocolates were unique 二、关于费列罗巧克力使用的包装、装潢是否具有特有性
Packaging such as containers or vessels holding or protecting commodities and decorations composed of words, designs, colors and their arrangements and combinations affixed to commodities or the packaging thereof should be the unique packaging and decorations protected by the Anti-Unfair Competition Law, as far as they could distinguish the source of a commodity. The packaging and decorations used by FERRERO chocolates of which FERRERO S.p.A claimed protection comprised a series of elements. If the packaging and decorations only comprised a simple combination of tinfoil paper used to wrap chocolate balls and transparent plastic outer packing used to display the inner packing of chocolate, such packaging and decorations were not unique, because they could not distinguish between the sources of commodities; and all elements of such a combination were commonly used packaging and decoration elements in the food packaging industry, and may not be exclusively used. The arrangement and combination options for tinfoil paper, paper base, plastic cases and other packaging materials, shapes, and colors were many; and if a trademark label was attached to the packaging, there was also considerable freedom regarding the size, design and composition methodology of the label. Within the extent of freedom in designing, a unique arrangement or combination of packaging and decoration elements which made them distinctive in distinguishing the source of a commodity may constitute the unique packaging and decorations of the commodity. The packaging and decorations used for FERRERO chocolates, with unique arrangement and combination of components in word, pattern, color, shape and size, form a distinctive overall image, irrelevant to the functionality of the commodity. Years of use and promotion were sufficient to make the relevant public to associate the above overall image of the packaging and decorations with FERRERO chocolates of FERRERO S.p.A. As they could distinguish the source of a commodity, they were the unique packaging and decorations protected under item (2) of Article 5 of the Anti-Unfair Competition Law. The grounds of Montresor Company that “determining such packaging and decorations as unique would lead to FERRERO S.p.A's exclusive use of packaging and decorations commonly used in the industry and monopoly in the chocolate ball market in China” were unfounded. 盛装或者保护商品的容器等包装,以及在商品或者其包装上附加的文字、图案、色彩及其排列组合所构成的装潢,在其能够区别商品来源时,即属于反不正当竞争法保护的特有包装、装潢。费列罗公司请求保护的费列罗巧克力使用的包装、装潢系由一系列要素构成。如果仅仅以锡箔纸包裹球状巧克力,采用透明塑料外包装,呈现巧克力内包装等方式进行简单的组合,所形成的包装、装潢因无区别商品来源的显著特征而不具有特有性;而且这种组合中的各个要素也属于食品包装行业中通用的包装、装潢元素,不能被独占使用。但是,锡纸、纸托、塑料盒等包装材质与形状、颜色的排列组合有很大的选择空间;将商标标签附加在包装上,该标签的尺寸、图案、构图方法等亦有很大的设计自由度。在可以自由设计的范围内,将包装、装潢各要素独特排列组合,使其具有区别商品来源的显著特征,可以构成商品特有的包装、装潢。费列罗巧克力所使用的包装、装潢因其构成要素在文字、图形、色彩、形状、大小等方面的排列组合具有独特性,形成了显著的整体形象,且与商品的功能性无关,经过长时间使用和大量宣传,已足以使相关公众将上述包装、装潢的整体形象与费列罗公司的费列罗巧克力商品联系起来,具有识别其商品来源的作用,应当属于反不正当竞争法五条第二项所保护的特有的包装、装潢。蒙特莎公司关于判定涉案包装、装潢为特有,会使巧克力行业的通用包装、装潢被费列罗公司排他性独占使用,垄断国内球形巧克力市场等理由,不能成立。
3. Whether the relevant public tended to confuse FERRERO chocolates with 金莎 TRESOR DORE chocolates and misidentify them 三、关于相关公众是否容易对费列罗巧克力与金莎TRESOR DORE巧克力引起混淆、误认
In the design of packaging and decorations for a commodity, businesses may learn from each other and innovate to develop packaging and decorations distinguishing their own commodities from those of others. Such a practice was inevitable in market operation and competition. As far as this case was concerned, Montresor Company may freely design its own packaging and decorations distinctive from prior unique packaging and decorations by making full use of the common elements for chocolate packaging and decoration design; however, no one may imitate the unique packaging and decorations of others that could distinguish the source of a commodity in such an extensive manner to cause confusion and misidentification in the market; and such imitation constituted unfair competition. The confusion and misidentification as mentioned in the Anti-Unfair Competition Law of China meant that it sufficed to make the relevant public misidentify the source of a commodity, including a misunderstanding that there was any particular relationship with the producer or dealer of the well-known commodity such as a relationship of licensed use or an affiliation. In this case, as the overall image of the packaging and decorations used for FERRERO chocolates had distinct characteristics that distinguished the source of the commodity, and the packaging and decorations used for the chocolate products of Montresor Company were very similar visually to the packaging and decorations unique to FERRERO chocolates, even if the commodities of both parties were different in price, quality, taste and consumption level as well as trade name and trademark, it was still inevitable that the relevant public tended to have a misunderstanding that 金莎 TRESOR DORE chocolates were economically associated with FERRERO chocolates in some way. Therefore, the grounds of the retrial petitioner that similar packaging and decorations in this case would not cause confusion and misidentification among consumers were unfounded. 对商品包装、装潢的设计,不同经营者之间可以相互学习、借鉴,并在此基础上进行创新设计,形成有明显区别各自商品的包装、装潢。这种做法是市场经营和竞争的必然要求。就本案而言,蒙特莎公司可以充分利用巧克力包装、装潢设计中的通用要素,自由设计与他人在先使用的特有包装、装潢具有明显区别的包装、装潢。但是,对他人具有识别商品来源意义的特有包装、装潢,则不能作足以引起市场混淆、误认的全面模仿,否则就会构成不正当的市场竞争。我国反不正当竞争法中规定的混淆、误认,是指足以使相关公众对商品的来源产生误认,包括误认为与知名商品的经营者具有许可使用、关联企业关系等特定联系。本案中,由于费列罗巧克力使用的包装、装潢的整体形象具有区别商品来源的显著特征,蒙特莎公司在其巧克力商品上使用的包装、装潢与费列罗巧克力特有包装、装潢,又达到在视觉上非常近似的程度。即使双方商品存在价格、质量、口味、消费层次等方面的差异和厂商名称、商标不同等因素,也未免使相关公众易于误认金莎TRESOR DORE巧克力与费列罗巧克力存在某种经济上的联系。据此,再审申请人关于本案相似包装、装潢不会构成消费者混淆、误认的理由不能成立。
In conclusion, Montresor Company committed unfair competition by using without authorization the packaging and decorations similar to those unique to FERRERO chocolates of FERRERO S.p.A on its 金莎 TRESOR DORE chocolates, sufficient to cause confusion and misidentification on the part of the relevant public regarding the source of the commodity. 综上,蒙特莎公司在其生产的金莎TRESOR DORE巧克力商品上,擅自使用与费列罗公司的费列罗巧克力特有的包装、装潢相近似的包装、装潢,足以引起相关公众对商品来源的混淆、误认,构成不正当竞争。
fnl_4438302 
     
     
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