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Jiangxi Branch of the Bank of China v. the Bureau of Land and House Administration of Nanchang Municipality (Case on the Registration of Mortgage)
中国银行江西分行诉南昌市房管局违法办理抵押登记案
【法宝引证码】

Jiangxi Branch of the Bank of China v. the Bureau of Land and House Administration of Nanchang Municipality (Case on the Registration of Mortgage)
(Case on the Registration of Mortgage)
中国银行江西分行诉南昌市房管局违法办理抵押登记案

Jiangxi Branch of the Bank of China v. the Bureau of Land and House Administration of Nanchang Municipality
(Case on the Registration of Mortgage)

 

中国银行江西分行诉南昌市房管局违法办理抵押登记案

(This case has been decided upon deliberation at the 1268th meeting of the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court) (本案经最高人民法院审判委员会第1268次会议讨论决定)
 [裁判摘要]
 国家行政机关在履行行政登记职责时;未尽到必要的注意义务,致使行政管理相对人遭受财产损失的,应根据国家赔偿法的有关规定,承担相应的赔偿责任。
Civil Tribunal No. 6 [2002] of the Supreme People's Court on Administrative Compensation 中华人民共和国最高人民法院
 行政赔偿判决书
 (2002)行终字第6号
BASIC FACTS 
Appellant (Defendant of the first instance): the Bureau of Land and House Administration of Nanchang Municipality, Jiangxi Province, address: No. 86, Huanhu Road, Nanchang Municipality, Jiangxi Province 上诉人(一审被告):江西省南昌市房产管理局。住所地:江西省南昌市环湖路86号。
Legal Representative: Baibo, director of the Bureau 法定代表人:白波,该局局长。
Authorized Agent: Wu Yongping, lawyer of Jiangxi Taihua Law Firm 委托代理人:武永平,江西太华律师事务所律师。
Authorized Agent: Liu Zhidan, lawyer of Jiangxi Hongzheng Law Firm 委托代理人:刘志丹,江西宏正律师事务所律师。
Appellee (Plaintiff of the first instance): Jiangxi Branch of the Bank of China (former contractor of rights and obligations of Jiangxi Trust and Consulting Company of the Bank of China). Address: No.1, Zhanqian West Road, Nanchang Municipality, Jiangxi Province 被上诉人(一审原告):中国银行江西省分行(原中国银行江西省信托咨询公司权利义务承受者)。住所地:江西省南昌市站前西路1号。
Legal Representative: Fang Hongguang, director of the Branch; 法定代表人:方红光,该行行长。
Authorized Agent: Du Hongmin, lawyer of Jiangxi Wode Law Firm 委托代理人:杜红民,江西沃德律师事务所律师。
Authorized Agent: Xu Wenbin, cadre of Jiangxi Branch of the Bank of China 委托代理人:徐文斌,中国银行江西省分行干部。
Jiangxi Branch of the Bank of China (hereinafter referred to as the Branch) filed an action on administrative compensation with the Higher People's Court of Jiangxi Province on August 28, 1996 on the ground that the Bureau of Land and House Administration of Nanchang Municipality (hereinafter referred to as the Bureau) unlawfully handled the registration of house mortgage and thus incurred loan losses thereto. The Higher People's Court of Jiangxi Province made a judgment on administrative compensation by No. 02 Administrative Judgment (1996). The Branch was dissatisfied with it and filed an appeal with this Court. This Court made an administrative ruling No. 5 (2000) on February 1, 2001 and remanded this case to the Higher People's Court of Jiangxi Province for new trial. The Higher People's Court of Jiangxi Province made an administrative ruling No. 01 (2001) on April 4, 2002 after re-hearing this case. The Bureau was dissatisfied with it and filed an appeal with this Court. This Court, upon acceptance, lawfully formed a collegiate bench, as composed of Zhao Daguang, presiding judge and, Ma Yongxin and Gan Wen, acting judges and publicly heard this case, wherein Tan Wei and Chen Chunmei, the clerks, took notes. The authorized agents of the appellant, Wu Yongping and Liu Zhidan as well as the authorized agents of the appellee, Du Hongmin and Xu Wenbin, appeared in court. This case has now been concluded. 被上诉人中国银行江西省分行以上诉人江西省南昌市房产管理局(以下简称南昌市房管局)违法办理房屋抵押登记造成其贷款损失为由,于1996年8月28日向江西省高级人民法院提起行政赔偿诉讼。江西省高级人民法院于1999年12月22日作出(1996)赣行初字第02号行政赔偿判决,中国银行江西省分行不服,向本院提起上诉。本院于2001年2月1日作出(2000)行终字第5号行政裁定,将本案发回江西省高级人民法院重审。江西省高级人民法院重审后于2002年4月4日作出(2001)赣行初字第01号行政赔偿判决。南昌市房管局不服,向本院提起上诉。本院受理后,依法组成由审判员赵大光担任审判长,代理审判员马永欣、甘雯参加评议的合议庭,进行了公开开庭审理,书记员谭伟、陈春梅担任法庭记录。上诉人委托代理人武永平、刘志丹和被上诉人委托代理人杜红民、徐文斌到庭参加诉讼。本案现已审理终结。
PROCEDURAL POSTURE 
The Higher People's Court of Jiangxi Province confirmed the following facts according to the evidences as presented by the parties concerned as well as the cross-examination as held in court: On April 5, 1995, Nanchang Tianlong Industry Group (hereinafter referred to as Tianlong) applied for a loan of 7 million yuan to Jiangxi Trust and Consulting Company under the Bank of China (hereinafter referred to as the Trust and Consulting Company). The Trust and Consulting Company agreed to provide a loan once Tianlong handled the formalities for loan mortgage so as to prevent any risk. On April 14 of the same year, Yan Guilong, legal representative of Tianlong, applied with the Real Estate Trading Office of Nanchang Municipality (hereinafter referred to as the Office) for handling the formalities of loan mortgage relating to the real estate of 2, 482. 15 square meters, Floor 2, No. 29, Chuanshan Road, Xihu District, Nanchang Municipality, Jiangxi Province and submitted the Agreement on House Purchase as concluded between Tianlong and the No. 2 Development Office of China National Real Estate Development Group (Nanchang) as well as the Document of Title No. 005518 thereof. On the same day, the Trust and Consulting Company entrusted Nanchang Price Appraisal Agency of Jiangxi Province (hereinafter referred to as the Agency) to conduct a price appraisal on the real estate, which Tianlong has set as loan mortgage. On April 17 of the same year, the Agency produced an Appraisal Document (1995), in which the mortgaged house is evaluated as 6, 515, 643 yuan, 75 % of the market value thereof. On the same day, the Trust and Consulting Company concluded with Tianlong a Contract on Loans involving 7 million yuan, with a loaning term spanning from April 26, 1995 to September 25, 1995 and a monthly interest rate of 10. 98‰. Jiangxi Xinma Industry Co., Ltd. indicates in the Contract on Loans its consent to shoulder the liabilities of guaranty for 0.5 million yuan of principals and interests of loan. On April 26 of the same year, the Office produced Circular on the Mortgage of House for Loans No.0005005, confirming that Tianlong is the owner of 2, 482. 15 square meters of real estate, Floor 2, No. 29, Chuanshan Road, Xihu District, Nanchang Municipality, which was mortgaged by Yan Guilong (hereinafter referred to as Yan), that the serial number of the Document of Title is No. 005518, that the mortgagee is the Trusting and Consulting Company, that the mortgage-based loan is 7 million yuan and that the term of mortgage spans from April 26, 1995 to September 25, 1995, which is 5 months in total, as well as indicating in the annotation column that: “A bank (credit cooperative) may handle the formalities for loaning upon seeing this Notice, which shall be preserved. Upon the expiration of the loan mortgage, the borrower shall, upon the strength of this Notice as well as the debt clear-off certification as produced by the bank (credit cooperative), handle the formalities for writing off the loan mortgage.” Accordingly, the Trusting and Consulting Company paid, on April 26, 30 and May 3 of the same year successively, an accumulative 7 million yuan to Tianlong. On June 13 of the same year, the Bureau sent a letter to the Trust and Consulting Company in the name of its subordinate department, the Office, notifying that Yan was found to have failed to handle the title of ownership in the supervisory department of real estate title, namely, he handled the formalities for real estate mortgage upon the strength of a fake certificate of title to house property. The Trust and Consulting Company withdrew, on the following day, a loan balance of 885, 000 yuan that Tianlong has not utilized. On June 16 of the same year, the Public Security Bureau of Nanchang Municipality, Jiangxi Province filed a case for investigation regarding Yan's fraud in loans by a fake certificate of title to house property and recovered a Lincoln car thereof, which was evaluated as 0.15 million yuan upon the authentication of the Pricing Office of Jiangxi Province; as well as an interest balance of 0.96 million yuan. On May 7, 1996, the Trust and Consulting Company applied for administrative compensation with the Bureau, which is claimed as the obligatory organ for compensation. The Bureau failed to make a decision on whether to make compensation within the statutory time limit. On August 28 of the same year, the Trust and Consulting Company filed an action on administrative compensation with the people's court. 江西省高级人民法院根据当事人举证并经庭审质证,认定以下事实:1995年4月5日,南昌市天龙实业集团公司(以下简称天龙公司)以购买货物需流动资金为由,向原中国银行江西信托咨询公司(以下简称信托公司)申请贷款700万元。信托公司同意在天龙公司落实贷款抵押手续,确保贷款无风险前提下办理贷款。同年4月14日,天龙公司法定代表人颜桂龙向江西省南昌市房产交易管理所(以下简称南昌市房交所)提出对该公司在江西省南昌市西湖区船山路29号第二层2482.15平方米房屋办理贷款抵押登记手续的申请,并提交了天龙公司与中房南昌房地产开发公司第二开发处的购房协议书及005518号房屋所有权证。同日,信托公司委托江西省南昌市房产价格评估所(以下简称南昌市房产评估所)对天龙公司作为贷款抵押的房产进行价格评估。同年4月17日,南昌市房产评估所作出(95)洪房估字《估价书》,以市值的75%评估抵押房产的价值为6515643元。同日,信托公司与天龙公司签订了700万元的《借款合同》,借款期限自1995年4月26日至1995年9月25日,贷款利率月息为10.98‰。江西鑫马实业有限公司在借款合同中写明同意承担50万元贷款本息的担保责任。同年4月26日,南昌市房交所作出No.0005005《房屋抵押贷款通知书》,认定抵押人颜桂龙提交的座落于南昌市西湖区船山路29号 2482.15平方米房产的产权人为天龙公司,产权证号为005518,抵押权人为信托公司,抵押贷款金额为700万元,抵押期限1995年4月26日至1995年9月25日共五个月,并在备注栏内注明:“银行(信用社)见此通知书可办理贷款手续,并收存此通知书;抵押贷款期满,贷款人凭本通知和银行(信用社)出具的还清贷款证明办理抵押贷款注销手续。”据此,信托公司于同年4月26日、4月30日和5月3日先后分三次共支付700万元贷款给天龙公司。同年6月13日,南昌市房管局以其下属部门南昌市房产评估所的名义函告信托公司,发现颜桂龙未在市房屋产权监理处办理房屋产权证书,即用假产权证办理了房产抵押贷款手续。信托公司得知情况后,于次日收回天龙公司尚未使用的贷款余额88.5万元。同年6月16日,江西省南昌市公安局对颜桂龙利用假房产证诈骗贷款一案立案侦查,追缴到颜桂龙一部林肯卧车,经江西省价格事务所鉴定,价值15万元;另追缴到贷款利差款96万元。1996年5月7日,信托公司以南昌市房管局为赔偿义务机关向其提出行政赔偿申请。南昌市房管局在法定期限内未作出是否赔偿的决定。同年8月28日,信托公司向法院提起行政赔偿诉讼。
...... 在本案审理期间,信托公司于1998年2月10日经江西省工商行政管理局核准,注销企业法人登记,其债权债务由中国银行江西省分行承担。为此,本案原告由信托公司变更为中国银行江西省分行。天龙公司因未参加1997年度年检,于1998年8月被江西省南昌市工商行政管理局吊销了营业执照,且查无开办和主管单位。1999年10月29日,颜桂龙被缉拿归案。2000年10月20日,江西省南昌市中级人民法院作出(2000)洪刑一初字第89号刑事判决,认定颜桂龙用假房产证作抵押,诈骗银行贷款650万元,案发后公安机关共为中国银行江西省分行挽回经济损失199.5万元,造成实际损失450.5万元,其行为已构成诈骗罪,依法判处颜桂龙无期徒刑,剥夺政治权利终身,并处没收个人全部财产。该判决已于同年11月5日发生法律效力。
 江西省高级人民法院经审理认为,建设部《城市房屋产权产籍管理暂行办法》第四条第二款、第十条和建设部、中国人民银行建房(1995)152号《关于加强与银行贷款业务相关的房地产抵押和评估管理工作的通知》第一条以及建设部、国家物价局、国家工商行政管理局[88]建房字第17号《关于加强房地产交易市场管理的通知》第三条均明确规定,县级以上房产行政管理机关是负责本行政区域房屋产权产籍管理工作的主管部门,办理房屋抵押登记是房产行政主管部门履行房屋产权产籍行政管理的一项法定职责。南昌市房管局是南昌市范围内办理房产抵押登记的行政主管部门,南昌市房交所作为其下属单位,行使房产抵押登记的行政管理职权,应视为是受其委托的行为,南昌市房管局应对此承担行政法律责任。南昌市房管局的工作人员在履行房屋抵押贷款登记行政职权过程中,未认真审查颜桂龙提交的作为贷款抵押物的南昌市西湖区船山路29号第二层非住宅房屋产权证与该房屋所有权证存根以及档案记录内容是否相符,也未认真查对权证与印章真伪,即错误认定天龙公司对该房屋拥有产权,并作出《房屋抵押贷款通知书》,确认信托公司与天龙公司的房屋抵押法律关系有效。该具体行政行为认定事实错误,其违法性已为南昌市房管局下属单位南昌市房产评估所1995年6月13日给信托公司的函所确认。信托公司于1996年5月7日向南昌市房管局提出赔偿申请,未果,又于同年8月28日向法院提起行政赔偿诉讼,符合《中华人民共和国国家赔偿法》第十三条、第三十三条第一款有关赔偿程序及请求国家赔偿时效的规定。南昌市中级人民法院对颜桂龙诈骗信托公司650万元贷款一案已作出生效判决,确认信托公司因此而遭受的贷款损失为450.5万元。虽然信托公司贷款财产权的直接侵权人系颜桂龙,但根据《中华人民共和国担保法》和《中华人民共和国城市房地产管理法果然是京城土著》的有关规定,办理房地产抵押登记是抵押合同生效的前提条件,南昌市房管局违法办理抵押贷款登记的行为是信托公司认为无风险放贷的主要原因,因此南昌市房管局的违法抵押登记行为与信托公司的财产损失之间存在着法律上的因果关系。鉴于颜桂龙已无偿还贷款的能力,南昌市房管局应对因违法办理抵押登记造成原告抵押权不能实现的部分依法承担补充赔偿责任。根据《中国银行信托咨询公司信托贷款办法》及《中国银行信托咨询公司信托贷款审批与管理细则》的有关规定,“信托公司应选择信誉好,利润高的企业发放企业信托贷款”。天龙公司申请贷款时已经处于资不抵债的状况,但信托公司在审批时却将其认定为是“以1500万元购得船山路29号一至三层房屋所有权,拥有近2100万元的固定资产”的企业,显然未按项目调查、项目评估程序规定的要求认真审查天龙公司的资信情况和履约能力,贷前审查工作存在过失;发放贷款时,违反了“一般不超过抵押物市值60%发放信托贷款”的规定,以抵押物市值75%发放抵押贷款650万元;放贷后又未按规定进行任何监督管理,以致贷款未按约定用途使用,被颜桂龙在短时期内用于偿还所欠债务及支付其他费用。原告对造成贷款损失,自身存在明显过错,依法应相应减轻南昌市房管局的赔偿责任。原告主张的利息损失,因系可得利益,不属于《中华人民共和国国家赔偿法》规定的直接财产损失范围,不予支持。南昌市房管局提出本案不属国家赔偿范围、原告起诉已超过诉讼时效等理由,均不符合法律规定,不予采纳。据此,依照《中华人民共和国国家赔偿法》第四条第(四)项、第七条第四款、第二十八条第(七)项和《最高人民法院关于审理行政赔偿案件若干问题的规定》第二十九条之规定,判决如下:1.由南昌市房管局赔偿中国银行江西省分行贷款损失4505000元的60%,即2703000元。2.驳回中国银行江西省分行其它诉讼请求。
 ......

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