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Preliminary Procuratorate of Yangpu Economic Development Zone of Hainan Province v. Xie Jiewei and Liang Yanling (A case about smuggling of drug precursors)
海南省洋浦经济开发区初级检察院诉谢杰威、梁雁玲走私制毒物品案
【法宝引证码】

Preliminary Procuratorate of Yangpu Economic Development Zone of Hainan Province v. Xie Jiewei and Liang Yanling (A case about smuggling of drug precursors)
(A case about smuggling of drug precursors)
海南省洋浦经济开发区初级检察院诉谢杰威、梁雁玲走私制毒物品案

Preliminary Procuratorate of Yangpu Economic Development Zone of Hainan Province v. Xie Jiewei and Liang Yanling
(A case about smuggling of drug precursors)

 

海南省洋浦经济开发区初级检察院诉谢杰威、梁雁玲走私制毒物品案

[Judgment Abstract] 【裁判摘要】
1. Whether a certain item is drug-making material shall be determined based on relevant laws and administrative regulations. Where an item is not defined as drug-making material under relevant laws and administrative regulations, then even it can be used for drug-making, it shall not be held as a drug-making item. 一、判断某种物品是否为制毒物品,应当依据国家相关法律、行政法规的规定。国家相关法律、行政法规未规定为制毒物品的,即使该物品可以用于制造毒品,亦不能将其认定为制毒物品。
2. Under Article 350 of the Criminal Law, to constitute a crime of smuggling drug-making items, the actor must have the criminal intent to knowingly smuggle drug-making items. Where the actor did not know that the items smuggled are drug-making materials and the aim to smuggle such items is for normal production and business operation, then even these items could be used for drug-making, it shall not be held that the actor has the criminal intent of smuggling drug-making items. 二、根据刑法三百五十条的规定,构成走私制毒物品罪必须要求行为人具有明知是制毒物品而走私的犯罪故意。如果行为人确实不知道所走私的物品是制毒物品,且其走私目的系用于正当生产经营,则即使该物品可以用于制毒,亦不能认定行为人具有走私制毒物品的犯罪故意。
BASIC FACTS 
Procuratorate: Preliminary Procuratorate of Yangpu Economic Development Zone of Hainan Province 公诉机关:海南省洋浦经济开发区初级检察院。
Defendant: Xie Jiewei, a.k.a. Xie Guohua, male, 49, Han ethnicity, businessman, arrested on September 11, 2002 for this case. 被告人:谢杰威,曾用名谢国华,男,49岁,汉族,商人。2002年9月11日因本案被逮捕。
Defendant: Liang Yanling, female, 47, Han ethnicity, housewife, wife of Xie Jiewei, criminally detained on August 3, 2002 and arrested on September 11 of the same year for this case. 被告人:梁雁玲,女,47岁,汉族,家庭妇女,系谢杰威之妻。2002年8月3日因本案被刑事拘留,同年9月11日被逮捕。
PROCEDURAL POSTURE 
On September 25, 2003, the Preliminary Procuratorate of Yangpu Economic Development Zone of Hainan Province instituted a public prosecution in the People's Court of Yangpu Economic Development Zone of Hainan Province against the defendants, Xie Jiewei and Liang Yanling on charges of smuggling of drug precursors. 海南省洋浦经济开发区初级检察院以被告人谢杰威、梁雁玲犯走私制毒物品罪,于2003年9月25日向海南省洋浦经济开发区人民法院提起公诉。
The indictment alleged that: at the end of December 2001, the defendant, Xie Jiewei, formed the Vietnam Haihuang Co., Ltd. (the “Haihuang Co.”) in Viet Nam, engaging in the processing and production of shrimp bran and chitin. Because the production needed a large amount of hydrochloric acid, Xie Jiewei consulted with Huang Yaoyuan, security manager of the Sociedide de Turismoe Diversoes de Macau SARL, STDM. about procuring a ship for transporting hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide from China to Viet Nam and then transporting shrimp bran from Viet Nam to China for sales. Huang Yaoyuan agreed at once to make investment. Xie Jiewei and Huang Yaoyuan respectively authorized Hou Qing and Huang Yaoming (younger brother of Huang Yaoyuan) to set up an office of Haihuang Co. in Haikou, Hainan Province, China, responsible for the sales of shrimp bran. On January 8, 2002, Xie Jiewei rented a powerboat named “Yue Zhanjiang No. 0002” from Zhu Yuanyan at an annual rate of 22,000 yuan, preparing to use this ship for transporting hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide to Viet Nam and then transporting shrimp bran from Viet Nam to China for sales. In March 2002, Xie Jiewei received Viet Nam's approval of import of 22,000 tons of hydrochloric acid. Later, on May 5, 2002, June 28, 2002 and July 13, 2002, respectively, in three batches, Xie Jiewei and Liang Yanling purchased 55.76 tons (worth 8,101.88 yuan), 52.12 tons (worth 7,572.99 yuan) and 52.3 tons (worth 7,599.15 yuan) of hydrochloric acid in China, and without going through any legal procedures for export, organized and directed others to smuggle the above hydrochloric acid to Viet Nam. The first batch of hydrochloric acid landed in Viet Nam, but the second and third batches of hydrochloric acid, in the process of smuggling, were intercepted by the public security authority of China. 起诉书指控:2001年12月底,被告人谢杰威在越南国开办越南海皇责任有限公司(以下简称海皇公司),从事加工生产虾壳糠、虾壳素。因生产需用大量盐酸,谢杰威便与澳门旅游娱乐有限公司保安经理黄耀源商议购船从国内运送盐酸、烧碱到越南,再从越南运送虾壳糠回国内销售。黄耀源当即表示同意投资。谢杰威、黄耀源分别委托侯庆及黄耀明(黄耀源的弟弟)在海南省海口市设立海皇公司办事处,负责虾壳糠的销售业务。2002年1月8日,谢杰威以年租价2.2万元向朱远雁租赁了一艘名为“粤湛江0002号”的机动船,准备用该船运送盐酸、烧碱到越南,再从越南运虾壳糠回国销售。2002年3月,谢杰威取得了越南国同意进口22 000吨盐酸的批文。此后,谢杰威、梁雁玲先后于2002年5月5日、2002年6月28日、2002年7月13日分三批从国内购得盐酸55.76吨(货款为 8101.88元)、52.12吨(货款为7572.99元)、52.3吨(货款为7599.15元),在未办理任何合法出口手续的情况下,组织、指挥他人将上述盐酸走私运往越南。其中第一批盐酸运到越南,第二、三批盐酸在走私过程中被我公安机关查获。
The prosecutorial authority accused that: the defendants, Xie Jiewei and Liang Yanling smuggled hydrochloric acid, a precursor, without going through the legal export procedures, in a great amount, which violated Article 350 of the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China (the “Criminal Law”) and constituted the crime of smuggling drug precursors. Both of the defendants had played a major role in the joint crime and were the principals in this case. The prosecutorial authority requested the court to punish the accused according to law. 公诉机关认为:被告人谢杰威、梁雁玲在没有办理合法出境手续的情况下,非法走私易制毒物品盐酸,且数量大,其行为已触犯《中华人民共和国刑法》(以下简称刑法)第三百五十条的规定,构成走私制毒物品罪。二被告人在共同犯罪中均起主要作用,均是本案主犯。提请依法惩处。
...... 被告人谢杰威辩称:本人于2001年 11月依照国际投资法,经所在国政府批准,在越南国庆和省溪油工业开发区注册成立海皇公司,主要经营范围是收购当地废弃虾壳、蟹壳,用盐酸和烧碱清洗后,加工生产成虾壳素或壳粉,在当地销售或者出口。由于越南国生产盐酸的厂家数量极少,供不应求,且价格很高。为了方便生产,降低产品成本,解决越南本地盐酸、烧碱原料不足及产品出口等问题,海皇公司向越南国政府有关部门申请进口盐酸和烧碱原料,并已经获得了批准进口22 000吨盐酸的批文。海皇公司购进盐酸主要用于浸泡、清洗虾壳和蟹壳。此后,海皇公司委托广东茂名市茂东大型汽车运输有限公司向广西南宁化工股份有限公司购买盐酸,并负责办理出口越南的手续及具体运输事宜。当广东茂名市茂东大型汽车运输有限公司联系好盐酸后,因海皇公司对越南国政府的海关及联检部门的协调存有怀疑,所以决定先从中国进口小批量盐酸,暂不办理相关手续,以试运的办法操作,待以后协调好各种关系后,再大批量从中国进口,这样还可以享受中国有关出口退税等优惠政策。基于上述考虑,2002年5月份从广西南宁化工股份有限公司两次购买盐酸55.17吨和52.16吨,价格为每吨人民币220元。第一批55.17吨盐酸没有办理出口手续,没有报关,没有交纳关税,但按国际正常贸易惯例办理了进口手续。货运到越南国后,海皇公司顺利收货,将该批盐酸用于虾壳素生产。第二批52.16吨盐酸仍按上述方法从广西运往越南,途经海南省洋浦时,因船出了些小故障,同时越南船务代理公司未为海皇公司办理入境手续,所以运输该批盐酸的船停泊在洋浦港,一边修船一边等待越南方面办理入境手续,期间被洋浦干冲边防派出所将船查扣。海皇公司在越南办厂生产加工虾壳、蟹壳是事实,该项生产确实需要使用盐酸,海皇公司购买盐酸完全是为了生产需要。盐酸在我国生产厂家多,生产数量多,市场供过于求,价格便宜,在国内市场允许自由买卖,也应当允许出口。我国刑法也没有规定买卖、运输盐酸的行为构成犯罪。海皇公司进口盐酸已经获得越南国政府批准,之所以在中国没有报关,主要是对越南有关部门的协调持有怀疑,担心因协调不顺而影响生产,这种做法是错误的,愿意接受行政或经济处罚。但本人确实不知道盐酸是制毒物品,不应按走私制毒物品罪定罪处罚。
 被告人谢杰威的辩护人对于公诉机关指控谢杰威于2002年5月从南宁化工股份有限公司购买盐酸55.76吨运到越南的事实无异议,但认为2002年6月谢杰威再次从南宁化工股份有限公司购买盐酸 52.12吨,在停泊于海南洋浦港时被查获,故此次走私行为应认定为未遂;谢杰威于 2002年7月13日在广东肇庆市诚德化工股份有限公司购买盐酸52.3吨,该批盐酸装船后正在办理海关报批手续,尚未启运就被扣押,故此次行为不应以走私论处。辩护人认为,根据本案事实,谢杰威的行为不构成犯罪。首先,谢杰威走私盐酸的行为不具有社会危害性。谢杰威在越南投资创办海皇公司,从事虾壳糠、虾壳素的生产,生产过程中确实需用大量的盐酸。因我国与越南国盐酸价格相差较大,为降低生产成本,所以从我国进口盐酸。海皇公司生产的产品不是毒品,走私盐酸与制造毒品没有任何关系。我国盐酸出口为零关税,如果正常报关还可享受出口退税等优惠政策。故谢杰威的行为没有给海关税收造成任何损失。相反,越南国政府已于2002年3月批准海皇公司从我国进口22 000吨盐酸,就此可增加我国的外贸出口额,有利于我国企业的生产经营和工人就业,可以带来很大的经济利益和社会利益。当然,违反海关监管法规走私盐酸是不可提倡和支持的,但谢杰威的行为不应以犯罪论处。其次,谢杰威走私盐酸的行为不具有刑事违法性。刑法、全国人大常委会颁布的《关于禁毒的决定》以及最高人民法院的有关司法解释中均未规定盐酸是制毒物品。虽然1999年国家对外贸易经济合作部为履行《1988年联合国禁止非法贩运麻醉药品和精神药物公约》的义务而颁布的《易制毒化学品进出口管理规定》的附件中列有盐酸,但2000年11月21日国家经济贸易委员会、公安部、国家工商行政管理局联合下发的《关于加强易制毒化学品生产经营管理的通知

离婚不离婚是人家自己的事

》和2002年6月1日国家外经贸部和公安部发布的外经贸贸发(2002)147号《易制毒化学品进出口国际核查管理规定》中没有将盐酸列为制毒物品。同时,我国海关也是将盐酸作为普通货物监管。我国法律有明确规定的不能直接适用国际公约。因此,依据我国现行法律、法规的规定,不能认定盐酸属于制毒物品。另外,即使盐酸属于制毒物品,也不能认定谢杰威具有走私制毒物品的犯罪故意。谢杰威并不了解盐酸是否属于制毒物品,其购买的都是浓度在30度以下的副产盐酸,属民用化学品。谢杰威走私盐酸的目的是为了其开办的海皇公司加工生产虾壳糠、虾壳素的需要,其生产的产品与毒品无任何关联,海皇公司生产每天需用盐酸几十吨,故谢杰威购买的盐酸不可能另外用于制造毒品。其走私动机是为了省钱省事,如果正常报关其行为也不会受到任何阻碍。据此,不能认定谢杰威走私盐酸的行为构成走私制毒物品罪。同时,因其走私盐酸可以认定的货值仅为人民币 15 000元左右,而且我国盐酸出口是零关税,所以其走私盐酸的行为也不构成走私普通货物罪。综上,谢杰威走私盐酸的行为虽然违反海关监管规定,但不应作为犯罪论处。
 ......

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