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Guiding Case No. 29: Tianjin China Youth Travel Service v. Tianjin National Youth International Travel Service (case of dispute over unauthorized use of another's enterprise name)
指导案例29号:天津中国青年旅行社诉天津国青国际旅行社擅自使用他人企业名称纠纷案
【法宝引证码】
  • Type of Dispute: IPR-->Unfair Competition◆
  • Legal document: Judgment
  • Judgment date: 03-20-2012
  • Procedural status: Other

Tianjin China Youth Travel Service v. Tianjin National Youth International Travel Service
(Dispute over use of other enterprise's name without authorization)        

 

指导案例29号:天津中国青年旅行社诉天津国青国际旅行社擅自使用他人企业名称纠纷案

(Issued on June 26, 2014 as adopted by the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court after deliberation)         (最高人民法院审判委员会讨论通过 2014年6月26日发布)

Guiding Case No. 29 指导案例29号
Keywords: 关键词
civil; unfair competition; use of other enterprise's name without authorization         民事 不正当竞争 擅用他人企业名称
Key Points of Judgment         裁判要点
1. The abbreviation of an enterprise's name that is widely used by the enterprise to outsiders for a long term, enjoys certain market popularity, is known to the relevant public, and has actually played the role of trade name may be deemed as an enterprise name to be protected.    1.对于企业长期、广泛对外使用,具有一定市场知名度、为相关公众所知悉,已实际具有商号作用的企业名称简称,可以视为企业名称予以保护。
2. The use of the abbreviation of an enterprise name of others that actually plays the role of trade name as the keyword in the Internet bidding rank in commercial activities without authorization, which causes the relevant public confusion and misunderstanding, is an act of unfair competition.         2.擅自将他人已实际具有商号作用的企业名称简称作为商业活动中互联网竞价排名关键词,使相关公众产生混淆误认的,属于不正当竞争行为。
Relevant Legal Provisions         相关法条
1. Article 120 of the General Principles of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China         1.《中华人民共和国民法通则》第一百二十条
2. Article 5 of the Anti-Unfair Competition Law of the People's Republic of China         2.《中华人民共和国反不正当竞争法》第五条曾经瘦过你也是厉害
Basic Facts         基本案情
Plaintiff Tianjin China Youth Travel Service (hereinafter referred to as the “CYTS”) alleged that: Defendant Tianjin National Youth International Travel Service Co., Ltd. illegally used the full name of plaintiff or the abbreviation thereof (“CYTS”) on its web page with all rights reserved, website source codes, and search engines, which violated the provisions of the Anti-Unfair Competition Law土豪我们做朋友好不好. Plaintiff requested to order that defendant should immediately stop its act of unfair competition, make a public apology, compensate economic losses of 100,000 yuan, and bear the litigation costs.         原告天津中国青年旅行社(以下简称天津青旅)诉称:被告天津国青国际旅行社有限公司在其版权所有的网站页面、网站源代码以及搜索引擎中,非法使用原告企业名称全称及简称“天津青旅”,违反了反不正当竞争法的规定,请求判令被告立即停止不正当竞争行为、公开赔礼道歉、赔偿经济损失10万元,并承担诉讼费用。
Defendant Tianjin National Youth International Travel Service Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as “NYTS”) contended that: “CYTS” was not registered and not enjoyed by plaintiff, the losses claimed by plaintiff had no factual and legal basis, and it requested to dismiss the claims of plaintiff.         被告天津国青国际旅行社有限公司(以下简称天津国青旅)辩称:“天津青旅”没有登记注册,并不由原告享有,原告主张的损失没有事实和法律依据,请求驳回原告诉讼请求。
After a hearing, the court found that: Tianjin China Youth Travel Service was established on November 1, 1986. It is a state-owned enterprise directly under the Communist Youth League of the CPC Tianjin Committee that engages in domestic, inbound and outbound travel business. It was shown in the certification issued by the Communist Youth Leagues of the CPC Tianjin Committee that “CYTS” was the enterprise abbreviation of Tianjin China Youth Travel Service. In 2007, Today Evening and other media started to use the abbreviation of “CYTS” to substitute Tianjin China Youth Travel Service. CYTS used “CYTS” as its enterprise abbreviation in such materials as quotations, travel contracts, cooperation documents with operators in the same industry, and invoices as well as daily business activities such as signboards of stores at the business site. Tianjin National Youth International Travel Service Co., Ltd. was established on July 6, 2010 and is a limited liability company engaged in domestic travel, inbound travel reception, and other business.         法院经审理查明:天津中国青年旅行社于1986年11月1日成立,是从事国内及出入境旅游业务的国有企业,直属于共青团天津市委员会。共青团天津市委员会出具证明称,“天津青旅”是天津中国青年旅行社的企业简称。2007年,《今晚报》等媒体在报道天津中国青年旅行社承办的活动中已开始以“天津青旅”简称指代天津中国青年旅行社。天津青旅在报价单、旅游合同、与同行业经营者合作文件、发票等资料以及经营场所各门店招牌上等日常经营活动中,使用“天津青旅”作为企业的简称。天津国青国际旅行社有限公司于2010年7月6日成立,是从事国内旅游及入境旅游接待等业务的有限责任公司。
At the end of 2010, CYTS found that when “Tianjin China Youth Travel Service” or “CYTS” was searched through Google, the search engine, “Online Business Hall of Tianjin China Youth Travel Service www.lechuyou.com or Online Business Hall of NYTS is your ideal choice and provides you with quality, intimate, and comfortable services” or “Online Business Hall of CYTS www.lechuyou.com or Online Business Hall of NYTS is your ideal choice and provides you with quality, intimate, and comfortable services” was displayed in the position showing the first search results marked with sponsored links. The website entered upon clicking was www.lechuyou.com, which was marked as Tianjin National Youth International Travel Service, with such words as “Tianjin National Youth International Travel Service—Youth Travel Service/Tianjin International Travel Service” displaying on the top of the web page. The content of the web page was about travel business information and quotations of NYTS with all rights reserved: www.lechuyou.com—NYTS, and the contact information and business address of NYTS were also marked. Meanwhile, when “CYTS” was searched by CYTS through Baidu, the search engine, “Welcome to CYTS, an entity strictly abiding by contracts and standing by reputation that collects classic domestic and outbound travel routes and has 100% tours. CYTS 400-611-5253 022.ctsgz.cn” was displayed in the position showing the first search results marked with sponsored links, and the web page entered upon clicking was still the said website that was alleged to be www.lechuyou.com of NYTS.         2010年底,天津青旅发现通过Google搜索引擎分别搜索“天津中国青年旅行社”或“天津青旅”,在搜索结果的第一名并标注赞助商链接的位置,分别显示“天津中国青年旅行社网上营业厅 www.lechuyou.com天津国青网上在线营业厅,是您理想选择,出行提供优质、贴心、舒心的服务”或“天津青旅网上营业厅 www.lechuyou.com天津国青网上在线营业厅,是您理想选择,出行提供优质、贴心、舒心的服务”,点击链接后进入网页是标称天津国青国际旅行社乐出游网的网站,网页顶端出现“天津国青国际旅行社-青年旅行社青旅/天津国旅”等字样,网页内容为天津国青旅游业务信息及报价,标称网站版权所有:乐出游网-天津国青,并标明了天津国青的联系电话和经营地址。同时,天津青旅通过百度搜索引擎搜索“天津青旅”,在搜索结果的第一名并标注推广链接的位置,显示“欢迎光临天津青旅重合同守信誉单位,汇集国内出境经典旅游线路,100%出团,天津青旅400-611-5253 022.ctsgz.cn”,点击链接后进入网页仍然是上述标称天津国青乐出游网的网站。
Judgment         裁判结果
On October 24, 2011, the No. 2 Intermediate People's Court of Tianjin Municipality rendered a civil judgment (No. 135 [2011], First, Civil DivisionIII, No. 2 IPO, Tianjin) that: (1) Defendant Tianjin National Youth International Travel Service Co., Ltd. should immediately stop its infringement; (2) Defendant should, within 30 days from the effective date of the judgment, issue an apologetic statement on its website for consecutive 15 days; (3) Defendant should pay plaintiff Tianjin China Youth Travel Service 30,000 yuan for its economic losses; and (4) Other claims of plaintiff should be dismissed. After the judgment was delivered, NYTS appealed. On March 20, 2012, the Higher People's Court of Tianjin Municipality rendered a civil judgment (No. 3 [2012], Final, Civil DivisionIII, HPO, Tianjin) that: (1) Items (2), (3), and (4) of the said civil judgment rendered by the No. 2 Intermediate People's Court of Tianjin Municipality should be affirmed; (2) Item (1) of the said judgment that “Defendant Tianjin National Youth International Travel Service Co., Ltd. should immediately stop its infringement” should be altered to that “Defendant Tianjin National Youth International Travel Service Co., Ltd. should immediately stop the use of such words as ‘Tianjin China Youth Travel Service' and ‘CYTS' and should not use them as keywords for searching the website link of Tianjin National Youth International Travel Service Co., Ltd.”; and (3) Other claims of defendant should be dismissed.         天津市第二中级人民法院于2011年10月24日作出(2011)二中民三知初字第135号民事判决:一、被告天津国青国际旅行社有限公司立即停止侵害行为;二、被告于本判决生效之日起三十日内,在其公司网站上发布致歉声明持续15天;三、被告赔偿原告天津中国青年旅行社经济损失30000元;四、驳回原告其他诉讼请求。宣判后,天津国青旅提出上诉。天津市高级人民法院于2012年3月20日作出(2012)津高民三终字第3号民事判决:一、维持天津市第二中级人民法院上述民事判决第二、三、四项;二、变更判决第一项“被告天津国青国际旅行社有限公司立即停止侵害行为”为“被告天津国青国际旅行社有限公司立即停止使用‘天津中国青年旅行社'、‘天津青旅'字样及作为天津国青国际旅行社有限公司网站的搜索链接关键词”;三、驳回被告其他上诉请求。
Judgment's Reasoning         裁判理由
In the effective judgment, the court held that: Paragraph 1 of Article 6 of the Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Some Issues concerning the Application of Law in the Trial of Civil Cases Involving Unfair Competition provides that “An enterprise name registered by the enterprise registration authority and a foreign enterprise name used within the territory of China for commercial use shall be affirmed as an ‘enterprise name' as prescribed in Item (3) of Article 5 of the Anti-Unfair Competition Law. A trade name in the enterprise name that has certain market popularity and is known by the relevant public may be recognized as an ‘enterprise name' as prescribed in Item (3) of Article 5法宝 of the Anti-Unfair Competition Law.” Therefore, the abbreviation of an enterprise name that was widely used by the enterprise to outsiders for a long term, enjoyed certain market popularity, was known to the relevant public, and has actually played the role of trade name should be deemed as an enterprise name to be protected. “Tianjin China Youth Travel Service” was an enterprise name used by plaintiff since its establishment in 1986 and plaintiff had the exclusive right to use the enterprise name. As the abbreviation of its enterprise name, “CYTS” has been widely used by CYTS in its business activities since 2007. In the relevant media coverage and according to clients, “CYTS” was referred to Tianjin China Youth Travel Service. Upon use and publicity in business activities for many years, CYTS has enjoyed some market popularity, was known to the relevant public, has established a stable association with Tianjin China Youth Travel Service, and had the significance of commercial logo that was capable of identifying business entities. Therefore, “CYTS” may be deemed as an enterprise name and should be jointly protected with “Tianjin China Youth Travel Service.”         法院生效裁判认为:根据《最高人民法院关于审理不正当竞争民事案件应用法律若干问题的解释》第六条第一款规定:“企业登记主管机关依法登记注册的企业名称,以及在中国境内进行商业使用的外国(地区)企业名称,应当认定为反不正当竞争法五条
谁敢欺负我的人
第(三)项规定的‘企业名称'。具有一定的市场知名度、为相关公众所知悉的企业名称中的字号,可以认定为反不正当竞争法五条第(三)项规定的‘企业名称'。”因此,对于企业长期、广泛对外使用,具有一定市场知名度、为相关公众所知悉,已实际具有商号作用的企业名称简称,也应当视为企业名称予以保护。“天津中国青年旅行社”是原告1986年成立以来一直使用的企业名称,原告享有企业名称专用权。“天津青旅”作为其企业名称简称,于2007年就已被其在经营活动中广泛使用,相关宣传报道和客户也以“天津青旅”指代天津中国青年旅行社,经过多年在经营活动中使用和宣传,已享有一定市场知名度,为相关公众所知悉,已与天津中国青年旅行社之间建立起稳定的关联关系,具有可以识别经营主体的商业标识意义。所以,可以将“天津青旅”视为企业名称与“天津中国青年旅行社”共同加以保护。
Item (3) of Article 5 of the Anti-Unfair Competition Law of the People's Republic of China provides that an operator shall not use the name of other enterprise without authorization and make people confuse its commodities to the other's commodities or engage in market transactions by other improper means, and damage other competitors. Therefore, where an operator used the name of other enterprise or the abbreviation thereof as the keyword in the Internet bidding rank without authorization, cause public confusion and misunderstanding, and achieved the purpose of popularizing by making use of other's popularity and goodwill, it was an act of unfair competition and should be prohibited. As an operator engaged in travel services, NYTS set keywords related to the enterprise name of CYTS in the relevant search engines and used such keywords in its website source codes without authorization, which made the direct display of the website link of NYTS when the relevant public searched the keywords of “Tianjin China Youth Travel Service” and “CYTS” and the entry of the website of NYTS for contacting travel business, and therefore achieved the effects of competing for potential clients by making use of initial confusion of web users. Subjectively, NYTS had the intent of causing the relevant public misunderstandings in web searches and queries, and objectively, it used “Tianjin China Youth Travel Service” and “CYTS” without authorization, made use of the enterprise credibility of CYTS, and damaged the lawful rights and interests of CYTS. Its acts were acts of unfair competition and should be prohibited according to the law. As a competitor of CYTS in the same industry, NYTS knew that the enterprise name of CYTS and the abbreviation thereof enjoyed higher popularity, but it still used them without authorization. It had the intention of seeking illegal profits for itself by making use of other's name and its subjective malice was obvious. In accordance with the provisions of Article 120 of the General Principles of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China, NYTS should assume such legal liabilities as stopping the infringement, eliminating effects, and paying compensation for losses. The words of “Youth Travel Service (YTS)” displaying on the top of the web page of NYTS were not within the protection scope of plaintiff's enterprise name and did not constitute any unfair competition against plaintiff.

 中华人民共和国反不正当竞争法》第五条第(三)项规定,经营者不得采用擅自使用他人的企业名称,引人误认为是他人的商品等不正当手段从事市场交易,损害竞争对手。因此,经营者擅自将他人的企业名称或简称作为互联网竞价排名关键词,使公众产生混淆误认,利用他人的知名度和商誉,达到宣传推广自己的目的的,属于不正当竞争行为,应当予以禁止。天津国青旅作为从事旅游服务的经营者,未经天津青旅许可,通过在相关搜索引擎中设置与天津青旅企业名称有关的关键词并在网站源代码中使用等手段,使相关公众在搜索“天津中国青年旅行社”和“天津青旅”关键词时,直接显示天津国青旅的网站链接,从而进入天津国青旅的网站联系旅游业务,达到利用网络用户的初始混淆争夺潜在客户的效果,主观上具有使相关公众在网络搜索、查询中产生误认的故意,客观上擅自使用“天津中国青年旅行社”及“天津青旅”,利用了天津青旅的企业信誉,损害了天津青旅的合法权益,其行为属于不正当竞争行为,依法应予制止。天津国青旅作为与天津青旅同业的竞争者,在明知天津青旅企业名称及简称享有较高知名度的情况下,仍擅自使用,有借他人之名为自己谋取不当利益的意图,主观恶意明显。依照《中华人民共和国民法通则》第一百二十条规定,天津国青旅应当承担停止侵害、消除影响、赔偿损失的法律责任。至于天津国青旅在网站网页顶端显示的“青年旅行社青旅”字样,并非原告企业名称的保护范围,不构成对原告的不正当竞争行为。
     
     
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