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Civil Aviation Law of the People's Republic of China (2018 Amendment) [Effective]
中华人民共和国民用航空法(2018修正) [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】

Civil Aviation Law of the People's Republic of China

 

中华人民共和国民用航空法

(Adopted at the 16th Session of the Standing Committee of the Eighth National People's Congress on October 30, 1995; amended for the first time in accordance with the Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on Amending Some Laws adopted at the 10th Session of the Standing Committee of the Eleventh National People's Congress on August 27, 2009; amended for the second time in accordance with the Decision on Amending Five Laws Including the Metrology Law of the People's Republic of China adopted at the 14th Session of the Standing Committee of the Twelfth National People's Congress on April 24, 2015; amended for the third time in accordance with the Decision of Amending Twelve Laws including the Foreign Trade Law of the People's Republic of China as adopted at the 24th Session of the Standing Committee of the Twelfth National People's Congress on Nov. 7, 2016; amended for the fourth time in accordance with the Decision of the National People's Congress on Amending Eleven Laws including the Accounting Law of the People's Republic of China at the 30th Session of the Standing Committee of the Twelfth National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on November 4, 2017; and amended for the fifth time according to the Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress to Amend Seven Laws Including the Labor Law of the People's Republic of China as adopted at the Seventh Session of the Standing Committee of the Thirteenth National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on December 29, 2018) (1995年10月30日第八届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十六次会议通过 根据2009年8月27日第十一届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十次会议《关于修改部分法律的决定》第一次修正 根据2015年4月24日第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十四次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国计量法〉等五部法律的决定》第二次修正 根据2016年11月7日第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十四次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国对外贸易法〉等十二部法律的决定》第三次修正 根据2017年11月4日第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第三十次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国会计法〉等十一部法律的决定》第四次修正 根据2018年12月29日第十三届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第七次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国劳动法〉等七部法律的决定》第五次修正)
Contents 目  录
Chapter I General Principles 第一章 总  则
Chapter II Nationality of Civil Aircraft 第二章 民用航空器国籍
Chapter III Rights over Civil Aircraft 第三章 民用航空器权利
Section 1 General Provisions 第一节 一般规定
Section 2 Ownership and Mortgage Rights over Civil Aircraft 第二节 民用航空器所有权和抵押权
Section 3 Right of Preemption over Civil Aircraft 第三节 民用航空器优先权
Section 4 Lease of Civil Aircraft 第四节 民用航空器租赁
Chapter IV Control over Airworthiness of Civil Aircraft 第四章 民用航空器适航管理
Chapter V Aviation Personnel 第五章 航空人员
Section 1 General Provisions 第一节 一般规定
Section 2 The Flight Crew 第二节 机  组
Chapter VI Civil Airports 第六章 民用机场
Chapter VII Aerial Navigation 第七章 空中航行
Section 1 Airspace Control 第一节 空域管理
Section 2 Flight Control 第二节 飞行管理
Section 3 Flight Insurance 第三节 飞行保障
Section 4 Required Documents for Flights 第四节 飞行必备文件
Chapter VIII Public Air Transport Enterprises 第八章 公共航空运输企业
Chapter IX Public Air Transportation 第九章 公共航空运输
Section 1 General Provisions 第一节 一般规定
Section 2 Transport Certificates 第二节 运输凭证
Section 3 Liabilities of the Carriers 第三节 承运人的责任
Section 4 Special Provisions for Air Transport by Actual Carriers 第四节 实际承运人履行航空运输的特别规定
Chapter X General-Purpose Aviation 第十章 通用航空
Chapter XI Search and Rescue and Accident Investigation 第十一章 搜寻援救和事故调查
Chapter XII Indemnity Liabilities to the Third Party on the Ground 第十二章 对地面第三人损害的赔偿责任
Chapter XIII Special Provisions for Foreign Civil Aircraft 第十三章 对外国民用航空器的特别规定
Chapter XIV Legal Applications in Foreign Relations 第十四章 涉外关系的法律适用
Chapter XV Legal Liabilities 第十五章 法律责任
Chapter XVI Supplementary Provisions 第十六章 附  则
Chapter I General Principles 

第一章 总  则

Article 1 This law has been formulated to safeguard the national sovereign right over the territorial sky and the right of civil aviation, ensure the safe and orderly operation of civil aviation, protect the legitimate rights and interests of the parties involved in civil aviation, and promote the development of civil aviation.   第一条 为了维护国家的领空主权和民用航空权利,保障民用航空活动安全和有秩序地进行,保护民用航空活动当事人各方的合法权益,促进民用航空事业的发展,制定本法。
Article 2 The air space above the territorial land and waters of the People's Republic of China (PRC) is the territorial sky of PRC, which enjoys complete and exclusive sovereignty over its airspace.   第二条 中华人民共和国的领陆和领水之上的空域为中华人民共和国领空。中华人民共和国对领空享有完全的、排他的主权。
Article 3 The department in charge of civil aviation under the State Council (hereinafter referred to as civil aviation administration, or CAA in short) exercises overall surveillance and administration over civil aviation activities throughout the country. Acting by law and by decisions of the State Council and within the limits of its authority, CAA promulgates regulations and decisions concerning civil aviation activities.   第三条 国务院民用航空主 管部门对全国民用航空活动实施统一监督管理;根据法律和国务院的决定,在本部门的权限内,发布有关民用航空活动的规定、决定。
Regional civil aviation administration offices set up by CAA, acting on the authorization of CAA, exercise surveillance and administration over the civil aviation activities in their own regions. 国务院民用航空主管部门设立的地区民用航空管理机构依照国务院民用航空主管部门的授权,监督管理各该地区的民用航空活动。
Article 4 The State supports the development of civil aviation and encourages and supports the scientific research and education in civil aviation to raise its scientific and technical level.   第四条 国家扶持民用航空事业的发展,鼓励和支持发展民用航空的科学研究和教育事业,提高民用航空科学技术水平。
The State supports the development of the civil aircraft manufacturing industry to supply safe, technically advanced, economical and suitable flying apparatus. 国家扶持民用航空器制造业的发展,为民用航空活动提供安全、先进、经济、适用的民用航空器。
Chapter II Nationality of Civil Aircraft 

第二章 民用航空器国籍

Article 5 Civil aircraft mentioned in this law refer to aircraft other than those used for flying mission of military, customs and police operations.   第五条 本法所称民用航空器,是指除用于执行军事、海关、警察飞行任务外的航空器。
Article 6 Civil aircraft registered with CAA for nationality according to law attain PRC nationality to acquire nationality registration certificates from CAA.   第六条 经中华人民共和国国务院民用航空主管部门依法进行国籍登记的民用航空器,具有中华人民共和国国籍,由国务院民用航空主管部门发给国籍登记证书。
CAA institutes a PRC civil aircraft nationality register book in which all the items concerning the nationality registration of civil aircraft are being recorded. 国务院民用航空主管部门设立中华人民共和国民用航空器国籍登记簿,统一记载民用航空器的国籍登记事项。
Article 7 The following civil aircraft should register for PRC nationality:   第七条 下列民用航空器应当进行中华人民共和国国籍登记:
(1) Civil aircraft of PRC State organs. (一)中华人民共和国国家机构的民用航空器;
(2) Civil aircraft of corporations set up according to laws of PRC. With regard to corporations whose registered capital contains foreign investment, their institutional arrangement, personnel composition and the ratio of capital input should conform to the stipulations of administrative regulations. (二)依照中华人民共和国法律设立的企业法人的民用航空器;企业法人的注册资本中有外商出资的,其机构设置、人员组成和中方投资人的出资比例,应当符合行政法规的规定;
(3) Other civil aircraft to be registered with permission of CAA. (三)国务院民用航空主管部门准予登记的其他民用航空器。
With regard to civil aircraft leased from abroad, should be lessees conform to the stipulations of the above paragraphs and the flight crew of the leased aircraft are provided by the lessees, the lessees can apply for PRC nationality registration for the aircraft with their previous nationality registration to be cancelled as the precondition. 自境外租赁的民用航空器,承租人符合前款规定,该民用航空器的机组人员由承租人配备的,可以申请登记中华人民共和国国籍,但是必须先予注销该民用航空器原国籍登记。
Article 8 Having obtained the PRC nationality according to law, the civil aircraft should be marked with the nationality and registration signs.   第八条 依法取得中华人民共和国国籍的民用航空器,应当标明规定的国籍标志和登记标志。
Article 9 Civil aircraft should not have dual nationality. Civil aircraft shall not apply for PRC nationality before their cancellation of their original nationality of other countries.   第九条 民用航空器不得具有双重国籍。未注销外国国籍的民用航空器不得在中华人民共和国申请国籍登记。
Chapter III Rights over Civil Aircraft 

第三章 民用航空器权利

Section 1 General Provisions 

第一节 一 般 规 定

Article 10 The rights over civil aircraft stipulated in this chapter refer to rights over their airframes, engines, propellers, radio equipment and all other articles to be used on the aircraft whether they are installed on the aircrafts or being dismounted temporarily.   第十条 本章规定的对民用航空器的权利,包括对民用航空器构架、发动机、螺旋桨、无线电设备和其他一切为了在民用航空器上使用的,无论安装于其上或者暂时拆离的物品的权利。
Article 11 Owners of civil aircraft rights should perform rights registration with CAA for the following rights separately:   第十一条 民用航空器权利人应当就下列权利分别向国务院民用航空主管部门办理权利登记:
(1) Ownership of aircraft. (一)民用航空器所有权;
(2) Acquisition of aircraft by purchase. (二)通过购买行为取得并占有民用航空器的权利;
(3) Possession of aircraft by lease contract for a term of more than six months. (三)根据租赁期限为六个月以上的租赁合同占有民用航空器的权利;
(4) Aircraft on mortgage. (四)民用航空器抵押权。
Article 12 CAA institutes civil aircraft rights register books. The same category of registration items should be entered in a same register book.   第十二条 国务院民用航空主管部门设立民用航空器权利登记簿。同一民用航空器的权利登记事项应当记载于同一权利登记簿中。
The civil aircraft rights registration items are open to the public for consultation, duplication or extraction. 民用航空器权利登记事项,可以供公众查询、复制或者摘录。
Article 13 Except that the civil aircraft are put to auction by force of law, their nationality and rights registrations shall not be transferred abroad before the registered rights are compensated or a special rights owner gives consent.   第十三条 除民用航空器经依法强制拍卖外,在已经登记的民用航空器权利得到补偿或者民用航空器权利人同意之前,民用航空器的国籍登记或者权利登记不得转移至国外。
Section 2 Ownership and Mortgage Rights over Civil Aircraft 

第二节 民用航空器所有权和抵押权

Article 14 The acquisition, transference and disappearance of ownership of civil aircraft should be registered with CAA. The unregistered ownership may not counter the third party.   第十四条 民用航空器所有权的取得、转让和消灭,应当向国务院民用航空主管部门登记;未经登记的,不得对抗第三人。
A transference of ownership of civil aircraft should be effected by signing a contracts, 民用航空器所有权的转让,应当签订书面合同。
Article 15 Provisions of this law concerning the owners of civil aircraft are applicable to the legal person to whom the State consigns State-owned civil aircraft for business management or use.   第十五条 国家所有的民用航空器,由国家授予法人经营管理或者使用的,本法有关民用航空器所有人的规定适用于该法人。
Article 16 Formally instituted mortgage rights over civil aircraft should be registered together by the pledgee and pledgor concerned with CAA. The unregistered mortgage may not counter the third party.   第十六条 设定民用航空器抵押权,由抵押权人和抵押人共同向国务院民用航空主管部门办理抵押权登记;未经登记的,不得对抗第三人。
Article 17 After a mortgage on civil aircraft is established, the mortgaged aircraft must not be transferred to others by the pledgor without the consent of the pledgee.   第十七条 民用航空器抵押权设定后,未经抵押权人同意,抵押人不得将被抵押民用航空器转让他人。
Section 3 Right of Preemption over Civil Aircraft 

第三节 民用航空器优先权

Article 18 Preemptive right over civil aircraft refers to the right of a creditor to preempt claims for compensation against the owner or lessee of civil aircraft in accordance with the provisions of Article 19 of this law and preempt the civil aircraft or related parts which cause the raising of the claims for compensation.   第十八条 民用航空器优先权,是指债权人依照本法第十九条规定,向民用航空器所有人、承租人提出赔偿请求,对产生该赔偿请求的民用航空器具有优先受偿的权利。
Article 19 Preemptive right over civil aircraft applies to claims for the following obligatory payments:   第十九条 下列各项债权具有民用航空器优先权:
(1) Recompense for the rescue and salvage of the aircraft. (一)援救该民用航空器的报酬;
(2) Costs for the preservation and maintenance of aircraft. (二)保管维护该民用航空器的必需费用。
The above-mentioned payments are to be made in the reversed order of the incidence of events. 前款规定的各项债权,后发生的先受偿。
Article 20 The claimant to the preemptive right over civil aircraft stipulated in Article 19 of this law should register the claims concerned with CAA within three months of the day when rescue or preservation work is ended.   第二十条 本法第十九条规定的民用航空器优先权,其债权人应当自援救或者保管维护工作终了之日起三个月内,就其债权向国务院民用航空主管部门登记。
Article 21 For the common benefit of creditors, the expenses arising from the realization of court decisions and auction operations should be covered first by the proceeds from the auction sale of the aircraft.   第二十一条 为了债权人的共同利益,在执行人民法院判决以及拍卖过程中产生的费用,应当从民用航空器拍卖所得价款中先行拨付。
Article 22 Preemptive right takes precedence over mortgage right over civil aircraft in getting compensation.   第二十二条 民用航空器优先权先于民用航空器抵押权受偿。
Article 23 The preemptive right over the civil aircraft is transferred with the transference of the claims for the obligatory payments listed in Article 19.   第二十三条 本法第十九条规定的债权转移的,其民用航空器优先权随之转移。
Article 24 The preemptive right over civil aircraft should be exercised through the detention by the people's court of the aircraft from which the Preemptive right arises.   第二十四条 民用航空器优先权应当通过人民法院扣押产生优先权的民用航空器行使。
Article 25 The preemptive right over civil aircraft is valid for a period of three months beginning from the day rescue and preservation work is ended, except that after the claimant registered claims as stipulated in Article 20:   第二十五条 民用航空器优先权自援救或者保管维护工作终了之日起满三个月时终止;但是,债权人就其债权已经依照本法第二十条规定登记,并具有下列情形之一的除外:
(1) The claimant and obligor have reached agreement on the claims, or (一)债权人、债务人已经就此项债权的金额达成协议;
(2) A law suit has started over the claims. (二)有关此项债权的诉讼已经开始。
Preemptive right over civil aircraft does not vanish with transference of ownership of the aircraft, except that the aircraft are auctioned by force of law. 民用航空器优先权不因民用航空器所有权的转让而消灭;但是,民用航空器经依法强制拍卖的除外。
Section 4 Lease of Civil Aircraft 

第四节 民用航空器租赁

Article 26 Civil aircraft lease contracts, including financial leasing and other lease contracts, should be concluded in written form.   第二十六条 民用航空器租赁合同,包括融资租赁合同和其他租赁合同,应当以书面形式订立。
Article 27 Financial leasing of civil aircraft refers to the purchase by the lessor of the aircraft in kind or from the supplier designated by lessee and the lease of the round aircraft from the lessor to the lessee for use with payment of rentals at regular intervals.   第二十七条 民用航空器的融资租赁,是指出租人按照承租人对供货方和民用航空器的选择,购得民用航空器,出租给承租人使用,由承租人定期交纳租金。
Article 28 During the term of financial lease, the lessor has the ownership over the civil aircraft according to law and the lessee has the right to hold, use and derive income from the aircraft according to law.   第二十八条 融资租赁期间,出租人依法享有民用航空器所有权,承租人依法享有民用航空器的占有、使用、收益权。
Article 29 During the term of financial leasing, the lessor shall not interfere with the lessee's holding and use of the aircraft according to law. The lessee should take due care of the aircraft so as to keep it in the original condition at the time of delivery, excepting reasonable wear and tear and modifications of the aircraft with the lessor's consent.   第二十九条 融资租赁期间,出租人不得干扰承租人依法占有、使用民用航空器;承租人应当适当地保管民用航空器,使之处于原交付时的状态,但是合理损耗和经出租人同意的对民用航空器的改变除外。
Article 30 At the expiry of a financial lease, the lessee should return to the lessor the aircraft in the condition specified in Article 29, except that the lessee should exercise the right of purchasing the aircraft according to contract, or intends to continue to lease the same aircraft.   第三十条 融资租赁期满,承租人应当将符合本法第二十九条规定状态的民用航空器退还出租人;但是,承租人依照合同行使购买民用航空器的权利或者为继续租赁而占有民用航空器的除外。
Article 31 In a financial leasing the supplier of the civil aircraft will not be liable repeatedly to the lessor and lessee for same damages of the air aircraft supplied.   第三十一条 民用航空器融资租赁中的供货方,不就同一损害同时对出租人和承租人承担责任。
Article 32 During the term of a financial leasing, with the consent of the lessor, the lessee can transfer to others the right for the holding of the aircraft or other rights as agreed upon in the lease contract on the condition that the transference would not damage the interest of a third party.   第三十二条 融资租赁期间,经出租人同意,在不损害第三人利益的情况下,承租人可以转让其对民用航空器的占有权或者租赁合同约定的其他权利。
Article 33 The lessee of a financial leasing or other leases of civil aircraft for a term of over six months should register the right for holding the aircraft with CAA. Without the registration, the lease may not dispel the right of a third party.   第三十三条 民用航空器的融资租赁和租赁期限为六个月以上的其他租赁,承租人应当就其对民用航空器的占有权向国务院民用航空主管部门办理登记;未经登记的,不得对抗第三人。
Chapter IV Control over Airworthiness of Civil Aircraft 

第四章 民用航空器适航管理

Article 34 Designers of civil aircraft and installations used on civil aircraft such as engines, propellers should apply to CAA for certificates certifying the quality of the model concerned and the certificates will be issued by CAA after examination and approval.   第三十四条 设计民用航空器及其发动机、螺旋桨和民用航空器上设备,应当向国务院民用航空主管部门申请领取型号合格证书。经审查合格的,发给型号合格证书。
Article 35 Manufactures and maintenance operators of civil aircraft and the installations on civil aircraft including engines and propellers should apply to CAA for production and maintenance licenses related to the model concerned. Due licenses will be issued after qualification examination and approval.   第三十五条 生产、维修民用航空器及其发动机、螺旋桨和民用航空器上设备,应当向国务院民用航空主管部门申请领取生产许可证书、维修许可证书。经审查合格的,发给相应的证书。
Article 36 Foreign manufacturers of civil aircraft of any model and installations on such aircraft including engines and propellers which are to be exported to China for the first time should apply to CAA for certificates of model approval, which will be issued after qualification examination and approval.   第三十六条 外国制造人生产的任何型号的民用航空器及其发动机、螺旋桨和民用航空器上设备,首次进口中国的,该外国制造人应当向国务院民用航空主管部门申请领取型号认可证书。经审查合格的,发给型号认可证书。
Holder of the certificates of model approval issued by foreign countries for civil aircraft and aircraft installations including engines, propellers which are to be produced in China for the first time should apply to CAA for certificates of model approval which will be issued after qualification examination and approval. 已取得外国颁发的型号合格证书的民用航空器及其发动机、螺旋桨和民用航空器上设备,首次在中国境内生产的,该型号合格证书的持有人应当向国务院民用航空主管部门申请领取型号认可证书。经审查合格的,发给型号认可证书。
Article 37 Civil aircraft of PRC nationality should have the certificate of airworthiness issued by CAA before they can be put on flight.   第三十七条 具有中华人民共和国国籍的民用航空器,应当持有国务院民用航空主管部门颁发的适航证书,方可飞行。
Manufacturers of civil aircraft and aircraft installations including engines, propellers which are to be exported should apply to CAA for the certificate of airworthiness for export which will be issued after qualification examination and approval. 出口民用航空器及其发动机、螺旋桨和民用航空器上设备,制造人应当向国务院民用航空主管部门申请领取出口适航证书。经审查合格的,发给出口适航证书。
Civil aircraft leased from overseas should have their airworthiness certificates issued by the country of their registration examined and approved by CAA or get a new certificate before they can be put on flight. 租用的外国民用航空器,应当经国务院民用航空主管部门对其原国籍登记国发给的适航证书审查认可或者另发适航证书,方可飞行。
Regulations on the control of civil aircraft airworthiness are to be formulated by the State Council. 民用航空器适航管理规定,由国务院制定。
Article 38 Owners or lessees of civil aircraft should use the aircraft within the scope specified in the airworthiness certificates and make best efforts to maintain the aircraft and ensure their airworthiness.   第三十八条 民用航空器的所有人或者承租人应当按照适航证书规定的使用范围使用民用航空器,做好民用航空器的维修保养工作,保证民用航空器处于适航状态。
Chapter V Aviation Personnel 

第五章 航 空 人 员

Section 1 General Provisions 

第一节 一 般 规 定

Article 39 Aviation personnel mentioned in this law refer to the flight and ground crew in the service of civil aviation as listed below:   第三十九条 本法所称航空人员,是指下列从事民用航空活动的空勤人员和地面人员:
(1) Flight crew, including flight mechanics, flight communication operations and flight attendants. (一)空勤人员,包括驾驶员、飞行机械人员、乘务员;
(2) Ground crew, including maintenance personnel, air traffic controllers, flight dispatchers and aviation radio operators. (二)地面人员,包括民用航空器维修人员、空中交通管制员、飞行签派员、航空电台通信员。
Article 40 Aviation personnel should pass examinations of special training and obtain licenses issued by CAA before they can do the work specified in their licenses.   第四十条 航空人员应当接受专门训练,经考核合格,取得国务院民用航空主管部门颁发的执照,方可担任其执照载明的工作。
The flight crew and air traffic controllers, before being issued their licenses, should have a suitable body check made by the medical unit qualified by CAA to acquire a certificate for physical fitness issued by CAA. 空勤人员和空中交通管制员在取得执照前,还应当接受国务院民用航空主管部门认可的体格检查单位的检查,并取得国务院民用航空主管部门颁发的体格检查合格证书。
Article 41 Aircrew on flight duty should keep their licenses and certificates for physical fitness in body to be inspected by CAA when required.   第四十一条 空勤人员在执行飞行任务时,应当随身携带执照和体格检查合格证书,并接受国务院民用航空主管部门的查验。
Article 42 Aviation personnel should accept regular or irregular checks and examination by CAA and can continue their work as specified in their licenses only after passing the checks and examination.   第四十二条 航空人员应当接受国务院民用航空主管部门定期或者不定期的检查和考核;经检查、考核合格的,方可继续担任其执照载明的工作。
Flight crew members should take regular training on emergency operation. 空勤人员还应当参加定期的紧急程序训练。
Flight crew members whose intermittent flight time surpasses the time limit prescribed by CAA should be checked and examined. Flight crew members other than flight attendants should go through apprenticeship flying, and can continue their work as specified in their licenses only after passing the check, examination and apprenticeship flying. 空勤人员间断飞行的时间超过国务院民用航空主管部门规定时限的,应当经过检查和考核;乘务员以外的空勤人员还应当经过带飞。经检查、考核、带飞合格的,方可继续担任其执照载明的工作。
Section 2 The Flight Crew 

第二节 机  组

Article 43 The flight crew of a civil aircraft is composed of its captain and captain's mates. The captain should be a pilot with the skill and experience in independently flying the civil aircraft of the specified model.   第四十三条 民用航空器机组由机长和其他空勤人员组成。机长应当由具有独立驾驶该型号民用航空器的技术和经验的驾驶员担任。
Composition and number of member of the flight crew should conform to the regulations of CAA. 机组的组成和人员数额,应当符合国务院民用航空主管部门的规定。
Article 44 Duties of operation of the civil aircraft shall be liable to the flight captains who should do their work conscientiously to ensure the safety of the aircraft and the people and property on board.   第四十四条 民用航空器的操作由机长负责,机长应当严格履行职责,保护民用航空器及其所载人员和财产的安全。
All people on in-flight aircraft should obey the orders given by the flight captain within the limits of his authority. 机长在其职权范围内发布的命令,民用航空器所载人员都应当执行。
Article 45 The flight captain should perform necessary inspection of the aircraft before its taking off. Without such due inspection, the aircraft is not allowed to take off.   第四十五条 飞行前,机长应当对民用航空器实施必要的检查;未经检查,不得起飞。
The captain has the right to refuse to take off when the aircraft, the airport or meteorological conditions are found not up to standards for flight safety. 机长发现民用航空器、机场、气象条件等不符合规定,不能保证飞行安全的,有权拒绝起飞。
Article 46 On the premise of ensuring flight safety, the captain of the aircraft in flight has the right to take necessary and appropriate steps against any acts which would damage the aircraft, disturb the order in the aircraft or endanger the safety of the people and property on board and other conditions detrimental to flight safety.   第四十六条 飞行中,对于任何破坏民用航空器、扰乱民用航空器内秩序、危害民用航空器所载人员或者财产安全以及其他危及飞行安全的行为,在保证安全的前提下,机长有权采取必要的适当措施。
For the safety of the aircraft and the people on board, the captain has the right to make special arrangements in related to the aircraft in special cases eventualities. 飞行中,遇到特殊情况时,为保证民用航空器及其所载人员的安全,机长有权对民用航空器作出处置。
Article 47 The captain has the right to make personnel changes for the sake of flight safety when finds any of them unfit for such a duty.   第四十七条 机长发现机组人员不适宜执行飞行任务的,为保证飞行安全,有权提出调整。
Article 48 When a civil aircraft is in distress, the captain has the right to take all necessary measures and command the crew members and other people on board to take rescue actions. In the emergency that the aircraft in distress has to be evacuated, the captain must take steps first to organize the safe evacuation of the passengers. Without the captain's permission, crew members shall not leave the aircraft on their own. The captain should be the last to leave.   第四十八条 民用航空器遇险时,机长有权采取一切必要措施,并指挥机组人员和航空器上其他人员采取抢救措施。在必须撤离遇险民用航空器的紧急情况下,机长必须采取措施,首先组织旅客安全离开民用航空器;未经机长允许,机组人员不得擅自离开民用航空器;机长应当最后离开民用航空器。
Article 49 When the aircraft meets with an accident, the captain should directly, or through air traffic control, and promptly report the accident accurately to CAA.   第四十九条 民用航空器发生事故,机长应当直接或者通过空中交通管制单位,如实将事故情况及时报告国务院民用航空主管部门。
Article 50 On receiving distress signals from ships or other aircraft, or discovering ships and other aircraft and their people in distress, the captain should promptly report the distress to the nearby unit of air traffic control and extend possible and reasonable aid to the distressed.   第五十条 机长收到船舶或者其他航空器的遇险信号,或者发现遇险的船舶、航空器及其人员,应当将遇险情况及时报告就近的空中交通管制单位并给予可能的合理的援助。
Article 51 When the captain in the air cannot perform the required duties for some reason, the pilot next to the captain in position should act as the captain. A new captain should be appointed by the owner or lessee of the aircraft as successor before the take-off at the next stopover.   第五十一条 飞行中,机长因故不能履行职务的,由仅次于机长职务的驾驶员代理机长;在下一个经停地起飞前,民用航空器所有人或者承租人应当指派新机长接任。
Article 52 The stipulations in this section concerning the flight captain apply to the lone pilot of an aircraft who needs no appointment of other crew members.   第五十二条 只有一名驾驶员,不需配备其他空勤人员的民用航空器,本节对机长的规定,适用于该驾驶员。
Chapter VI Civil Airports 

第六章 民 用 机 场

Article 53 A civil airport mentioned in this law refers to a designated area specially used for civil aircraft to take off, land, taxi and park, ached buildings, structures and installations.   第五十三条 本法所称民用机场,是指专供民用航空器起飞、降落、滑行、停放以及进行其他活动使用的划定区域,包括附属的建筑物、装置和设施。
Civil airport mentioned in this law does not include opportunity airfields. 本法所称民用机场不包括临时机场。
The State Council and Central Military Commission will make special control measures for the management of military-civilian common-use airports. 军民合用机场由国务院、中央军事委员会另行制定管理办法。
Article 54 The construction and use of civil airports should be arranged under an overall plan with rational geographical disposition to achieve the optimum rate of utilization.   第五十四条 民用机场的建设和使用应当统筹安排、合理布局,提高机场的使用效率。
The planning of the distribution and construction of civil airports throughout the country is to be formulated by CAA in cooperation with other departments of the State Council which will organize its implementation after seeking approval in accordance with the State specified procedures. 全国民用机场的布局和建设规划,由国务院民用航空主管部门会同国务院其他有关部门制定,并按照国家规定的程序,经批准后组织实施。
The people's governments of the provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the State Council should, in line with the national planning for civil airport distribution and construction, formulate the civil airport construction plans in their own administrative areas and, after seeking approval in accordance with the State specified procedures, incorporate their airport construction plans into their respective local economic and social development plans. 省、自治区、直辖市人民政府应当根据全国民用机场的布局和建设规划,制定本行政区域内的民用机场建设规划,并按照国家规定的程序报经批准后,将其纳入本级国民经济和社会发展规划。
Article 55 Civil airport construction plans should fit in with city construction plans.   第五十五条 民用机场建设规划应当与城市建设规划相协调。
Article 56 New construction, reconstruction and expansion projects on civil airports should conform to the civil airport distribution and construction plan adopted according to legal procedure and the standards for civil airports, and should be reported to the department in charge for approval in accordance with State regulations before their implementation.   第五十六条 新建、改建和扩建民用机场,应当符合依法制定的民用机场布局和建设规划,符合民用机场标准,并按照国家规定报经有关主管机关批准并实施。
Civil airport construction projects which do not conform to the civil airport distribution and construction plan adopted according to legal procedure should not be approved. 不符合依法制定的民用机场布局和建设规划的民用机场建设项目,不得批准。
Article 57 Construction of new airports or airport expansion projects should be announced to the public by the people's government at the county level or higher of the locality where the airport is located.   第五十七条 新建、扩建民用机场,应当由民用机场所在地县级以上地方人民政府发布公告。
The public notice mentioned in the above paragraph should be published in the main local newspapers and posted up in the vicinities of the airports to be built or expanded. 前款规定的公告应当在当地主要报纸上刊登,并在拟新建、扩建机场周围地区张贴。
Article 58 The following activities are prohibited from taking place within the legally designated confines of the civil airports and airspace protection zones of the airports designated according to State regulations:   第五十八条 禁止在依法划定的民用机场范围内和按照国家规定划定的机场净空保护区域内从事下列活动:
(1) Construction of buildings and installations which may discharge large amounts of fumes, dust, flames and exhaust gas into the air which affect flight safety. (一)修建可能在空中排放大量烟雾、粉尘、火焰、废气而影响飞行安全的建筑物或者设施;
(2) Construction of shooting ranges, warehouses for the storage of high explosives and other buildings and installations which affect flight safety. (二)修建靶场、强烈爆炸物仓库等影响飞行安全的建筑物或者设施;
(3) Construction of buildings and installations inconsistent with the requirements for maintenance of airspace clearance over the airport. (三)修建不符合机场净空要求的建筑物或者设施;
(4) Installation of lights, signs or objects which affect the use of visual air navigation aids. (四)设置影响机场目视助航设施使用的灯光、标志或者物体;
(5) Plantation of plants which affect flight safety or the use of airport navigation installations. (五)种植影响飞行安全或者影响机场助航设施使用的植物;
(6) Breeding or flying of birds and other objects which affect flight safety. (六)饲养、放飞影响飞行安全的鸟类动物和其他物体;
(7) Construction of buildings and installations which affect the electromagnetic environment of the airport. (七)修建影响机场电磁环境的建筑物或者设施。
Animals are not allowed to be put out to pasture within the designated confines of the airport. 禁止在依法划定的民用机场范围内放养牲畜。
Article 59 Buildings, structures, trees, lights and other obstacles which may affect flight safety and are erected before the publication of the notice on airport construction and expansion within the designated airport confines and designated airport airspace protection zone should be eliminated within prescribed time limits. The losses therefrom should be compensated or remedied by other measures according to law.   第五十九条 民用机场新建、扩建的公告发布前,在依法划定的民用机场范围内和按照国家规定划定的机场净空保护区域内存在的可能影响飞行安全的建筑物、构筑物、树木、灯光和其他障碍物体,应当在规定的期限内清除;对由此造成的损失,应当给予补偿或者依法采取其他补救措施。
Article 60 Buildings, structures, trees, lights and other obstacles which affect flight safety and are erected within the designated airport confines and the designated airport airspace protection zones by whoever it maybe after the publication of the notice on airport construction and expansion in contravention of this law and relevant administrative regulations should be eliminated under the order of the local people's government of the county level or higher in the area where the airport is located.   第六十条 民用机场新建、扩建的公告发布后,任何单位和个人违反本法和有关行政法规的规定,在依法划定的民用机场范围内和按照国家规定划定的机场净空保护区域内修建、种植或者设置影响飞行安全的建筑物、构筑物、树木、灯光和其他障碍物体的,由机场所在地县级以上地方人民政府责令清除;由此造成的损失,由修建、种植或者设置该障碍物体的人承担。
Article 61 Flight obstruction lights and signs should be installed and kept in normal condition on high-rise buildings and structures which are outside the limits of the airport and its airspace but may affect flight safety in accordance with relevant State regulations.   第六十一条 在民用机场及其按照国家规定划定的净空保护区域以外,对可能影响飞行安全的高大建筑物或者设施,应当按照国家有关规定设置飞行障碍灯和标志,并使其保持正常状态。
Article 62 A civilian airport open to the public as prescribed by the civil aviation administration of the State Council may open for use only after obtaining the airport use permit. Other civilian airports shall undergo recordation formalities in accordance with the provisions of the civil aviation administration of the State Council.   第六十二条 国务院民用航空主管部门规定的对公众开放的民用机场应当取得机场使用许可证,方可开放使用。其他民用机场应当按照国务院民用航空主管部门的规定进行备案。
To apply for an airport use permit, the following conditions shall be met and the airport shall pass the final inspection according to the provisions of the state: 申请取得机场使用许可证,应当具备下列条件,并按照国家规定经验收合格:
(1) It has the flight zone, air station zone, work zone and service facilities and personnel suitable for its operations. (一)具备与其运营业务相适应的飞行区、航站区、工作区以及服务设施和人员;
(2) It has the air traffic control, navigation communication and meteorological installations and personnel that can ensure flight safety. (二)具备能够保障飞行安全的空中交通管制、通信导航、气象等设施和人员;
(3) It meets the security conditions prescribed by the state. (三)具备符合国家规定的安全保卫条件;
(4) It has the emergency response plans for handling particular circumstances and corresponding facilities and personnel. (四)具备处理特殊情况的应急计划以及相应的设施和人员;
(5) It meets the other conditions prescribed by the civil aviation administration of the State Council. (五)具备国务院民用航空主管部门规定的其他条件。
An international airport shall also meet international air traffic conditions and set up customs and other port inspection authorities. 国际机场还应当具备国际通航条件,设立海关和其他口岸检查机关。
Article 63 The airport administration should apply to CAA for the license for its opening to use and CAA, after examination and approval, issues the license. 
你怀了我的猴子
  第六十三条 民用机场使用许可证由机场管理机构向国务院民用航空主管部门申请,经国务院民用航空主管部门审查批准后颁发。
Article 64 The establishment of an international airport should be reported by CAA to the State Council for examination and approval.   第六十四条 设立国际机场,由国务院民用航空主管部门报请国务院审查批准。
The opening of an international airport should be announced by CAA to the public. Data concerning an international airport are to be supplied to the public solely by CAA. 国际机场的开放使用,由国务院民用航空主管部门对外公告;国际机场资料由国务院民用航空主管部门统一对外提供。
Article 65 The airport should take measures in accordance with the regulations of CAA to ensure the safety of the personnel and property within its area.   第六十五条 民用机场应当按照国务院民用航空主管部门的规定,采取措施,保证机场内人员和财产的安全。
Article 66 A civil airport used by civil aircraft to fly passengers and cargoes should set up the necessary installations according to the standards prescribed by CAA for well serving passengers and cargo consignors and consignees.   第六十六条 供运输旅客或者货物的民用航空器使用的民用机场,应当按照国务院民用航空主管部门规定的标准,设置必要设施,为旅客和货物托运人、收货人提供良好服务。
Article 67 The airport administration should do conscientious work on environmental protection according to environmental protection law and administrative regulations.   第六十七条 民用机场管理机构应当依照环境保护法律、行政法规的规定,做好机场环境保护工作。
Article 68 The use of airport and its navigational aids is to be charged use fees and service fees. The rate of charges will be decided by CAA.   第六十八条 民用航空器使用民用机场及其助航设施的,应当缴纳使用费、服务费;使用费、服务费的收费标准,由国务院民用航空主管部门制定。
Article 69 The airport administration should report and obtain authorization for the proposed abandonment of the civil airport or a change of its use to other purposes.   第六十九条 民用机场废弃或者改作他用,民用机场管理机构应当依照国家规定办理报批手续。
Chapter VII Aerial Navigation 

第七章 空 中 航 行

Section 1 Airspace Control 

第一节 空 域 管 理

Article 70 The State exercises unified control over the airspace.   第七十条 国家对空域实行统一管理。
Article 71 The division of the airspace should take into consideration the needs of both civil aviation and national defense as well as public interests so as to put the airspace to a reasonable, full and effective use.   第七十一条 划分空域,应当兼顾民用航空和国防安全的需要以及公众的利益,使空域得到合理、充分、有效的利用。
Article 72 Procedures for airspace control will be formulated by the State Council and the Central Military Commission.   第七十二条 空域管理的具体办法,由国务院、中央军事委员会制定。
Section 2 Flight Control 

第二节 飞 行 管 理

Article 73 An air traffic control unit of a specified airspace control zone is in charge of control of aircraft air traffic in the specified airspace.   第七十三条 在一个划定的管制空域内,由一个空中交通管制单位负责该空域内的航空器的空中交通管制。
Article 74 The flight of civil aircraft within a controlled airspace zone should have the permission of the air traffic control unit.   第七十四条 民用航空器在管制空域内进行飞行活动,应当取得空中交通管制单位的许可。
Article 75 Civil aircraft should fly along the air route and at the altitude designated by the air traffic control unit. Should necessity arise for some reason to deviate from the designated flight route and altitude, permission has to be obtained from the air traffic control unit for the changes.   第七十五条 民用航空器应当按照空中交通管制单位指定的航路和飞行高度飞行;因故确需偏离指定的航路或者改变飞行高度飞行的,应当取得空中交通管制单位的许可。
Article 76 Aircraft flying over PRC territories must follow the unitary flight rules.   第七十六条 在中华人民共和国境内飞行的航空器,必须遵守统一的飞行规则。
Civil aircraft on visual flight should follow the rules for visual flight and keep at a safe distance from other aircraft and ground objects of obstruction. 进行目视飞行的民用航空器,应当遵守目视飞行规则,并与其他航空器、地面障碍物体保持安全距离。
Civil aircraft on instrument flight should follow the rules for instrument flight. 进行仪表飞行的民用航空器,应当遵守仪表飞行规则。
The flight rules are to be formulated by the State Council and the Central Military Commission. 飞行规则由国务院、中央军事委员会制定。
Article 77 The flight or working time of the aircrew of civil aircraft should not exceed the limits stipulated by CAA.   第七十七条 民用航空器机组人员的飞行时间、执勤时间不得超过国务院民用航空主管部门规定的时限。
Aircrew members under the influence of alcoholic drinks, narcotics or other drugs which would affect their working capabilities shall not perform flight duties. 民用航空器机组人员受到酒类饮料、麻醉剂或者其他药物的影响,损及工作能力的,不得执行飞行任务。
Article 78 Civil aircraft should not fly into the restricted airspace except with special permission by State regulations, or fly into the controlled airspace except in observation of the restrictive conditions specified in regulations.   第七十八条 民用航空器除按照国家规定经特别批准外,不得飞入禁区;除遵守规定的限制条件外,不得飞入限制区。
The above mentioned restricted and controlled airspaces are to be specified according to State regulations. 前款规定的禁区和限制区,依照国家规定划定。
Article 79 Civil aircraft should not fly over cities, except in one of the following circumstances:   第七十九条 民用航空器不得飞越城市上空;但是,有下列情形之一的除外:
(1) Necessitated by the taking off and landing of aircraft or by the designated flight route. (一)起飞、降落或者指定的航路所必需的;
(2) The flight altitude is high enough that in case of emergency, the aircraft can leave the city airspace without any threat to the safety of the people and property on the ground. (二)飞行高度足以使该航空器在发生紧急情况时离开城市上空,而不致危及地面上的人员、财产安全的;
(3) With permission obtained through State regulated procedures. (三)按照国家规定的程序获得批准的。
Article 80 The aircraft in flight should not throw out things, except in one of the following circumstances:   第八十条 飞行中,民用航空器不得投掷物品;但是,有下列情形之一的除外:
(1) Necessitated by flight safety. (一)飞行安全所必需的;
(2) Necessitated by the occasion in the performance of rescue operations or other flight operations for public interests. (二)执行救助任务或者符合社会公共利益的其他飞行任务所必需的。
Article 81 Civil aircraft should not fly out of PRC airspace without permission.   第八十一条 民用航空器未经批准不得飞出中华人民共和国领空。
The departments concerned have the right to take necessary measures according to circumstances to stop the aircraft flying out of PRC airspace without permission. 对未经批准正在飞离中华人民共和国领空的民用航空器,有关部门有权根据具体情况采取必要措施,予以制止。
Section 3 Flight Insurance 

第三节 飞 行 保 障

Article 82 Air traffic control units should render air traffic services to civil aircraft in flight, including air traffic control service, flight information service and alarm service.   第八十二条 空中交通管制单位应当为飞行中的民用航空器提供空中交通服务,包括空中交通管制服务、飞行情报服务和告警服务。
Air traffic control service is offered to prevent collisions between aircraft and aircraft and objects of obstruction and enhance order and speed of air traffic. 提供空中交通管制服务,旨在防止民用航空器同航空器、民用航空器同障碍物体相撞,维持并加速空中交通的有秩序的活动。
The aim of supplying flight information is to offer the information and suggestions helpful for safety and effectiveness of flights. 提供飞行情报服务,旨在提供有助于安全和有效地实施飞行的情报和建议。
The alarm service will notice and help the departments concerned for search and rescue of the aircraft in distress. 提供告警服务,旨在当民用航空器需要搜寻援救时,通知有关部门,并根据要求协助该有关部门进行搜寻援救。
Article 83 The air traffic control unit, on discovering an aircraft having deviated from its designated route or lost its bearings, should immediately take all necessary measures to help put it back on its course.   第八十三条 空中交通管制单位发现民用航空器偏离指定航路、迷失航向时,应当迅速采取一切必要措施,使其回归航路。
Article 84 Necessary navigational, communication, meteorological and ground monitoring equipment should be installed along flight routes.   第八十四条 航路上应当设置必要的导航、通信、气象和地面监视设备。
Article 85 Natural objects on flight routes which obstruct and affect safe flying should be marked out on the flight chart and artificial obstacles should be installed with lights and signs which should be kept in normal condition to mark obstruction.   第八十五条 航路上影响飞行安全的自然障碍物体,应当在航图上标明;航路上影响飞行安全的人工障碍物体,应当设置飞行障碍灯和标志,并使其保持正常状态。
Article 86 Shooting ranges and other installations which could affect flight safety are not allowed to be built within 30 kilometers of the borders of an air route, flat trajectory light arm shooting ranges excepted.   第八十六条 在距离航路边界三十公里以内的地带,禁止修建靶场和其他可能影响飞行安全的设施;但是,平射轻武器靶场除外。
The construction of antiair shooting ranges, as fixed or temporary installations, outside the borders of air routes should have the permission as required by State regulations and the direction of firing should not cross the flight route. 在前款规定地带以外修建固定的或者临时性对空发射场,应当按照国家规定获得批准;对空发射场的发射方向,不得与航路交叉。
Article 87 Any activity that may affect flight safety should get permission according to law and take the necessary measures to ensure flight safety before the activity can take place.   第八十七条 任何可能影响飞行安全的活动,应当依法获得批准,并采取确保飞行安全的必要措施,方可进行。
Article 88 CAA should exercise control over civil aviation radio stations and the frequencies specially allocated for use by the civil aviation system.   第八十八条 国务院民用航空主管部门应当依法对民用航空无线电台和分配给民用航空系统使用的专用频率实施管理。
The radio stations and other instruments and installations used by any institution or individual should not interfere with the normal use of the frequencies specially reserved for civil aviation radio communication. The institutions or individuals responsible for having caused interference in an adverse way with the use of civil aviation radio frequencies should immediately suppress the interference and before this is accomplished, the use of the interfering radio stations and other instruments and equipment should be suspended. 任何单位或者个人使用的无线电台和其他仪器、装置,不得妨碍民用航空无线电专用频率的正常使用。对民用航空无线电专用频率造成有害干扰的,有关单位或者个人应当迅速排除干扰;未排除干扰前,应当停止使用该无线电台或者其他仪器、装置。
Article 89 Postal and telecommunications enterprises should give priority to the transmission of civil aviation radio messages.   第八十九条 邮电通信企业应当对民用航空电信传递优先提供服务。
State meteorological institutions should provide civil aviation meteorological institutions with necessary meteorological data. 国家气象机构应当对民用航空气象机构提供必要的气象资料。
Section 4 Required Documents for Flights 

第四节 飞行必备文件

Article 90 Civil aircraft on flight duty should carry the following documents:   第九十条 从事飞行的民用航空器,应当携带下列文件:
(1) Certificate of nationality registration of the aircraft. (一)民用航空器国籍登记证书;
(2) Certificate of airworthiness of the aircraft. (二)民用航空器适航证书;
(3) Relevant licenses of flight crew members. (三)机组人员相应的执照;
(4) Aerolog of the aircraft. (四)民用航空器航行记录簿;
(5) License of the radio equipment on the aircraft. (五)装有无线电设备的民用航空器,其无线电台执照;
(6) Name list of the passengers on the aircraft with their places of departure and destination. (六)载有旅客的民用航空器,其所载旅客姓名及其出发地点和目的地点的清单;
(7) Warehouse receipts and detailed declaration forms of the cargoes on the aircraft. (七)载有货物的民用航空器,其所载货物的舱单和明细的申报单;
(8) Other documents relevant to flight duty. (八)根据飞行任务应当携带的其他文件。
CAA or local civil aviation control offices with CAA authorization can forbid the taking off of aircraft which fail to carry the documents listed above. 民用航空器未按规定携带前款所列文件的,国务院民用航空主管部门或者其授权的地区民用航空管理机构可以禁止该民用航空器起飞。
Chapter VIII Public Air Transport Enterprises 

第八章 公共航空运输企业

Article 91 A public air transport enterprise refers to a corporate enterprise which uses civil aircraft for the transport of passengers, baggage, postal matter and cargoes for the purpose of profit-making.   第九十一条 公共航空运输企业,是指以营利为目的,使用民用航空器运送旅客、行李、邮件或者货物的企业法人。
Article 92 To engage in public air transport, an enterprise shall apply for obtaining a business permit from the Civil Aviation Administrative Department under the State Council.   第九十二条 企业从事公共航空运输,应当向国务院民用航空主管部门申请领取经营许可证。
Article 93 The obtaining of public air transport permit should meet the following conditions:   第九十三条 取得公共航空运输经营许可,应当具备下列条件:
(1) The airline embodies civil aircraft which can ensure flight safety set by State regulations. (一)有符合国家规定的适应保证飞行安全要求的民用航空器;
(2) It is equipped with necessary aviation personnel who have obtained their licenses according to law. (二)有必需的依法取得执照的航空人员;
(3) It has a registered capital not less than the minimum amount stipulated by the State Council. (三)有不少于国务院规定的最低限额的注册资本;
(4) Other conditions as required by law and administrative decrees. (四)法律、行政法规规定的其他条件。
Article 94 The organizational forms and institutional setups of airlines can be referred to the stipulations of the Company Law法小宝.   第九十四条 公共航空运输企业的组织形式、组织机构适用公司法的规定。
The organizational forms and institutional setups of airlines established before the enforcement of this law if do not conform with the stipulations of the Company Law completely can be continued in use until the date to be specified by the State Council. 本法施行前设立的公共航空运输企业,其组织形式、组织机构不完全符合公司法规定的,可以继续沿用原有的规定,适用前款规定的日期由国务院规定。
Article 95 Airlines should work to ensure flight safety and maintain regular flight schedules and take effective measures to raise the quality of transport service.   第九十五条 公共航空运输企业应当以保证飞行安全和航班正常,提供良好服务为准则,采取有效措施,提高运输服务质量。
Airlines should educate and ask their own staff and workers to strictly perform their duties and render courteous, warmhearted and considerate services conscientiously to realize the smooth transport of passengers and cargoes. 公共航空运输企业应当教育和要求本企业职工严格履行职责,以文明礼貌、热情周到的服务态度,认真做好旅客和货物运输的各项服务工作。
Delays in passenger flights should be promptly announced in the airport with explanations of relevant details. 旅客运输航班延误的,应当在机场内及时通告有关情况。
Article 96 The application of airlines for the operation of scheduled flights or their suspension or termination should be made to CAA for approval.   第九十六条 公共航空运输企业申请经营定期航班运输(以下简称航班运输)的航线,暂停、终止经营航线,应当报经国务院民用航空主管部门批准。
Airlines operating regular flights should make the flight schedules open to public. 公共航空运输企业经营航班运输,应当公布班期时刻。
Article 97 Amount of charges levied by airlines are to be determined by CAA.   第九十七条 公共航空运输企业的营业收费项目,由国务院民用航空主管部门确定。
CAA should formulate procedures for the control of domestic air transport charges together with the price control department of the State Council and report the procedures concerned to the State Council for approval and implementation. 国内航空运输的运价管理办法,由国务院民用航空主管部门会同国务院物价主管部门制定,报国务院批准后执行。
Procedures for the control of international air transport charges are to be made according to the conventions and agreements the PRC government has concluded with foreign governments. Where such conventions and arrangements are absent, the charges will be determined with reference to international air transport market prices. 国际航空运输运价的制定按照中华人民共和国政府与外国政府签订的协定、协议的规定执行;没有协定、协议的,参照国际航空运输市场价格确定。
Article 98 Nonregular air transport service undertaken by airlines should have the approval of CAA, and the undertaking should not affect the normal operation of regular air transport service.   第九十八条 公共航空运输企业从事不定期运输,应当经国务院民用航空主管部门批准,并不得影响航班运输的正常经营。
Article 99 Airlines should draw up their security plans according to the State Council provisions for the security of public air transportation and report them to CAA for record.   第九十九条 公共航空运输企业应当依照国务院制定的公共航空运输安全保卫规定,制定安全保卫方案,并报国务院民用航空主管部门备案。
Article 100 Airlines should not undertake the transport of contraband listed by law and administrative regulations.   第一百条 公共航空运输企业不得运输法律、行政法规规定的禁运物品。
Airlines should not transport combat weapons and ordnance and materials without CAA approval. 公共航空运输企业未经国务院民用航空主管部门批准,不得运输作战军火、作战物资。
Passengers are prohibited from carrying with them contraband listed by law and administrative regulations in taking a civil aircraft. 禁止旅客随身携带法律、行政法规规定的禁运物品乘坐民用航空器。
Article 101 Airlines should observe relevant regulations of the State in the transport of dangerous cargoes.   第一百零一条 公共航空运输企业运输危险品,应当遵守国家有关规定。
It is prohibited to ship dangerous cargoes on consignment in the name of nondangerous cargoes. 禁止以非危险品品名托运危险品。
Passengers are prohibited from carrying with them dangerous cargoes in taking a civil aircraft. Except on the occasion of executing public functions and having obtained official approval according to State regulations, passengers are prohibited from carrying with them firearms and controlled knives in taking a civil aircraft. It is prohibited to ship dangerous cargoes on consignment as baggage against CAA regulations. 禁止旅客随身携带危险品乘坐民用航空器。除因执行公务并按照国家规定经过批准外,禁止旅客携带枪支、管制刀具乘坐民用航空器。禁止违反国务院民用航空主管部门的规定将危险品作为行李托运。
The list of dangerous cargo items are to be formulated and published by CAA. 危险品品名由国务院民用航空主管部门规定并公布。
Article 102 Airlines should not carry those passengers who refuse security checks or their baggage without going through security checks as required by State regulations.   第一百零二条 公共航空运输企业不得运输拒绝接受安全检查的旅客,不得违反国家规定运输未经安全检查的行李。
Airlines must carry out security checks on he cargoes they accept for carriage as required by CAA, or take other security measures. 公共航空运输企业必须按照国务院民用航空主管部门的规定,对承运的货物进行安全检查或者采取其他保证安全的措施。
Article 103 Aircraft of airlines on international air transport service and the people, baggage and cargoes on board should accept inspections by the responsible offices of frontier stations and customs stations. But the inspection should avoid causing unnecessary delays.   第一百零三条 公共航空运输企业从事国际航空运输的民用航空器及其所载人员、行李、货物应当接受边防、海关等主管部门的检查;但是,检查时应当避免不必要的延误。
Article 104 Airlines should give priority to the transport of postal matter according to relevant legal and administrative regulations.   第一百零四条 公共航空运输企业应当依照有关法律、行政法规的规定优先运输邮件。
Article 105 Airlines should cover liability insurance on the third party on the ground.   第一百零五条 公共航空运输企业应当投保地面第三人责任险。
Chapter IX Public Air Transportation 

第九章 公共航空运输

Section 1 General Provisions 

第一节 一 般 规 定

Article 106 The provisions in this chapter are applicable to the transport of passengers, baggage and cargoes by civil aircraft undertaken by airlines, including free transit.   第一百零六条 本章适用于公共航空运输企业使用民用航空器经营的旅客、行李或者货物的运输,包括公共航空运输企业使用民用航空器办理的免费运输。
The provisions do not apply to mail transit by civil aircraft. 本章不适用于使用民用航空器办理的邮件运输。
The provisions are applicable to that part of multimodal transport which concerns air transportation. 对多式联运方式的运输,本章规定适用于其中的航空运输部分。
Article 107 Domestic air transport mentioned in this law refers to the contracted air transport whose places of departure, prearranged stopover and destination are all inside PRC territories.   第一百零七条 本法所称国内航空运输,是指根据当事人订立的航空运输合同,运输的出发地点、约定的经停地点和目的地点均在中华人民共和国境内的运输。
International air transport mentioned in this law refers to the contracted transport, with or without stopover or transshipment, whose place of departure or destination, or one of the prearranged stopovers is not inside PRC territories. 本法所称国际航空运输,是指根据当事人订立的航空运输合同,无论运输有无间断或者有无转运,运输的出发地点、目的地点或者约定的经停地点之一不在中华人民共和国境内的运输。
Article 108 A series of transport carried out consecutively by several consigned carriers if considered by parties concerned as a single integrated operation should be seen as a transport operation no matter arranged through one or several contracts.   第一百零八条 航空运输合同各方认为几个连续的航空运输承运人办理的运输是一项单一业务活动的,无论其形式是以一个合同订立或者数个合同订立,应当视为一项不可分割的运输。
Section 2 Transport Certificates 

第二节 运 输 凭 证

Article 109 Carriers should issue passenger tickets which will be presented for check when check in a civil aircraft.   第一百零九条 承运人运送旅客,应当出具客票。旅客乘坐民用航空器,应当交验有效客票。
Article 110 Contents of a passenger ticket should be specified by CAA to include at least the following items:   第一百一十条 客票应当包括的内容由国务院民用航空主管部门规定,至少应当包括以下内容:
(1) Places of departure and destination. (一)出发地点和目的地点;
(2) When the places of departure and destination are both inside PRC territories, but with one or several stopovers outside its territories, the ticket should have at least one stopover specified. (二)出发地点和目的地点均在中华人民共和国境内,而在境外有一个或者数个约定的经停地点的,至少注明一个经停地点;
(3) When passenger's final destination, place of departure, or one of the prearranged stopovers is outside PRC territories, the passenger ticket should be applicable to the transit and contain a declaration on its applicability in accordance with the provision of the international air transport convention. (三)旅客航程的最终目的地点、出发地点或者约定的经停地点之一不在中华人民共和国境内,依照所适用的国际航空运输公约的规定,应当在客票上声明此项运输适用该公约的,客票上应当载有该项声明。
Article 111 The passenger ticket is the primary evidence of the conclusion of an air passenger transport contract and the conditions of the transport contract.   第一百一十一条 客票是航空旅客运输合同订立和运输合同条件的初步证据。
Failure of the passenger to present the ticket, inconsistencies of the ticket with regulations or the loss of passenger tickets will not affect the existence or validity of the transport contract. 旅客未能出示客票、客票不符合规定或者客票遗失,不影响运输合同的存在或者有效。
A carrier who permits a passenger to take the aircraft without a ticket accordingly issued in domestic air transport has no right to invoke the provisions in Article 128 of this law concerning the limits of liability for damage. 在国内航空运输中,承运人同意旅客不经其出票而乘坐民用航空器的,承运人无权援用本法第一百二十八条有关赔偿责任限制的规定。
A carrier in international air transport who permits a passenger to take the aircraft without a ticket accordingly issued or with a ticket without a declaration specified in (3) of Article 110, has no right to invoke the provisions in Article 129 of this law concerning the limits of liability for damage. 在国际航空运输中,承运人同意旅客不经其出票而乘坐民用航空器的,或者客票上未依照本法第一百一十条第(三)项的规定声明的,承运人无权援用本法第一百二十九条有关赔偿责任限制的规定。
Article 112 For consigned baggage shipment, the baggage check can be contained in passenger ticket or attached to it and should contain the following contents apart from those stipulated in Article 110:   第一百一十二条 承运人载运托运行李时,行李票可以包含在客票之内或者与客票相结合。除本法第一百一十条的规定外,行李票还应当包括下列内容:
(1) Number of prices and weight of baggage. (一)托运行李的件数和重量;
(2) Should the interest of the consigned baggage at the time of delivery at the destination of its shipment be declared, the money amount of the interest concerned should be specified. (二)需要声明托运行李在目的地点交付时的利益的,注明声明金额。
The baggage check is the primary evidence of the consigned shipment of the baggage and the conditions of the transport contract. 行李票是行李托运和运输合同条件的初步证据。
Failure of the passenger to present the baggage check, inconsistencies of the check with regulations or the loss of baggage checks will not affect the existence or validity of the transport contract. 旅客未能出示行李票、行李票不符合规定或者行李票遗失,不影响运输合同的存在或者有效。
A carrier who undertakes consigned baggage shipment but fails to issue baggage checks in domestic air transport has no right to invoke the provisions in Article 128 of this law concerning the limits of liability for damage. 在国内航空运输中,承运人载运托运行李而不出具行李票的,承运人无权援用本法第一百二十八条有关赔偿责任限制的规定。
A carrier who undertakes consigned baggage shipment but fails to issue baggage checks, or if the checks issued fail to contain the declaration specified in (3) of Article 110 in international air transport, has no right to invoke the provisions in Article 129 of this law concerning the limits of liability for damage. 在国际航空运输中,承运人载运托运行李而不出具行李票的,或者行李票上未依照本法第一百一十条第(三)项的规定声明的,承运人无权援用本法第一百二十九条有关赔偿责任限制的规定。
Article 113 The carrier has the right to ask the cargo consignor to write up an air freight waybill and the consignor has the right to ask the carrier to accept the waybill. Failure of the consignor to present the waybill, inconsistencies of the way bill with regulations or the loss of the waybill will not affect the existence or validity of the transport contract.   第一百一十三条 承运人有权要求托运人填写航空货运单,托运人有权要求承运人接受该航空货运单。托运人未能出示航空货运单、航空货运单不符合规定或者航空货运单遗失,不影响运输合同的存在或者有效。
Article 114 The consignor should fill up the waybill in triplicate, which should be handed over together with the cargoes to the carrier.   第一百一十四条 托运人应当填写航空货运单正本一式三份,连同货物交给承运人。
The first copy of the waybill, specified "For the Carrier," should be signed and sealed by the consignor. The second copy, specified "For the Consignee," should be signed and sealed by the consignor and carrier. The third copy should be signed and sealed by the carrier after acceptance of the cargoes and handed over to the consignor. 航空货运单第一份注明“交承运人”,由托运人签字、盖章;第二份注明“交收货人”,由托运人和承运人签字、盖章;第三份由承运人在接受货物后签字、盖章,交给托运人。
The waybill filled up by the carrier on the request of the consignor should be accepted as having been written up on behalf of the consignor in the absence of evidence to the contrary. 承运人根据托运人的请求填写航空货运单的,在没有相反证据的情况下,应当视为代托运人填写。
Article 115 The contents of an air freight waybill are to be specified by CAA and should include at least the following items:   第一百一十五条 航空货运单应当包括的内容由国务院民用航空主管部门规定,至少应当包括以下内容:
(1) Places of departure and destination. (一)出发地点和目的地点;
(2) When the places of departure and destination are both inside PRC territories, but with one or several prearranged stopovers outside the territories, at least one stopover should be specified. (二)出发地点和目的地点均在中华人民共和国境内,而在境外有一个或者数个约定的经停地点的,至少注明一个经停地点;
(3) When the final destination or place of departure of the shipment, or prearranged stopovers is outside PRC territories, the waybill, applicable to the transit in accordance with the provision of the international air transport convention, should contain a declaration on its applicability to the transit. (三)货物运输的最终目的地点、出发地点或者约定的经停地点之一不在中华人民共和国境内,依照所适用的国际航空运输公约的规定,应当在货运单上声明此项运输适用该公约的,货运单上应当载有该项声明。
Article 116 A carrier who permits shipment of freight without the filling up and presentation of the waybill in domestic air transport has no right to invoke the provision in Article 128 of this law concerning the limits of liability for damage.   第一百一十六条 在国内航空运输中,承运人同意未经填具航空货运单而载运货物的,承运人无权援用本法第一百二十八条有关赔偿责任限制的规定。
A carrier who permits shipment of freight without the filling up and presentation of the waybill, or if the waybill fails to contain the declaration specified in (3) of Article 115 in international air transport, has no right to invoke the provision in Article 129 of this law concerning the limits of liability for damage. 在国际航空运输中,承运人同意未经填具航空货运单而载运货物的,或者航空货运单上未依照本法第一百一十五条第(三)项的规定声明的,承运人无权援用本法第一百二十九条有关赔偿责任限制的规定。
Article 117 The consignor should be responsible for the correctness of the details and declarations being filled up in the waybill concerning the cargoes.   第一百一十七条 托运人应当对航空货运单上所填关于货物的说明和声明的正确性负责。
If the details and declarations filled up about the cargoes are inconsistent with regulations, incorrect or incomplete and, as a result, have caused losses to the carrier or other parties concerned, the consignor should be held liable for damage. 因航空货运单上所填的说明和声明不符合规定、不正确或者不完全,给承运人或者承运人对之负责的其他人造成损失的,托运人应当承担赔偿责任。
Article 118 A waybill is the primary evidence to evidence the conclusion of the air cargo transport contract, conditions for the shipment and the acceptance of the cargoes by the carriers.   第一百一十八条 航空货运单是航空货物运输合同订立和运输条件以及承运人接受货物的初步证据。
The details about the weights, sizes, packing condition and number of packages of the cargoes declared on the waybill have the effect of primary evidence. Declarations on the quantity and sizes of the cargoes in the waybill should not constitute an evidence disadvantageous to the carrier, except that the carrier and consignor have checked the cargoes face to face and that the check is recorded in the waybill or the details about the appearance of the cargoes is written out therein. 航空货运单上关于货物的重量、尺寸、包装和包装件数的说明具有初步证据的效力。除经过承运人和托运人当面查对并在航空货运单上注明经过查对或者书写关于货物的外表情况的说明外,航空货运单上关于货物的数量、体积和情况的说明不能构成不利于承运人的证据。
Article 119 On condition of having fulfilled the obligations specified in the cargo shipment contract, the consignor has the right to recall the cargoes at the airport of departure or destination, or suspend its shipment at a stopover on the way, or request the delivery of the cargoes to a receiver other than the consignee specified in the waybill, or request the shipping back of the cargoes to the airport of departure. But the consignor, in exercising these rights, should not cause losses to the carrier or other consignors and is obligated to pay back the expenses involved.   第一百一十九条 托运人在履行航空货物运输合同规定的义务的条件下,有权在出发地机场或者目的地机场将货物提回,或者在途中经停时中止运输,或者在目的地点或者途中要求将货物交给非航空货运单上指定的收货人,或者要求将货物运回出发地机场;但是,托运人不得因行使此种权利而使承运人或者其他托运人遭受损失,并应当偿付由此产生的费用。
The carrier should immediately inform the consignor should the instructions concerned be not able to be carried out. 托运人的指示不能执行的,承运人应当立即通知托运人。
The carrier should be responsible for the losses to the rightful holders of the waybill arising from failing to ask the consignor to produce the waybill in handling of the cargoes according to the instructions of the consignor, but this does not prevent the carrier from recovering the losses from the consignor. 承运人按照托运人的指示处理货物,没有要求托运人出示其所收执的航空货运单,给该航空货运单的合法持有人造成损失的,承运人应当承担责任,但是不妨碍承运人向托运人追偿。
When the right of the consignee begins to be exercised according to the provisions in Article 120 of this law, the rights of the consignor are ended. But when the consignee refuses to accept the waybill or the cargoes, or if the carrier cannot contact the consignee, the right of the consignor for the disposal over the cargoes will resume. 收货人的权利依照本法第一百二十条规定开始时,托运人的权利即告终止;但是,收货人拒绝接受航空货运单或者货物,或者承运人无法同收货人联系的,托运人恢复其对货物的处置权。
Article 120 Except in cases listed in Article 119 after making payments due and fulfilling the obligations specified in the waybill, the consignee has the right to ask the carrier to hand over the waybill and deliver the cargoes upon the arrival of the cargoes at the destination.   第一百二十条 除本法第一百一十九条所列情形外,收货人于货物到达目的地点,并在缴付应付款项和履行航空货运单上所列运输条件后,有权要求承运人移交航空货运单并交付货物。
Except otherwise stipulated, the carrier should immediately inform the consignee of the arrival of the cargoes. 除另有约定外,承运人应当在货物到达后立即通知收货人。
Whenever acknowledged loss of the cargoes by the carrier or failures of arrival of the cargoes to the destination within seven days after the schedule delivery date, the consignee has the right to exercise his rights against the carrier by force of the consignment contract. 承运人承认货物已经遗失,或者货物在应当到达之日起七日后仍未到达的,收货人有权向承运人行使航空货物运输合同所赋予的权利。
Article 121 The consignor and consignee, while fulfilling their obligations specified in the consignment contract, can, in their own interest or the interest of others, exercise the rights embodied in Articles 119 and 120 in their own names.   第一百二十一条 托运人和收货人在履行航空货物运输合同规定的义务的条件下,无论为本人或者他人的利益,可以以本人的名义分别行使本法第一百一十九条和第一百二十条所赋予的权利。
Article 122 The provisions in Articles 119, 120 and 121 do not affect the relations between the consignor and the consignee, nor the relations between the third parties who have derived rights from the consignor or the consignee stipulated by the consignment contract.   第一百二十二条 本法第一百一十九条、第一百二十条和第一百二十一条的规定,不影响托运人同收货人之间的相互关系,也不影响从托运人或者收货人获得权利的第三人之间的关系。
If some stipulations in the contract differ from the provisions in Articles 119, 120 and 121, such stipulations should be stated in the waybill. 任何与本法第一百一十九条、第一百二十条和第一百二十一条规定不同的合同条款,应当在航空货运单上载明。
Article 123 The consignor should provide the required documents for the completion of the relevant formalities stipulated in law and administrative regulations before the delivery of the cargoes to the consignee. The consignor should assume responsibility to the carrier for damages owing to the lack of such documents, the inadequacy of such documents or the inconsistencies of the documents with regulations, except that the damages have come about as a result of mistakes on the part of the carrier or his employees or agents.   第一百二十三条 托运人应当提供必需的资料和文件,以便在货物交付收货人前完成法律、行政法规规定的有关手续;因没有此种资料、文件,或者此种资料、文件不充足或者不符合规定造成的损失,除由于承运人或者其受雇人、代理人的过错造成的外,托运人应当对承运人承担责任。
Except otherwise stipulated by law and administrative regulations, the carrier has not any obligations to examine the relevant documents specified in the preceding paragraph. 除法律、行政法规另有规定外,承运人没有对前款规定的资料或者文件进行检查的义务。
Section 3 Liabilities of the Carriers 

第三节 承运人的责任

Article 124 A carrier should assume liability for casualties among the passengers owing to accidents on the aircraft or during their taking-off or landing. But the carrier is not liability for the casualties arising entirely from health reasons on the part of passengers.   第一百二十四条 因发生在民用航空器上或者在旅客上、下民用航空器过程中的事件,造成旅客人身伤亡的,承运人应当承担责任;但是,旅客的人身伤亡完全是由于旅客本人的健康状况造成的,承运人不承担责任。
Article 125 The carrier should assume liability for the destruction, loss or damage of the carry-on articles of passengers owing to accidents on the aircraft or during their taking-off or landing. The carrier should assume liability for the destruction, loss or damage of the consigned baggage of passengers owing to accidents occurring during the air transport.   第一百二十五条 因发生在民用航空器上或者在旅客上、下民用航空器过程中的事件,造成旅客随身携带物品毁灭、遗失或者损坏的,承运人应当承担责任。因发生在航空运输期间的事件,造成旅客的托运行李毁灭、遗失或者损坏的,承运人应当承担责任。
The carrier is not liable for the destruction, loss or damage of the carry-on articles or consigned baggage of passengers which has resulted entirely from the natural properties, quality or defects of the baggage itself. 旅客随身携带物品或者托运行李的毁灭、遗失或者损坏完全是由于行李本身的自然属性、质量或者缺陷造成的,承运人不承担责任。
Baggage mentioned in this chapter refers to the consigned baggage and carry-on articles of passengers. 本章所称行李,包括托运行李和旅客随身携带的物品。
The carrier should assume liability for the destruction of the cargoes owing to accidents occurring during the air transport. But the carrier is not liable for the destruction, loss or damage of the cargoes if the loss or damage can be proved as entirely resulted from one of the following factors: 因发生在航空运输期间的事件,造成货物毁灭、遗失或者损坏的,承运人应当承担责任;但是,承运人证明货物的毁灭、遗失或者损坏完全是由于下列原因之一造成的,不承担责任:
(1) Natural properties, quality or defect of the cargoes. (一)货物本身的自然属性、质量或者缺陷;
(2) Poor packaging of the cargoes undertaken by people other than the carrier or the employees or agents of the carrier. (二)承运人或者其受雇人、代理人以外的人包装货物的,货物包装不良;
(3) War or armed conflicts. (三)战争或者武装冲突;
(4) Government acts relating to the entry, exit or transit of the cargoes in and out of the country. (四)政府有关部门实施的与货物入境、出境或者过境有关的行为。
"During the air transport" mentioned in this article refers to the entire period in which the consigned baggage and cargoes are in the control of the carrier in the airport, on the aircraft or at any place of landing outside the airport. 本条所称航空运输期间,是指在机场内、民用航空器上或者机场外降落的任何地点,托运行李、货物处于承运人掌管之下的全部期间。
The air transport in this period does not include any land, sea or river transport outside the airport. But, in the case where land, sea and river transport is used for loading, delivery or transshipment in the implementation of the air transport contract, damages occurring in the process are regarded as damages occurring during the air transport in the absence of evidence to the contrary. 航空运输期间,不包括机场外的任何陆路运输、海上运输、内河运输过程;但是,此种陆路运输、海上运输、内河运输是为了履行航空运输合同而装载、交付或者转运,在没有相反证据的情况下,所发生的损失视为在航空运输期间发生的损失。
Article 126 The carrier should assume liability for the losses to passengers, baggage or cargoes caused by delays in the air transport. But the carrier will not be liable if there are proofs that necessary measures to avoid the losses have been taken by the carrier or the employees or agents of the carrier or that it is impossible to take such measures.   第一百二十六条 旅客、行李或者货物在航空运输中因延误造成的损失,承运人应当承担责任;但是,承运人证明本人或者其受雇人、代理人为了避免损失的发生,已经采取一切必要措施或者不可能采取此种措施的,不承担责任。
Article 127 In the transport of passengers and baggage, if the carrier can prove that losses have been caused or induced by mistakes on the part of the claimant, the carrier's liability should be exempted or abated in proportion to the seriousness of the mistakes responsible for the losses. When the claims for damages for deaths or injuries are made by other people than the passengers, if the carrier can prove that the deaths or injuries have been caused or induced by mistakes on the part of the passengers themselves, the carrier's liability should likewise be exempted or abated in proportion to the seriousness of the mistakes responsible for the losses.   第一百二十七条 在旅客、行李运输中,经承运人证明,损失是由索赔人的过错造成或者促成的,应当根据造成或者促成此种损失的过错的程度,相应免除或者减轻承运人的责任。旅客以外的其他人就旅客死亡或者受伤提出赔偿请求时,经承运人证明,死亡或者受伤是旅客本人的过错造成或者促成的,同样应当根据造成或者促成此种损失的过错的程度,相应免除或者减轻承运人的责任。
In cargoes transport, if the carrier can prove that the losses have been caused or induced by mistakes on the part of the claimant or the proxy of the claimant, the carrier's liability should be exempted or abated in proportion to the seriousness of the mistakes responsible for the losses. 在货物运输中,经承运人证明,损失是由索赔人或者代行权利人的过错造成或者促成的,应当根据造成或者促成此种损失的过错的程度,相应免除或者减轻承运人的责任。
Article 128 The limits of liability of the carrier for damages in domestic air transport are to be stipulated by CAA and reported to the State Council for approval and then promulgated for implementation.   第一百二十八条 国内航空运输承运人的赔偿责任限额由国务院民用航空主管部门制定,报国务院批准后公布执行。
Whenever the passengers or the consignors have made special declaration on special interests of them at the time of delivery at the destination and paid extra charges when necessary in their consignment of baggage or cargoes, the carrier should assume liability within the scope of the declared amount of money except that the carrier can prove that the amount declared by the passenger or consignor is higher than the actual interests of the consigned baggage or cargoes during delivery at the destination. Except for the limits of liability for damages, other provisions in Article 129 below are applicable to domestic air transport. 旅客或者托运人在交运托运行李或者货物时,特别声明在目的地点交付时的利益,并在必要时支付附加费的,除承运人证明旅客或者托运人声明的金额高于托运行李或者货物在目的地点交付时的实际利益外,承运人应当在声明金额范围内承担责任;本法第一百二十九条的其他规定,除赔偿责任限额外,适用于国内航空运输。
Article 129 The limits of liability of the carriers for damages in international air transport are stipulated as follows: 

北大法宝,版权所有

  第一百二十九条 国际航空运输承运人的赔偿责任限额按照下列规定执行:
(1) The maximum limit of liability for damages to a passenger is 16,600 computing units (See Article 213 for explanation of computing unit). But the passenger can arrange with the carrier in writing for a higher ceiling than the limit to the liability for damages specified above. (一)对每名旅客的赔偿责任限额为16600计算单位;但是,旅客可以同承运人书面约定高于本项规定的赔偿责任限额。
(2) The limit to damages with regard to consigned baggage and cargoes is 17 computing units per kilogram. Whenever the passenger or the consignor has made declaration on a special interests at the time of delivery at the destination and pays the extra charges when necessary in the consignment of baggage or cargoes, the carrier should assume liability within the scope of the declared amount of money except that the carrier can prove that the amount declared by the passenger or consignor is higher than the actual interests of the consigned baggage or cargoes at the time of delivery at the destination. (二)对托运行李或者货物的赔偿责任限额,每公斤为17计算单位。旅客或者托运人在交运托运行李或者货物时,特别声明在目的地点交付时的利益,并在必要时支付附加费的,除承运人证明旅客或者托运人声明的金额高于托运行李或者货物在目的地点交付时的实际利益外,承运人应当在声明金额范围内承担责任。
In the case of destruction, loss, damage or delay of a part of, or any parcel among, the consigned baggage or cargoes, the weight used to ascertain the limit to the carrier's liability for damages should be the total weight of the one or several parcels affected. But if the destruction, loss, damage or delay mentioned above has affected the value of other parcels listed in the same baggage check or waybill, the total weight of these parcels should also be taken into account in ascertaining the carrier's liabilities. 托运行李或者货物的一部分或者托运行李、货物中的任何物件毁灭、遗失、损坏或者延误的,用以确定承运人赔偿责任限额的重量,仅为该一包件或者数包件的总重量;但是,因托运行李或者货物的一部分或者托运行李、货物中的任何物件的毁灭、遗失、损坏或者延误,影响同一份行李票或者同一份航空货运单所列其他包件的价值的,确定承运人的赔偿责任限额时,此种包件的总重量也应当考虑在内。
(3) The limit to damages for carry-on articles of one passenger is 332 computing units. (三)对每名旅客随身携带的物品的赔偿责任限额为332计算单位。
Article 130 Any stipulation aimmed at exempting liabilities of a carrier specified in this law or lowering the limits to related liability for damages specified in this law is null and void. But this nullification does not affect the validity of the entire air transport contract.   第一百三十条 任何旨在免除本法规定的承运人责任或者降低本法规定的赔偿责任限额的条款,均属无效;但是,此种条款的无效,不影响整个航空运输合同的效力。
Article 131 Any legal action for damages arising from air transport can be taken only in accordance with the conditions and limits to the liability for damages specified in this law irrespective of whatever grounds on which the legal action is taken. But it does not prevent whoever has the right to take the action or affect the respective rights of those involved in the action.   第一百三十一条 有关航空运输中发生的损失的诉讼,不论其根据如何,只能依照本法规定的条件和赔偿责任限额提出,但是不妨碍谁有权提起诉讼以及他们各自的权利。
Article 132 If it is proven that a loss in air transport is caused by intentional or indiscreet action or no action in the knowledge of probability of the loss on the part of the carrier or employees or agents of the carrier, the carrier has no right to invoke the provisions for the limits to the liability for damages in Article 128 and 129. If it is proven that the actions or no action are committed by the employees or agents of the carrier, further evidence should be sought that they have acted within the scope of their employment or agency.   第一百三十二条 经证明,航空运输中的损失是由于承运人或者其受雇人、代理人的故意或者明知可能造成损失而轻率地作为或者不作为造成的,承运人无权援用本法第一百二十八条、第一百二十九条有关赔偿责任限制的规定;证明承运人的受雇人、代理人有此种作为或者不作为的,还应当证明该受雇人、代理人是在受雇、代理范围内行事。
Article 133 In a lawsuit against employees or agents of a carrier for damages in air transport, the employees or agent have the right to invoke the provisions in Articles 128 and 129 for the limits to liabilities if they can prove having acted within their employment or agency.   第一百三十三条 就航空运输中的损失向承运人的受雇人、代理人提起诉讼时,该受雇人、代理人证明他是在受雇、代理范围内行事的,有权援用本法第一百二十八条、第一百二十九条有关赔偿责任限制的规定。
In the case specified in the preceding paragraph, the total amount of damages to be paid by the carrier and his employees and agents should not exceed the statutory limit. 在前款规定情形下,承运人及其受雇人、代理人的赔偿总额不得超过法定的赔偿责任限额。
If it is proven that a loss in air transport is caused by intentional action, indiscreet action or no action on the part of the employees or agents of a carrier in the knowledge of probability of the loss, the handling of the loss is outside the scope of application of the provisions in the first and second paragraphs of this article. 经证明,航空运输中的损失是由于承运人的受雇人、代理人的故意或者明知可能造成损失而轻率地作为或者不作为造成的,不适用本条第一款和第二款的规定。
Article 134 The acceptance by the passenger or consignor of the consigned baggage or cargoes without raising an objection constitutes a primary evidence that the baggage or cargoes has been delivered in perfect condition and in conformity with the transport certificates.   第一百三十四条 旅客或者收货人收受托运行李或者货物而未提出异议,为托运行李或者货物已经完好交付并与运输凭证相符的初步证据。
When finding damage to the consigned baggage or cargoes, the passenger or consignee should raise objection to the carrier within seven days after the delivery for baggage and 14 days after delivery for the cargoes. In case of delays in the delivery of the consigned baggage or cargoes, an objection should be raised within 21 days after delivery of the baggage to the passenger or of the day the cargo is put at the disposal of the consignee. 托运行李或者货物发生损失的,旅客或者收货人应当在发现损失后向承运人提出异议。托运行李发生损失的,至迟应当自收到托运行李之日起七日内提出;货物发生损失的,至迟应当自收到货物之日起十四日内提出。托运行李或者货物发生延误的,至迟应当自托运行李或者货物交付旅客或者收货人处置之日起二十一日内提出。
All objection has to be written on the transport certificates or in another form of writing within the period prescribed in the preceding paragraph. 任何异议均应当在前款规定的期间内写在运输凭证上或者另以书面提出。
Except for fraudulent conduct on the part of the carrier, the passenger or consignee cannot take legal action against the carrier for damages of the period prescribed in the second paragraph of this article. 除承运人有欺诈行为外,旅客或者收货人未在本条第二款规定的期间内提出异议的,不能向承运人提出索赔诉讼。
Article 135 The period of prescription in air transport is two years, counting from the day of arrival of the aircraft, or its scheduled arrival, or the termination of the shipment.   第一百三十五条 航空运输的诉讼时效期间为二年,自民用航空器到达目的地点、应当到达目的地点或者运输终止之日起计算。
Article 136 In the case of continuous shipment undertaken by several air transport carriers, each of them taking on passengers, baggage or cargoes is bound by provisions of this law and is a party to the transport contract for the segment of the shipment the said carrier undertakes stipulated in the contract.   第一百三十六条 由几个航空承运人办理的连续运输,接受旅客、行李或者货物的每一个承运人应当受本法规定的约束,并就其根据合同办理的运输区段作为运输合同的订约一方。
In the case of continuous shipment prescribed in the preceding paragraph, except that it is explicitly stipulated in the contract that the first carrier is responsible for the whole length of the shipment, the passenger or the inheritor of whom can only take legal action against a carrier who is responsible for the segment of the shipment where accidents or delays occur. 对前款规定的连续运输,除合同明文约定第一承运人应当对全程运输承担责任外,旅客或者其继承人只能对发生事故或者延误的运输区段的承运人提起诉讼。
In case of destruction, loss, damage or delay of consigned baggage or cargoes, legal action can be taken against the first carrier on the part of the passenger or consignor, against the last carrier on the part of the passenger or consignee, and against the carrier who is responsible for the segment of the shipment where the destruction, loss, damage or delay occurs. The above mentioned carriers should assume joint liability to passengers, consignors or consignees on the part of the passenger, consignor or consignee. 托运行李或者货物的毁灭、遗失、损坏或者延误,旅客或者托运人有权对第一承运人提起诉讼,旅客或者收货人有权对最后承运人提起诉讼,旅客、托运人和收货人均可以对发生毁灭、遗失、损坏或者延误的运输区段的承运人提起诉讼。上述承运人应当对旅客、托运人或者收货人承担连带责任。
Section 4 Special Provisions for Air Transport by Actual Carriers 

第四节 实际承运人履行航空运输的特别规定

Article 137 The signatory carrier mentioned below refers to the one who concludes an air transport contract with the passenger or consignor, or their agents.   第一百三十七条 本节所称缔约承运人,是指以本人名义与旅客或者托运人,或者与旅客或者托运人的代理人,订立本章调整的航空运输合同的人。
The actual carrier mentioned below refers to the one who undertakes the shipment, in whole or in part, described in the preceding paragraph with authorization by the signatory carrier. The term does not refer to the carrier in continuous shipment. Such authorization is considered existent in the absence of evidence to the contrary. 本节所称实际承运人,是指根据缔约承运人的授权,履行前款全部或者部分运输的人,不是指本章规定的连续承运人;在没有相反证明时,此种授权被认为是存在的。
Article 138 Unless otherwise stipulated in this section, the signatory and actual carriers are both bound by provisions in this chapter. The signatory carrier should assume full responsibility for the contracted shipment. The actual carrier should be responsible for the shipment under his execution.   第一百三十八条 除本节另有规定外,缔约承运人和实际承运人都应当受本章规定的约束。缔约承运人应当对合同约定的全部运输负责。实际承运人应当对其履行的运输负责。
Article 139 Action or no action undertaken by the actual carrier, or employees thereof or agents within their employment or agency, that has an immediate impact on the shipment undertaken by the actual carrier, should be considered as the action or no action of the signatory carrier.   第一百三十九条 实际承运人的作为和不作为,实际承运人的受雇人、代理人在受雇、代理范围内的作为和不作为,关系到实际承运人履行的运输的,应当视为缔约承运人的作为和不作为。
Action or no action undertaken by the signatory carrier, or employees or agents thereof within their employment or agency, that has an immediate impact on the shipment undertaken by the actual carrier, should be considered as the action or no action of the actual carrier. But the liability of the actual carrier should not exceed that limited by law for damages caused by the action or no action. 缔约承运人的作为和不作为,缔约承运人的受雇人、代理人在受雇、代理范围内的作为和不作为,关系到实际承运人履行的运输的,应当视为实际承运人的作为和不作为;但是,实际承运人承担的责任不因此种作为或者不作为而超过法定的赔偿责任限额。
Any special agreement involving obligations or rights imposed upon or given to the signatory carrier that have not been specified in this chapter or any special declaration concerning the interests at the time of delivery at the place of destination in accordance with the provisions in Articles 128 and 129 should not affect the actual carrier except with agreement thereof. 任何有关缔约承运人承担本章未规定的义务或者放弃本章赋予的权利的特别协议,或者任何有关依照本法第一百二十八条、第一百二十九条规定所作的在目的地点交付时利益的特别声明,除经实际承运人同意外,均不得影响实际承运人。
Article 140 The claims for damages or instructions issued in conformity with provisions of this chapter, whether they are issued to the signatory or actual carrier, have equal effect. But the instructions specified in Article 119 are effective only when they are issued to the signatory carrier.   第一百四十条 依照本章规定提出的索赔或者发出的指示,无论是向缔约承运人还是向实际承运人提出或者发出的,具有同等效力;但是,本法第一百一十九条规定的指示,只在向缔约承运人发出时,方有效。
Article 141 In a shipment performed by an actual carrier according to a contract, the employees or agents of the actual carrier, or of a signatory carrier, upon evidence of acting within the scope of employment or agency per se, should have the right to invoke the provisions in Articles 128 and 129 concerning the limits to the liability for damages, except for the cases excluded by provisions of this law from the right to invoke the provisions for the limits.   第一百四十一条 实际承运人的受雇人、代理人或者缔约承运人的受雇人、代理人,证明他是在受雇、代理范围内行事的,就实际承运人履行的运输而言,有权援用本法第一百二十八条、第一百二十九条有关赔偿责任限制的规定,但是依照本法规定不得援用赔偿责任限制规定的除外。
Article 142 In a shipment performed by an actual carrier according to a contract, the total amount of damages to be paid by the actual and signatory carriers and their employees and agents acting within the scope of their employment and agency should not exceed the maximum amount retrievable from the signatory or actual carrier in accordance with this law. But none of them shall assume a liability for damages greater than the limit applicable to respectively each of them.   第一百四十二条 对于实际承运人履行的运输,实际承运人、缔约承运人以及他们的在受雇、代理范围内行事的受雇人、代理人的赔偿总额不得超过依照本法得以从缔约承运人或者实际承运人获得赔偿的最高数额;但是,其中任何人都不承担超过对他适用的赔偿责任限额。
Article 143 A legal action over the shipment performed by an actual carrier according to contract can be taken either against the actual carrier or the signatory carrier, or against them both at the same time. The indicted carrier has the right to ask the other carrier to jointly respond to the suit.   第一百四十三条 对实际承运人履行的运输提起的诉讼,可以分别对实际承运人或者缔约承运人提起,也可以同时对实际承运人和缔约承运人提起;被提起诉讼的承运人有权要求另一承运人参加应诉。
Article 144 Except for the provisions in Article 143, the other provisions in this section of the law do not affect the rights and obligations between the actual and signatory carriers.   第一百四十四条 除本法第一百四十三条规定外,本节规定不影响实际承运人和缔约承运人之间的权利、义务。
Chapter X General-Purpose Aviation 

第十章 通 用 航 空

Article 145 General-purpose aviation refers to civil aviation by means of civil aircraft other than public air transportation. Such aviation includes professional flights for industrial, agricultural, forestry, fishery, architectural, medical, rescue, relief, meteorological, observation, ocean monitoring, scientific research and experiment, educational training and cultural and sports purposes.   第一百四十五条 通用航空,是指使用民用航空器从事公共航空运输以外的民用航空活动,包括从事工业、农业、林业、渔业和建筑业的作业飞行以及医疗卫生、抢险救灾、气象探测、海洋监测、科学实验、教育训练、文化体育等方面的飞行活动。
Article 146 The following conditions should be present for undertakings in general-purpose aviation:   第一百四十六条 从事通用航空活动,应当具备下列条件:
(1) The civil aircraft suitable for operations to be undertaken in general-purpose aviation and qualified for ensuring flight safety. (一)有与所从事的通用航空活动相适应,符合保证飞行安全要求的民用航空器;
(2) Necessary aviation personnel with legal licenses. (二)有必需的依法取得执照的航空人员;
(3) Other conditions specified by law or administrative regulations. (三)符合法律、行政法规规定的其他条件。
Only enterprising legal persons are allowed to undertake general-purpose aviation for business. 从事经营性通用航空,限于企业法人。
Article 147 Operators of nonbusiness general-purpose aviation should register with CAA.   第一百四十七条 从事非经营性通用航空的,应当向国务院民用航空主管部门办理登记。
Operators of general-purpose aviation for business should apply to CAA for general-purpose aviation licenses. 从事经营性通用航空的,应当向国务院民用航空主管部门申请领取通用航空经营许可证。
Article 148 A general-purpose aviation enterprise should sign a contract with client concerned for general-purpose aviation operations, except for first-aid and disaster relief operations in emergency.   第一百四十八条 通用航空企业从事经营性通用航空活动,应当与用户订立书面合同,但是紧急情况下的救护或者救灾飞行除外。
Article 149 The organization and operation of business flights should take effective measures to ensure flight safety, environment protection and ecological equilibrium and avoid causing damage to the environment, the residents, crops or animals.   第一百四十九条 组织实施作业飞行时,应当采取有效措施,保证飞行安全,保护环境和生态平衡,防止对环境、居民、作物或者牲畜等造成损害。
Article 150 Operators of general-purpose aviation should cover insurance on the third party on the ground.   第一百五十条 从事通用航空活动的,应当投保地面第三人责任险。
Chapter XI Search and Rescue and Accident Investigation 

第十一章 搜寻援救和事故调查

Article 151 In case of emergency, civil aircraft should send out distress signals and report to the air traffic control unit asking for help. The control unit should immediately inform the search and rescue coordination centre of the request for help. In case of meeting an emergency on the sea, the aircraft should also send out distress signals to ships and the State search and rescue outfit at sea.   第一百五十一条 民用航空器遇到紧急情况时,应当发送信号,并向空中交通管制单位报告,提出援救请求;空中交通管制单位应当立即通知搜寻援救协调中心。民用航空器在海上遇到紧急情况时,还应当向船舶和国家海上搜寻援救组织发送信号。
Article 152 On discovering an aircraft in a state of emergency or receiving distress signals from an aircraft, the units or individuals should immediately inform the search and rescue coordination centre, the search and rescue outfit at sea or the local people's government.   第一百五十二条 发现民用航空器遇到紧急情况或者收听到民用航空器遇到紧急情况的信号的单位或者个人,应当立即通知有关的搜寻援救协调中心、海上搜寻援救组织或者当地人民政府。
Article 153 On receiving the information, the search and rescue coordination centre, the local people's government and the search and rescue outfit at sea should immediately organize search and rescue operations.   第一百五十三条 收到通知的搜寻援救协调中心、地方人民政府和海上搜寻援救组织,应当立即组织搜寻援救。
The search and rescue coordination centre should find the means of informing the aircraft in distress of the measures taken for search and rescue. 收到通知的搜寻援救协调中心,应当设法将已经采取的搜寻援救措施通知遇到紧急情况的民用航空器。
Detailed methods for the search and rescue of civil aircraft are to be worked out by the State Council. 搜寻援救民用航空器的具体办法,由国务院规定。
Article 154 The units or individuals engaged in search and rescue operations should make greatest effort to rescue the people aboard the aircraft and, in accordance with regulations, take measures to salvage the aircraft, protect the scene of the incident and preserve evidences.   第一百五十四条 执行搜寻援救任务的单位或者个人,应当尽力抢救民用航空器所载人员,按照规定对民用航空器采取抢救措施并保护现场,保存证据。
Article 155 The persons involved or concerned in an aircraft accident should, under investigation, truthfully provide information about the scene of the accident and relevant details concerning the accidents.   第一百五十五条 民用航空器事故的当事人以及有关人员在接受调查时,应当如实提供现场情况和与事故有关的情节。
Article 156 The organization and procedures of investigation of civil aircraft accidents are to be worked out by the State Council.   第一百五十六条 民用航空器事故调查的组织和程序,由国务院规定。
Chapter XII Indemnity Liabilities to the Third Party on the Ground 

第十二章 对地面第三人损害的赔偿责任

Article 157 The victims of personal injury or death or loss of property on the ground (including water surface) caused by in-flight civil aircraft or falling people or things from in-flight aircraft have the right to acquire indemnity for the damages. But the victims have no right to demand indemnity if the injury or damage is not a direct result of the accident responsible for the injury or damage, or if the injury or damage is only a result of the passage of the aircraft in the air in conformity with the State rules of air traffic.   第一百五十七条 因飞行中的民用航空器或者从飞行中的民用航空器上落下的人或者物,造成地面(包括水面,下同)上的人身伤亡或者财产损害的,受害人有权获得赔偿;但是,所受损害并非造成损害的事故的直接后果,或者所受损害仅是民用航空器依照国家有关的空中交通规则在空中通过造成的,受害人无权要求赔偿。
The term in-flight mentioned in the preceding paragraph refers to the period from the start of applying driving power for the actual takeoff of the civil aircraft to the end of its landing run. In the case of civil aircraft lighter than air, the term in-flight spans the period from their leaving the ground to their landing back on the ground. 前款所称飞行中,是指自民用航空器为实际起飞而使用动力时起至着陆冲程终了时止;就轻于空气的民用航空器而言,飞行中是指自其离开地面时起至其重新着地时止。
Article 158 The operator of civil aircraft is liable for damages specified in Article 157.   第一百五十八条 本法第一百五十七条规定的赔偿责任,由民用航空器的经营人承担。
The operator mentioned in the preceding paragraph refers to the user of the aircraft at the time the injury or damage occurred. The principal who has directly or indirectly vested the right of use of the aircraft in another person but retains the power of control over the flights of the aircraft is considered as an operator as well. 前款所称经营人,是指损害发生时使用民用航空器的人。民用航空器的使用权已经直接或者间接地授予他人,本人保留对该民用航空器的航行控制权的,本人仍被视为经营人。
The use of civil aircraft by the employees or agents of the operators during their employment or agency is considered as use by the operators whether the former have acted within the scope of their employment or agency or not. 经营人的受雇人、代理人在受雇、代理过程中使用民用航空器,无论是否在其受雇、代理范围内行事,均视为经营人使用民用航空器。
The registered owner of a civil aircraft should be considered as an operator and assume an operator's responsibility, except proofs can be made by the owner in a legal proceedings to ascertain liabilities that the operator is another person and the person concerned can be brought to the suit as a litigant by taking appropriate actions within the permissible scope of legal procedures. 民用航空器登记的所有人应当被视为经营人,并承担经营人的责任;除非在判定其责任的诉讼中,所有人证明经营人是他人,并在法律程序许可的范围内采取适当措施使该人成为诉讼当事人之一。
Article 159 Whenever a civil aircraft which is used by someone without the permission of the person having control power over the flight of it, has caused injury or damage to a third party on the ground, the person having control power over the flight of the aircraft should assume joint liability with the person using the aircraft illegally except proof can be presented that appropriate caution against such use of the aircraft had actually been made.   第一百五十九条 未经对民用航空器有航行控制权的人同意而使用民用航空器,对地面第三人造成损害的,有航行控制权的人除证明本人已经适当注意防止此种使用外,应当与该非法使用人承担连带责任。
Article 160 If the injury or damage is the direct result of armed conflict or rioting, the person who should be held liable for the injury or damage according to the provisions in this chapter is exempt from the liabilities concerned.   第一百六十条 损害是武装冲突或者骚乱的直接后果,依照本章规定应当承担责任的人不承担责任。
There person whose right to use the civil aircraft has been deprived by relevant State organs according to law is exempt from the liabilities concerned which are accorded by provisions in this chapter. 依照本章规定应当承担责任的人对民用航空器的使用权业经国家机关依法剥夺的,不承担责任。
Article 161 The person who should be held liable for damages and injuries by provisions in this chapter is exempt from the liability concerned if proof can be presented that the injury or damage is caused entirely by mistakes on the part of the victim or employees or agents thereof. If the person to be held liable can prove that the injury or damage is caused in part by mistakes on the part of the victim or employees or agents thereof, the liability concerned is to be duly reduced. But if the injury or damage is the result of mistakes on the part of the employees or agents of the victim and the victim proves that their actions have outstepped the scope of the authorization given, no exemption or reduction of the liability for damages is to be extended to the person who should be held liable.   第一百六十一条 依照本章规定应当承担责任的人证明损害是完全由于受害人或者其受雇人、代理人的过错造成的,免除其赔偿责任;应当承担责任的人证明损害是部分由于受害人或者其受雇人、代理人的过错造成的,相应减轻其赔偿责任。但是,损害是由于受害人的受雇人、代理人的过错造成时,受害人证明其受雇人、代理人的行为超出其所授权的范围的,不免除或者不减轻应当承担责任的人的赔偿责任。
Provisions in the preceding paragraph can be applied to a lawsuit against a person for damages for death or injury caused by mistakes on the part of the person or employees or agents thereof. 一人对另一人的死亡或者伤害提起诉讼,请求赔偿时,损害是该另一人或者其受雇人、代理人的过错造成的,适用前款规定。
Article 162 In the case where two or more civil aircraft collide or mutually interfere in a flight resulting in injury or damage liable for indemnity as specified in the provisions of Article 157, or if two or more civil aircraft together bring about such injury or damage, all the aircraft involved should be considered as having brought about the injury or damage and their operators should assume liability.   第一百六十二条 两个以上的民用航空器在飞行中相撞或者相扰,造成本法第一百五十七条规定的应当赔偿的损害,或者两个以上的民用航空器共同造成此种损害的,各有关民用航空器均应当被认为已经造成此种损害,各有关民用航空器的经营人均应当承担责任。
Article 163 The person specified in paragraph four of Article 158 and in Article 159 has the right to contest the claims for damages, a right the operator can invoke by provisions of this chapter.   第一百六十三条 本法第一百五十八条第四款和第一百五十九条规定的人,享有依照本章规定经营人所能援用的抗辩权。
Article 164 The operator, owner and the person who should assume liability by provisions of Article 159, and employees and agents thereof bear no liability for injuries or damage on the ground caused by in-flight aircraft or people or things fallen from the aircraft, except the injuries or damage are caused by intentional actions and/or otherwise clearly stipulated in provisions of this chapter.   第一百六十四条 除本章有明确规定外,经营人、所有人和本法第一百五十九条规定的应当承担责任的人,以及他们的受雇人、代理人,对于飞行中的民用航空器或者从飞行中的民用航空器上落下的人或者物造成的地面上的损害不承担责任,但是故意造成此种损害的人除外。
Article 165 The person who should assume liability for the injuries and damage according to provisions of this chapter is not prevented by the provisions from exercising his right to recover the losses from other parties.   第一百六十五条 本章不妨碍依照本章规定应当对损害承担责任的人向他人追偿的权利。
Article 166 The operator of civil aircraft should cover insurance on the third party on the ground or secure a corresponding guarantee for liability.   第一百六十六条 民用航空器的经营人应当投保地面第三人责任险或者取得相应的责任担保。
Article 167 The insurer or guarantor can only make the following demurrers to claims for damage raised in accordance with provisions in this chapter, apart from enjoying the same right of contest as an operator and the right of contest over forged documents:   第一百六十七条 保险人和担保人除享有与经营人相同的抗辩权,以及对伪造证件进行抗辩的权利外,对依照本章规定提出的赔偿请求只能进行下列抗辩:
(1) Demurrers to claims for injury or damage that occurs after the termination of the effective term of the insurance or guarantee. But if their term should end in the midst of a flight, it should continue to be effective until the next landing specified in the flight plan. But the extended period of the term should not exceed twenty-four hours. (一)损害发生在保险或者担保终止有效后;然而保险或者担保在飞行中期满的,该项保险或者担保在飞行计划中所载下一次降落前继续有效,但是不得超过二十四小时;
(2) Demurrers to claims for injury or damage that occurs outside the areas specified in the insurance or guarantee, except that the outstepping of the specified areas is a result of force majeure, the necessity of aiding others or mistakes in the piloting, aviation or navigation of the aircraft. (二)损害发生在保险或者担保所指定的地区范围外,除非飞行超出该范围是由于不可抗力、援助他人所必需,或者驾驶、航行或者领航上的差错造成的。
The provision on the continued effectiveness of the insurance or guarantee in the paragraph above is applicable only when it does not harm the interest of the victim of the injury or damage. 前款关于保险或者担保继续有效的规定,只在对受害人有利时适用。
Article 168 The victim of the injury or damage can take legal action directly against the insurer or guarantor only in the following circumstances, but this does not preclude the right per se of taking direct legal action in accordance with the legal stipulations in the insurance or guarantee contract:   第一百六十八条 仅在下列情形下,受害人可以直接对保险人或者担保人提起诉讼,但是不妨碍受害人根据有关保险合同或者担保合同的法律规定提起直接诉讼的权利:
(1) The insurance or guarantee continues to be effective as stipulated in (1) and (2) of Article 167. (一)根据本法第一百六十七条第(一)项、第(二)项规定,保险或者担保继续有效的;
(2) The operator has gone bankrupt. (二)经营人破产的。
Except within the domaine of the right of contest stipulated in the first paragraph of Article 167, the insurer or guarantor should not contest against the legal action taken by the victim directly against them in accordance with provisions in this chapter on ground of the loss of effectiveness of the insurance or guarantee or the end of retroactivity. 除本法第一百六十七条第一款规定的抗辩权,保险人或者担保人对受害人依照本章规定提起的直接诉讼不得以保险或者担保的无效或者追溯力终止为由进行抗辩。
Article 169 The insurance or guarantee set up by provision of Article 166 should indicate clearly priorities for payments of indemnities specified in this chapter.   第一百六十九条 依照本法第一百六十六条规定提供的保险或者担保,应当被专门指定优先支付本章规定的赔偿。
Article 170 Before the claims for damages by a third party prescribed by provisions of this chapter are satisfied, creditors of the operator should not in any case detain and/or dispose the amount should be due to operator by the insurer.   第一百七十条 保险人应当支付给经营人的款项,在本章规定的第三人的赔偿请求未满足前,不受经营人的债权人的扣留和处理。
Article 171 The effective period for legal actions taken by the third party for indemnities for injuries or damage is two years, counting from the day the injury or damage occurs. The period should not exceed three years under any circumstances.   第一百七十一条 地面第三人损害赔偿的诉讼时效期间为二年,自损害发生之日起计算;但是,在任何情况下,时效期间不得超过自损害发生之日起三年。
Article 172 The provisions of this chapter are not applicable to the following cases of injuries or damage:   第一百七十二条 本章规定不适用于下列损害:
(1) Injuries or damage to in-flight civil aircraft or the people or things aboard. (一)对飞行中的民用航空器或者对该航空器上的人或者物造成的损害;
(2) Injuries or damage constrained by contract concluded between the victim and the operator or the person having the right to use the aircraft at the time of the occurrence of the injury or damage, or by the stipulations concerning compensation to employees according to law in the labour contract which is applicable to both sides. (二)为受害人同经营人或者同发生损害时对民用航空器有使用权的人订立的合同所约束,或者为适用两方之间的劳动合同的法律有关职工赔偿的规定所约束的损害;
(3) Nuclear damage. (三)核损害。
Chapter XIII Special Provisions for Foreign Civil Aircraft 

第十三章 对外国民用航空器的特别规定

Article 173 The operation of civil aviation by foreign nationals using foreign civil aircraft inside PRC territories should be undertaken in accordance with provisions in this chapter as well as other relevant provisions in this law where this chapter does not cover.   第一百七十三条 外国人经营的外国民用航空器,在中华人民共和国境内从事民用航空活动,适用本章规定;本章没有规定的,适用本法其他有关规定。
Article 174 Foreign civil aircraft can only fly into or out of PRC territorial air and fly and land inside PRC territories by dint of accords or agreements signed between the government of the country of the aircraft registration and the PRC government, or approval or consent from CAA.   第一百七十四条 外国民用航空器根据其国籍登记国政府与中华人民共和国政府签订的协定、协议的规定,或者经中华人民共和国国务院民用航空主管部门批准或者接受,方可飞入、飞出中华人民共和国领空和在中华人民共和国境内飞行、降落。
With regard to unauthorized flying of foreign civil aircraft into and out of PRC territorial air in contravention of the regulation specified in the preceding paragraph, PRC's relevant departments have the right to take necessary measures to order the foreign aircraft to land at designated airfields. The same order can be given under cases though the aircraft concerned are flying in conformance with the regulation specified in the preceding paragraph, if the departments concerned deem it necessary to put the aircraft under inspection for justifiable reasons. 对不符合前款规定,擅自飞入、飞出中华人民共和国领空的外国民用航空器,中华人民共和国有关机关有权采取必要措施,令其在指定的机场降落;对虽然符合前款规定,但是有合理的根据认为需要对其进行检查的,有关机关有权令其在指定的机场降落。
Article 175 For flying into PRC territorial air, operators of foreign aircraft should provide relevant documents certifying having covered liability insurance or obtained due guarantee for liabilities for the third party on the ground. CAA has the right to refuse entry into PRC territorial air to the aircraft without the specified certification documents.   第一百七十五条 外国民用航空器飞入中华人民共和国领空,其经营人应当提供有关证明书,证明其已经投保地面第三人责任险或者已经取得相应的责任担保;其经营人未提供有关证明书的,中华人民共和国国务院民用航空主管部门有权拒绝其飞入中华人民共和国领空。
Article 176 An operator of foreign civil aircraft can run international flights specified in the accord or agreement concluded between the governments of PRC and the country of the operator but only on designation by its own government and operation license issued by CAA. Only with the approval of own government and CAA can an operator of foreign civil aircraft run nonregular air transport between one place in PRC territories and other place overseas.   第一百七十六条 外国民用航空器的经营人经其本国政府指定,并取得中华人民共和国国务院民用航空主管部门颁发的经营许可证,方可经营中华人民共和国政府与该外国政府签订的协定、协议规定的国际航班运输;外国民用航空器的经营人经其本国政府批准,并获得中华人民共和国国务院民用航空主管部门批准,方可经营中华人民共和国境内一地和境外一地之间的不定期航空运输。
The operator of foreign civil aircraft specified in the preceding paragraph should formulate an appropriate security plan and report it to CAA for record. 前款规定的外国民用航空器经营人,应当依照中华人民共和国法律、行政法规的规定,制定相应的安全保卫方案,报中华人民共和国国务院民用航空主管部门备案。
Article 177 An operator of foreign civil aircraft shall not run air transport between two points within PRC territories.   第一百七十七条 外国民用航空器的经营人,不得经营中华人民共和国境内两点之间的航空运输。
Article 178 Foreign civil aircraft should make their flights according to the fly schedule or plan approved by CAA. For a change in the fly schedule or plan, the operator should seek the approval of CAA. For a change in or cancellation of flights for certain reasons, the operator should make timely report to CAA.   第一百七十八条 外国民用航空器,应当按照中华人民共和国国务院民用航空主管部门批准的班期时刻或者飞行计划飞行;变更班期时刻或者飞行计划的,其经营人应当获得中华人民共和国国务院民用航空主管部门的批准;因故变更或者取消飞行的,其经营人应当及时报告中华人民共和国国务院民用航空主管部门。
Article 179 Foreign civil aircraft should take off or land at the CAA designated airports instituted with customs offices.   第一百七十九条 外国民用航空器应当在中华人民共和国国务院民用航空主管部门指定的设关机场起飞或者降落。
Article 180 CAA and other departments in charge have the right to inspect the documents specified in Article 90 at the time of landing or takeoff of foreign civil aircraft.   第一百八十条 中华人民共和国国务院民用航空主管部门和其他主管机关,有权在外国民用航空器降落或者飞出时查验本法第九十条规定的文件。
Foreign civil aircraft and the personnel, baggage and cargo abroad should accept entry-exit, customs and quarantine inspection carried out by PRC's relevant departments in charge according to law. 外国民用航空器及其所载人员、行李、货物,应当接受中华人民共和国有关主管机关依法实施的入境出境、海关、检疫等检查。
The process of inspections specified in the above two paragraphs should avoid causing unnecessary delays. 实施前两款规定的查验、检查,应当避免不必要的延误。
Article 181 The PRC government acknowledges the validity of civil aircraft airworthiness certificates and qualification certificates and licenses of flight crew members issued or approved by the country of registration of foreign civil aircraft. But the qualifications for the issue or approval of the certificates and licenses should be equal to or higher than the lowest standards provided by international civil aircraft organizations.   第一百八十一条 外国民用航空器国籍登记国发给或者核准的民用航空器适航证书、机组人员合格证书和执照,中华人民共和国政府承认其有效;但是,发给或者核准此项证书或者执照的要求,应当等于或者高于国际民用航空组织制定的最低标准。
Article 182 The owner or country of registration of foreign civil aircraft should have the approval of CAA or act in accordance with the agreement between the two governments in the search and rescue of aircraft in distress in the search and rescue zone of PRC.   第一百八十二条 外国民用航空器在中华人民共和国搜寻援救区内遇险,其所有人或者国籍登记国参加搜寻援救工作,应当经中华人民共和国国务院民用航空主管部门批准或者按照两国政府协议进行。
Article 183 The country of registration of foreign civil aircraft and other countries concerned can designate their observers to take part in the investigation of accidents the aircraft met with in PRC territories. The report on and results of the investigation will be conveyed by CAA to the country of registration and other countries concerned.   第一百八十三条 外国民用航空器在中华人民共和国境内发生事故,其国籍登记国和其他有关国家可以指派观察员参加事故调查。事故调查报告和调查结果,由中华人民共和国国务院民用航空主管部门告知该外国民用航空器的国籍登记国和其他有关国家。
Chapter XIV Legal Applications in Foreign Relations 

第十四章 涉外关系的法律适用

Article 184 Where contradiction appears, provisions of international treaties to which PRC is a signatory or party shall prevail over those of this law except those on which PRC has made reservations.   第一百八十四条 中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约同本法有不同规定的,适用国际条约的规定;但是,中华人民共和国声明保留的条款除外。
Where PRC laws and international treaties to which PRC is a signatory or party make no provisions, international practices can be referred to. 中华人民共和国法律和中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约没有规定的,可以适用国际惯例。
Article 185 Laws of the country of registration of civil aircraft apply to the securement, transfer and lost of the ownership of civil aircraft.   第一百八十五条 民用航空器所有权的取得、转让和消灭,适用民用航空器国籍登记国法律。
Article 186 Laws of the country of registration of civil aircraft apply to the mortgage of civil aircraft.   第一百八十六条 民用航空器抵押权适用民用航空器国籍登记国法律。
Article 187 The law of the seat of the court which accepts the cases involved shall apply to the priority of civil aircraft concerned.   第一百八十七条 民用航空器优先权适用受理案件的法院所在地法律。
Article 188 Parties to civil air transport contracts can choose the law to apply to the contracts, except otherwise stipulated by law. Where the parties to contracts make no choices, the law of the country mostly involved in the contract applies.   第一百八十八条 民用航空运输合同当事人可以选择合同适用的法律,但是法律另有规定的除外;合同当事人没有选择的,适用与合同有最密切联系的国家的法律。
Article 189 The law of the tort location where the tort concerned happens applies to liabilities for injuries or damage to the third party on the ground by civil aircraft.   第一百八十九条 民用航空器对地面第三人的损害赔偿,适用侵权行为地法律。
The law of the seat of the court which accepts the cases involved should apply to liabilities for injuries or damage to a third party on the surface in open sea by civil aircraft from the air. 民用航空器在公海上空对水面第三人的损害赔偿,适用受理案件的法院所在地法律。
Article 190 The application of foreign laws or international practices in accordance with provisions of this chapter should not violate the public interest of PRC.   第一百九十条 依照本章规定适用外国法律或者国际惯例,不得违背中华人民共和国的社会公共利益。
Chapter XV Legal Liabilities 

第十五章 法 律 责 任

Article 191 The hijacking of aircraft by force, coercion or other means shall be prosecuted for criminal liability according to the Criminal Law.   第一百九十一条 以暴力、胁迫或者其他方法劫持航空器的,依照刑法有关规定追究刑事责任。
Article 192 The use of force on the persons aboard a civil aircraft in flight which imperils air safety shall be prosecuted for criminal liability according to the Criminal Law if no serious consequences caused but shall be prosecuted according to Criminal Law if involving serious consequences.   第一百九十二条 对飞行中的民用航空器上的人员使用暴力,危及飞行安全的,依照刑法有关规定追究刑事责任。
Article 193 The concealed carrying personally explosives, detonators or hazardous articles boarding on a civil aircraft, or the consigned transport of dangerous cargoes in the name of non-dangerous items, in contravention of provisions of this law, shall be prosecuted for criminal liability with reference to the Criminal Law if no serious consequences have been caused thereby, but shall be prosecuted for criminal liability according to provisions in Criminal Law if involving serious consequences.   第一百九十三条 违反本法规定,隐匿携带炸药、雷管或者其他危险品乘坐民用航空器,或者以非危险品品名托运危险品的,依照刑法有关规定追究刑事责任。
Enterprises or institutions guilty of the offenses specified in the preceding paragraph shall be fined and the personnel in direct responsibility and other personnel directly involved shall be prosecuted for criminal liability according to provisions in the preceding paragraph. 企业事业单位犯前款罪的,判处罚金,并对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员依照前款规定追究刑事责任。
The concealed carrying of firearms and ammunition and controlled knives personally in boarding on a civil aircraft shall be prosecuted for criminal liability with reference to provisions in the Criminal Law. 隐匿携带枪支子弹、管制刀具乘坐民用航空器的,依照刑法有关规定追究刑事责任。
Article 194 CAA will confiscate the illicit gains of public air transport enterprises from their shipment of dangerous cargoes in contravention of provisions of Article 101 and can impose a fine less than double the amount of the illicit gains.   第一百九十四条 公共航空运输企业违反本法第一百零一条的规定运输危险品的,由国务院民用航空主管部门没收违法所得,可以并处违法所得一倍以下的罚款。
The public air transport enterprises committing acts specified in the preceding paragraph which cause serious accidents shall be punished with confiscation of their illicit gains and a fine, and, in addition, the personnel in direct responsibility and other personnel directly involved shall be prosecuted for criminal liability according to provisions of the Criminal Law哎哟不错哦. 公共航空运输企业有前款行为,导致发生重大事故的,没收违法所得,判处罚金;并对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员依照刑法有关规定追究刑事责任。
Article 195 The intentional placement or instigating others to place hazardous articles on civil aircraft in use enough to destroy the aircraft and imperil air safety shall be prosecuted for criminal liability according to provisions in the Criminal Law if no causing serious consequences, and shall be prosecuted according to provisions in Criminal Law Article 110 if causing serious consequences.   第一百九十五条 故意在使用中的民用航空器上放置危险品或者唆使他人放置危险品,足以毁坏该民用航空器,危及飞行安全的,依照刑法有关规定追究刑事责任。
Article 196 The intentional dissemination of false information to disrupt the normal order of air traffic entailing great losses to public and private properties shall be prosecuted for criminal liability according to provisions in the Criminal Law.   第一百九十六条 故意传递虚假情报,扰乱正常飞行秩序,使公私财产遭受重大损失的,依照刑法有关规定追究刑事责任。
Article 197 Acts of theft or intentional damage or destruction or moving of aviation equipment in use which endangers air safety and is enough to cause a falling or wrecking of civil aircraft shall be prosecuted for criminal liability according to provisions in the Criminal Law if so serious consequences caused but shall be prosecuted according to provisions in Criminal Law if causing serious consequences.   第一百九十七条 盗窃或者故意损毁、移动使用中的航行设施,危及飞行安全,足以使民用航空器发生坠落、毁坏危险的,依照刑法有关规定追究刑事责任。
Article 198 The gathering of a crowd to disturb the order of a civil airport shall be prosecuted for criminal liability according to provisions in the Criminal Law.   第一百九十八条 聚众扰乱民用机场秩序的,依照刑法有关规定追究刑事责任。
Article 199 Dereliction of duty or violation of rules and regulations that leads to serious flight accidents with grave consequences by aviation personnel shall be prosecuted for criminal liability respectively according to or with reference to the Criminal Law.   第一百九十九条 航空人员玩忽职守,或者违反规章制度,导致发生重大飞行事故,造成严重后果的,依照刑法有关规定追究刑事责任。
Article 200 Offenses against this law not serious enough for a criminal penalty shall be punished as violations of public order according to the Regulations on Penal Terms of Public Order Control.   第二百条 违反本法规定,尚不够刑事处罚,应当给予治安管理处罚的,依照治安管理处罚法的规定处罚。
Article 201 CAA will order a halt to the flight of civil aircraft without the certificate of airworthiness in violation of provisions in Article 37 of this law or leased foreign civil aircraft without the examination and acknowledgment by CAA of the certificate of airworthiness issued by the country of their original registration or without another certificate of airworthiness issued by CAA. The illicit gains from the flights will be confiscated and the offenders can be fined a sum of more than two times or less than five times the amount of illicit gains. Those without any illicit gains will be fined a sum of more than RMB 100,000 but less than RMB 1,000,000.   第二百零一条 违反本法第三十七条的规定,民用航空器无适航证书而飞行,或者租用的外国民用航空器未经国务院民用航空主管部门对其原国籍登记国发给的适航证书审查认可或者另发适航证书而飞行的,由国务院民用航空主管部门责令停止飞行,没收违法所得,可以并处违法所得一倍以上五倍以下的罚款;没有违法所得的,处以十万元以上一百万元以下的罚款。
The use of invalid certificates of airworthiness or flights overstepping the scope specified in the airworthiness certificate shall be penalized according to provisions in the preceding paragraph. 适航证书失效或者超过适航证书规定范围飞行的,依照前款规定处罚。
Article 202 CAA will order a halt to the production of civil aircraft and aircraft engines, propellers and equipment that had not obtained model qualification certificates or approval in violation of Article 34 and the second paragraph of Article 36 of this law beforehand and the illicit gains therefrom will be confiscated and a fine of less than double the amount of the illicit gains can be imposed. Such operation without an illicit income will be fined a sum of more than RMB 50,000 but less than RMB 500,000.   第二百零二条 违反本法第三十四条、第三十六条第二款的规定,将未取得型号合格证书、型号认可证书的民用航空器及其发动机、螺旋桨或者民用航空器上的设备投入生产的,由国务院民用航空主管部门责令停止生产,没收违法所得,可以并处违法所得一倍以下的罚款;没有违法所得的,处以五万元以上五十万元以下的罚款。
Article 203 CAA can order a halt to the unlicensed production and maintenance of aircraft in violation of provisions in Article 35 of this law and a halt to public air transport and general-purpose aviation which are carried on for business without permits in violation of provisions in Article 92 and the second paragraph of Article 147 of this law.   第二百零三条 违反本法第三十五条的规定,未取得生产许可证书、维修许可证书而从事生产、维修活动的,违反本法第九十二条、第一百四十七条第二款的规定,未取得公共航空运输经营许可证或者通用航空经营许可证而从事公共航空运输或者从事经营性通用航空的,国务院民用航空主管部门可以责令停止生产、维修或者经营活动。
Article 204 CAA can withdraw the production or maintenance licenses acquired in accordance with provisions in Article 35 of this law of operating enterprise if serious accidents were caused in the production or maintenance because of quality problems.   第二百零四条 已取得本法第三十五条规定的生产许可证书、维修许可证书的企业,因生产、维修的质量问题造成严重事故的,国务院民用航空主管部门可以吊销其生产许可证书或者维修许可证书。
Article 205 CAA will stop the work of aviation personnel who have not obtained the license or certificate for physical fitness as required by provisions in Article 40 of this law and also bar them from applying for such license and certificate within a definite time prescribed by CAA. A fine of less than RMB 200,000 will be imposed on the unit they belong to.   第二百零五条 违反本法第四十条的规定,未取得航空人员执照、体格检查合格证书而从事相应的民用航空活动的,由国务院民用航空主管部门责令停止民用航空活动,在国务院民用航空主管部门规定的限期内不得申领有关执照和证书,对其所在单位处以二十万元以下的罚款。
Article 206 CAA will impose on the captain of civil aircraft the punishment of warning or suspension of his license for a period from one to six months for one of the following offenses. For more serious cases, the license concerned can be revoked.   第二百零六条 有下列违法情形之一的,由国务院民用航空主管部门对民用航空器的机长给予警告或者吊扣执照一个月至六个月的处罚,情节较重的,可以给予吊销执照的处罚:
(1) The captain takes off without an inspection of the aircraft in violation of the provision in the first paragraph of Article 45 of this law. (一)机长违反本法第四十五条第一款的规定,未对民用航空器实施检查而起飞的;
(2) The civil aircraft does not navigate along the air route or at the altitude designated by the air traffic control unit in violation of provisions in Article 75 of this law, or flies over cities against the provisions in Article 79. (二)民用航空器违反本法第七十五条的规定,未按照空中交通管制单位指定的航路和飞行高度飞行,或者违反本法第七十九条的规定飞越城市上空的。
Article 207 CAA will stop the flights of civil aircraft which have not acquired permission from air traffic control unit in violation of provisions of Article 74 and a fine of more than RMB 10,000 or less than RMB 100,000 on the owner or lessee of the aircraft will be imposed. The captain of the aircraft will be penalized with a warning or suspension of the license concerned for one to six months, or if the case is serious enough, the license will be revoked.   第二百零七条 违反本法第七十四条的规定,民用航空器未经空中交通管制单位许可进行飞行活动的,由国务院民用航空主管部门责令停止飞行,对该民用航空器所有人或者承租人处以一万元以上十万元以下的罚款;对该民用航空器的机长给予警告或者吊扣执照一个月至六个月的处罚,情节较重的,可以给予吊销执照的处罚。
Article 208 CAA will impose a punishment of warning or suspension of license for one to six months on the captain or other members of the flight crew for one of the acts listed below, and the license can be revoked for acts specified in (2) or (3):   第二百零八条 民用航空器的机长或者机组其他人员有下列行为之一的,由国务院民用航空主管部门给予警告或者吊扣执照一个月至六个月的处罚;有第(二)项或者第(三)项所列行为的,可以给予吊销执照的处罚:
(1) Failure to carry their licenses and certificates for physical fitness during performance of duty as required by provision of Article 41. (一)在执行飞行任务时,不按照本法第四十一条的规定携带执照和体格检查合格证书的;
(2) Leaving the aircraft in distress in violation of the provision of Article 48. (二)民用航空器遇险时,违反本法第四十八条的规定离开民用航空器的;
(3) Performing flight duties against the provision in the second paragraph of Article 77. (三)违反本法第七十七条第二款的规定执行飞行任务的。
Article 209 CAA will serve a warning on the civil aircraft which throw out things in flight in violation of provisions in Article 80 and a fine of more than RMB 2,000 or less than RMB 20,000 may be imposed on the personnel directly involved.   第二百零九条 违反本法第八十条的规定,民用航空器在飞行中投掷物品的,由国务院民用航空主管部门给予警告,可以对直接责任人员处以二千元以上二万元以下的罚款。
Article 210 CAA will order the close of the civil airport which is open for use without obtaining the permit for use in violation of provisions in Article 62. The illicit income therefrom will be confiscated and a fine of less than double the amount of the illicit income may also be imposed.   第二百一十条 违反本法第六十二条的规定,未取得机场使用许可证开放使用民用机场的,由国务院民用航空主管部门责令停止开放使用;没收违法所得,可以并处违法所得一倍以下的罚款。
Article 211 CAA can revoke the business permit of public air transport and all-purpose aviation enterprises, in addition to the penalties meted out to them in accordance with provisions of this law, for relatively serious offenses against this law.   第二百一十一条 公共航空运输企业、通用航空企业违反本法规定,情节较重的,除依照本法规定处罚外,国务院民用航空主管部门可以吊销其经营许可证。
Article 212 The staff of CAA and local civil aviation administration offices guilty of dereliction of duty, abuse of one's authority and practising favoritism and irregularities shall be prosecuted for criminal liability. Disciplinary sanctions should be given against the cases not yet constituting an offense against the law.   第二百一十二条 国务院民用航空主管部门和地区民用航空管理机构的工作人员,玩忽职守、滥用职权、徇私舞弊,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任;尚不构成犯罪的,依法给予行政处分。
Chapter XVI Supplementary Provisions 

第十六章 附  则

Article 213 The computing unit mentioned in this law refers to the special drawing rights (SDRS) prescribed by the International Monetary Fund and its equivalent value in Renminbi is calculated on the exchange rates between SDRS and RMB published by the State foreign exchange control department as of the day of court decision, arbitration or agreement between the parties concerned.   第二百一十三条 本法所称计算单位,是指国际货币基金组织规定的特别提款权;其人民币数额为法院判决之日、仲裁机构裁决之日或者当事人协议之日,按照国家外汇主管机关规定的国际货币基金组织的特别提款权对人民币的换算办法计算得出的人民币数额。
Article 214 Where the State Council and the Central Military Commission otherwise provide for the management of unmanned aerial vehicles, such provisions shall prevail.   第二百一十四条 国务院、中央军事委员会对无人驾驶航空器的管理另有规定的,从其规定。
Article 215 This law comes into force as of March 1, 1996.   第二百一十五条 本法自1996年3月1日起施行。

 
     
     
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