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Progress in Human Rights over the 40 Years of Reform and Opening Up in China

Progress in Human Rights over the 40 Years of Reform and Opening Up in China



(The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China December of 2018) (中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室 2018年12月)

Contents 目录
Foreword 前言
I.Firmly Establishing a Governance Principle of Respecting and Protecting Human Rights 一、牢固树立尊重和保障人权的治国理政原则
II.Better Protecting the Rights to Subsistence and Development 二、大幅提升生存权发展权保障水平
III.Fully Developing Human Rights in All Respects 三、有效实现各项人权全面发展
IV.Ensuring the Rights of Special Groups 四、显著改善特定群体权利
V.Comprehensively Promoting the Rule of Law for Human Rights 五、全面加强人权法治建设
VI.Facilitating the Development of Human Rights in the World 六、努力推动各国人权事业共同发展
VII.Active Participation in Global Governance of Human Rights 七、积极参与全球人权治理
VIII.Path of Human Rights Protection Suited to National Conditions 八、成功走出符合国情的人权发展道路
Conclusion 结束语
Foreword 前言
2018 marks the 40th anniversary of reform and opening up in China. The Communist Party of China (CPC) has led the people in carrying out this great new revolution in the new era-one that holds the key to the destiny of contemporary China. Reform and opening up has helped to liberate and develop social productive forces. It has opened up a path of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and ushered in a new chapter in the development of human rights. 2018年,是中国改革开放40周年。改革开放是中国共产党在新的时代条件下带领全国人民进行的新的伟大革命,是决定当代中国命运的关键一招。改革开放极大地解放和发展了社会生产力,成功地开辟了中国特色社会主义道路,也揭开了中国人权事业发展的新篇章。
Over the four decades, the Chinese people have worked hard as one under the strong and coherent leadership of the CPC. Huge changes have taken place, and living standards have significantly improved. The Chinese nation has risen and become prosperous and strong. 40年来,在中国共产党的坚强正确领导下,中国人民团结一心、励精图治、艰苦奋斗、勇往直前,国家面貌发生了翻天覆地的变化,人民生活水平不断提高。中华民族迎来了从站起来、富起来到强起来的伟大飞跃。
Over the four decades, the CPC has always prioritized the people's interests, ensuring that reform is conducted for the people and by the people, and that its benefits are shared by the people. It has worked to safeguard the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people, respect human values and dignity, and promote the well-rounded development of the people. 40年来,中国共产党始终把人民的利益放在首位,做到改革为了人民,改革依靠人民,改革成果由人民共享,切实维护最广大人民的根本利益,尊重人的价值和尊严,促进人的全面发展。
Over the four decades, China has showed respect for, protected and promoted human rights in the course of reform and opening up. It has blazed a trail of development in human rights that conforms to the national conditions, and created new experiences and new progress in safeguarding human rights. 40年来,中国在改革开放中尊重人权,在改革开放中保障人权,在改革开放中促进人权,成功走出了一条符合国情的人权发展道路,创造了人类文明发展史上人权保障的新经验、新奇迹。
Over the four decades, China has summed up its historical experience, drawn on the achievements of human civilization, combined the universal principles of human rights with the prevailing realities of the country, and generated a series of innovative ideas on human rights. It has brought into being basic rights that center on the people and prioritize their rights to subsistence and development, and proposed that China should follow a path of comprehensive and coordinated human rights development under the rule of law. 40年来,中国总结历史经验,汲取人类文明发展成果,坚持把人权的普遍性原则与本国实际相结合,不断创新人权发展理念,形成了以人民为中心、以生存权发展权为首要的基本人权、以全面加强人权法治建设为路径、以各项人权综合协调发展为目标的人权发展新理念。
Over the four decades, China has carried out extensive exchanges and cooperation in the field of human rights, earnestly fulfilled its international human rights obligations, fully participated in international human rights affairs, actively promoted reform of the global human rights governance system, worked hard for the building of a global community of shared future, and made a consistent contribution to the international cause of human rights. 40年来,中国广泛开展人权领域交流合作,认真履行国际人权义务,全面参与国际人权事务,积极促进全球人权治理体系变革,致力于构建人类命运共同体,为推动世界人权事业发展不断作出新贡献。
I. Firmly Establishing a Governance Principle of Respecting and Protecting Human Rights   一、牢固树立尊重和保障人权的治国理政原则
It is the determination and ultimate goal of the CPC and the Chinese government to respect and protect human rights. Since the launch of reform and opening up in 1978, "respecting and protecting human rights" has been written into the reports to CPC National Congresses, the Constitution of the People's Republic of China (PRC), the Constitution of the Communist Party of China, and strategies and plans for national development, becoming an important principle of governance for the CPC and the Chinese government. 尊重和保障人权,是中国共产党和中国政府的坚定意志和不懈追求。改革开放40年来,“尊重和保障人权”先后载入中国共产党的全国代表大会报告、国家宪法、中国共产党党章以及国家发展战略规划,成为中国共产党和中国政府治国理政的一条重要原则。
That the state respects and protects human rights has been established as an important principle of the Constitution of the PRC. The Constitution is the fundamental law of a country, making it a declaration of human rights protection. As the supreme law, the Constitution of China effectively ensures that the people are masters of the country, and has promoted the cause of human rights in China. In 1954, the first Constitution of the PRC was created. The Constitution of 1982 stipulated clearly in the "General Principle" and "The Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens" that all people enjoy a wide range of rights, including personal rights, right to dignity, property rights, political rights, and economic, social and cultural rights. Since then the state has revised the Constitution five times in accordance with the developments and requirements of reform and opening up, enhancing the status of human rights. In 2004, the Constitution established the principle that "the state respects and protects human rights", and further clarified citizens' rights in the economic, political, cultural and social fields. This launched a new stage where human rights develop under the guidance of constitutional principles. The amendment to the Constitution adopted in 2018 guarantees the principal position of the people, ensuring in the new era the development of socialist human rights with Chinese characteristics, and the realization of the Two Centenary Goals and the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation. 国家尊重和保障人权成为中国宪法的重要原则。宪法是国家的根本大法,是人权保障的宣言书。中国宪法以其最高的法律地位,有力保障了人民当家作主,推动了中国人权事业发展。1954年,新中国制定了第一部宪法。1982年宪法在“总纲”和“公民的基本权利和义务”中全面系统规定了全体人民享有广泛的人身人格权利,财产权利,政治权利和经济、社会、文化权利。随后国家又根据改革开放的形势和要求对宪法进行了5次修改,人权在宪法中的地位不断加强。2004年,宪法确立了“国家尊重和保障人权”原则,进一步明确了公民在经济、政治、文化、社会诸方面全面发展的权利,开创了以宪法原则指引人权事业发展的新格局。2018年通过的宪法修正案坚持人民主体地位,进一步为新时代坚持和发展中国特色社会主义人权事业、实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标和中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦提供了有力保障。
Respecting and protecting human rights is a pursuit in CPC governance. Based on the realities of reform and opening up, the CPC has proposed a series of ideas on human rights in China, constantly adding new elements to reflect the changes in our time. In 1997, the 15th CPC National Congress clearly stated: "As a ruling party, the Communist Party leads and supports the people in exercising the power of running the state, holding democratic elections, making policy decisions in a democratic manner, instituting democratic management and supervision, ensuring that the people enjoy extensive rights and freedom endowed by law, and respecting and guaranteeing human rights." In 2002, "human rights are respected and guaranteed" was written into the report to the 16th CPC National Congress as an important goal of socialist political progress. In 2007, when summarizing "sound development of the cause of human rights" over the previous five years, the report to the 17th CPC National Congress further pointed out: "We must respect and safeguard human rights, and ensure the equal right to participation and development for all members of society in accordance with the law. "And in the same year, this principle was written for the first time into the CPC Constitution. 尊重和保障人权成为中国共产党的执政主张。中国共产党根据改革开放实际,先后提出一系列人权主张,与时俱进地不断赋予中国人权发展新的内涵。1997年,中国共产党第十五次全国代表大会明确提出,“共产党执政就是领导和支持人民掌握管理国家的权力,实行民主选举、民主决策、民主管理和民主监督,保证人民依法享有广泛的权利和自由,尊重和保障人权”。2002年,“尊重和保障人权”作为社会主义政治文明建设的重要目标再次写入中共十六大报告。2007年,中共十七大报告在总结过去五年“人权事业健康发展”的同时,进一步指出要“尊重和保障人权,依法保证全体社会成员平等参与、平等发展的权利”。同年,“尊重和保障人权”首次写入《中国共产党章程》。
In 2012, the principle that "human rights should be fully respected and protected" was defined by the 18th CPC National Congress as an important goal in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, establishing the importance of human rights from a strategic perspective. The CPC Constitution amended and adopted at this congress reaffirms the principle of respecting and protecting human rights. In 2014, the Fourth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee adopted the "Resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Advancing the Rule of Law", making a major strategic plan to comprehensively advance the rule of law as part of its effort to modernize the state governance system and enhance its administrative capacity. The resolution emphasizes the need to "provide stronger judicial protection of human rights" and to "strengthen awareness throughout the whole of society about the need to respect and safeguard human rights". In 2017, the CPC 19th National Congress established Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era as the guiding ideology of the CPC, and clearly stated that we should "strengthen legal protection for human rights to ensure that the people enjoy extensive rights and freedoms as prescribed by law". Xi Jinping Thought raises new and higher development requirements for China's human rights in the new era, and provides fundamental principles for us to follow the path and advance the cause of human rights with Chinese characteristics. 2012年,中共十八大将“人权得到切实尊重和保障”作为全面建成小康社会的重要目标,从战略层面确立了人权事业的重要地位。中共十八大修改通过的《中国共产党章程》再次重申尊重和保障人权。2014年,中共十八届四中全会通过《中共中央关于全面推进依法治国若干重大问题的决定》,从推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化的高度,作出了全面依法治国的重大战略部署,强调“加强人权司法保障”“增强全社会尊重和保障人权意识”。2017年,中共十九大确立习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为党的指导思想,明确提出“加强人权法治保障,保证人民依法享有广泛权利和自由”。习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想蕴含着丰富的人权内涵,对新时代中国人权事业发展提出了新的更高要求,为坚持中国特色人权发展道路、全面推进中国人权事业提供了根本遵循。
It has become a core goal of national development to respect and protect human rights. In its national development strategies, the Chinese government upholds the values of respecting and safeguarding human rights, and is committed to improving the people's wellbeing, safeguarding their rights, and promoting their well-rounded development. To meet the requirements of building socialism with Chinese characteristics since the three-step development strategy for achieving modernization was laid out in the early days of reform and opening up, the CPC and the Chinese government have always pursued the goals of improving people's living standards and ensuring that they enjoy various basic rights. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the Central Committee led by General Secretary Xi Jinping has made it clear that, in governing the country, it will follow the goal of meeting the people's aspiration to live a better life and subsequently set the Two Centenary Goals. In 2017, the 19th CPC National Congress proposed that on the basis of completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects by 2020, a two-step approach should be taken to build China into a strong and modern socialist country by the middle of the century. 尊重和保障人权成为国家发展的核心目标。中国的国家发展战略坚持以尊重和保障人权为价值取向,以增进人民福祉、保障人民权利、促进人的全面发展为出发点和落脚点。按照建设中国特色社会主义的要求,自改革开放初期提出现代化建设“三步走”发展战略以来,中国共产党和中国政府始终把提高人民生活水平、保障人民各项基本权利的实现作为执政目标。中共十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央,明确将“人民对美好生活的向往”作为执政目标,进一步提出了实现“两个一百年”的奋斗目标。2017年,中共十九大提出到2020年全面建成小康社会,并在此基础上确定分两步走在本世纪中叶建成社会主义现代化强国的战略安排。
In accordance with the requirements and strategies for building a modern socialist country, the Chinese government has made a national plan every five years from 1953 to 2001 for the development of the economy, culture, society, and other sectors. In 2006, the detailed, micro plan with growth targets was transformed into a macro program for national economic and social development. China has formulated 13 such programs for national economic and social development, covering poverty elimination, education, healthcare, employment, social security, democracy and the rule of law, and the anti-corruption campaign and involving economic, social, cultural, civil and political rights. These plans set out the guiding principles, goals, basic requirements and implementation measures for the development of human rights. 按照建设社会主义现代化国家的要求和发展战略,中国政府制定国家发展规划,保障人民各项权利的实现。从1953年到2001年,每5年制定一个国家发展计划,对国家经济、文化、社会等各方面发展作出安排。自2006年起,改计划为规划,实现了从具体、微观、指标性的发展计划向宏观的国民经济和社会发展规划的转变。目前,中国已经连续制定了十三个国民经济和社会发展计划或规划,涵盖脱贫攻坚、教育、健康、就业、社会保障、民主法治建设、反腐败斗争等,涉及经济、社会、文化权利和公民及政治权利的诸多内容,为推动人权发展确定了指导思想、目标方向、基本要求和实施举措。
In response to the UN Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, the Chinese government has made and carried out the National Human Rights Action Plan (2009-2010), National Human Rights Action Plan (2012-2015), and National Human Rights Action Plan (2016-2020), setting phased goals and tasks for respecting and safeguarding human rights. It has fulfilled the targets set in the first two action plans, and is working on the third. The Chinese government has also formulated special action plans relating to the economy, culture, society, the environment and other fields, as well as special plans to protect the rights of specific groups such as ethnic minorities, women, children, the elderly, and people with disabilities. In so doing, the government is determined to ensure equal opportunities for all people to live a rewarding life, realize their dreams, and enjoy full access to human rights. 中国积极响应联合国《维也纳宣言和行动纲领》,先后制定并实施《国家人权行动计划(2009-2010年)》《国家人权行动计划(2012-2015年)》《国家人权行动计划(2016-2020年)》,确定尊重和保障人权的阶段性目标和任务。目前已圆满完成第一、二期国家人权行动计划预定的各项指标,正在扎实推进第三期国家人权行动计划的落实。国家还制定了经济、文化、社会和环境等方面的专项行动计划,以及保障少数民族、妇女、儿童、老年人、残疾人等特定群体权利的专项规划,努力促进全体人民共同享有人生出彩的机会,共同享有梦想成真的机会,共同享有充分人权。
II. Better Protecting the Rights to Subsistence and Development   二、大幅提升生存权发展权保障水平
Over the past 40 years, China has worked to better protect basic human rights, with its primary focus on the rights to subsistence and development. Development is China's top priority in governance and considered to be the key to addressing the country's main problems. China has focused on ensuring and improving people's wellbeing by resolving their most serious and urgent problems, realizing historic leaps from poverty to securing access to food and clothing, and thence to moderate prosperity. 改革开放40年来,中国坚持以生存权和发展权作为首要的基本人权,把发展作为执政兴国的第一要务和解决中国所有问题的关键,以保障和改善民生为重点,努力通过解决最紧迫和最突出的问题增进人民福祉。人民生活总体上实现了从贫困到温饱、从温饱到小康的历史性飞跃。
Tremendous achievements in poverty reduction. Poverty elimination is the top priority in China's effort to protect human rights. Reform and opening up has been a great driving force for poverty elimination in China. Over the past four decades, the Chinese government has made continuous endeavors in poverty reduction, concentrating on development-oriented poverty alleviation in rural areas. The government has carried out large-scale development-oriented poverty-alleviation campaigns across the country in a planned and organized way, and implemented a number of medium-and long-term programs, including the Seven-Year Program for Lifting 80 Million People Out of Poverty (1994-2000), the Outline for Development-Oriented Poverty Alleviation for China's Rural Areas (2001-2010), and the Outline for Development-Oriented Poverty Alleviation for China's Rural Areas (2011-2020). Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the CPC Central Committee has gone all out to win the battle against poverty, taken poverty elimination as the primary task, made it a defining indicator in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and made unprecedented efforts to implement major plans for development-oriented poverty alleviation. The CPC Central Committee and the State Council have issued the Decision on Winning the Battle Against Poverty, which lays out the goals and criteria for poverty elimination, establishes the basic strategy of targeted poverty alleviation and elimination, creates a poverty elimination system with Chinese characteristics, and defines comprehensive efforts to advance key plans for targeted poverty alleviation. In the light of the strategic goal of poverty elimination set out by the 19th CPC National Congress, the central authorities issued a Three-Year Guideline on Winning the Battle Against Poverty. The 19th CPC National Congress defined targeted poverty elimination as one of the three crucial battles in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and pledged to help all the rural population living below the current poverty line shake off poverty by the year 2020 and ensure that poor people and poor areas will join the moderately prosperous society together with the rest of the country. 减贫取得历史性成就。消除贫困是中国人权保障的重中之重。改革开放是中国消除贫困的强大驱动力。40年来,中国政府持续开展以农村扶贫开发为中心的减贫行动,在全国范围内开展有组织有计划的大规模开发式扶贫,先后实施《国家八七扶贫攻坚计划(1994-2000年)》《中国农村扶贫开发纲要(2001-2010年)》《中国农村扶贫开发纲要(2011-2020年)》等中长期扶贫规划。中共十八大以来,中共中央把贫困人口脱贫作为全面建成小康社会的底线任务和标志性指标,作出一系列重大部署,以前所未有的力度推进,中国扶贫开发进入脱贫攻坚新阶段。中共中央、国务院发布关于打赢脱贫攻坚战的决定,明确脱贫攻坚的目标标准,确立精准扶贫精准脱贫的基本方略,建立中国特色的脱贫攻坚制度体系,全面推进精准扶贫重点工作。中共十九大提出坚决打赢脱贫攻坚战的战略目标,中共中央、国务院印发关于打赢脱贫攻坚战三年行动的指导意见,把精准脱贫作为决胜全面建成小康社会必须打好的三大攻坚战之一,并庄严承诺确保到2020年中国现行标准下农村贫困人口实现脱贫、让贫困人口和贫困地区同全国一道进入全面小康社会。
Through decades of efforts, the number of rural poor has markedly dropped and the poverty headcount ratio has seen a continuous decrease. Solid steps have been taken to eliminate regional poverty, and the working conditions and living standards of the rural poor have notably improved, which created a stronger sense of gain for the people, indicating decisive progress has been made in the fight against poverty. According to World Bank estimates, over the past 40 years, the number of people in China living on less than US$1.9 a day (international poverty line) has dropped by more than 850 million-this represents 70 percent of the total world figure. The number of rural poor fell from 770 million in 1978 to 30.46 million in 2017 when calculated in accordance with China's current poverty line, with the incidence of poverty dropping from 97.5 percent to 3.1 percent. More than 10 million people rose and remained above the poverty level every year from 2012 to 2017. With the highest number of people moving out of poverty, China was the first developing country to realize the UN Millennium Development Goal for poverty reduction. Poverty reduction is the most telling evidence of China's progress in human rights. 经过多年不懈奋斗,中国农村贫困人口显著减少,贫困发生率持续下降,解决区域性整体贫困迈出坚实步伐,贫困地区农民生产生活条件显著改善,贫困群众获得感显著增强,脱贫攻坚取得决定性进展。据世界银行测算,按照人均每天支出1.9美元的国际贫困标准,过去40年中国共减少贫困人口8.5亿多人,对全球减贫贡献率超过70%。按中国现行贫困标准,1978年至2017年,中国农村贫困人口由7.7亿人减少到3046万人,贫困发生率由97.5%下降到3.1%。2012年至2017年,中国每年有1000多万人稳定脱贫。中国是世界上减贫人口最多的国家,也是率先完成联合国千年发展目标减贫目标的发展中国家。中国的减贫成就是中国人权事业发展的最显著标志。
Adequate food and clothing ensured. In the early days of reform and opening up, providing enough food and clothing for nearly one billion people was the top issue facing China. Reform of the rural land system and the implementation of the household responsibility system greatly stimulated farmers' enthusiasm and boosted agricultural production capacity. China's food grain output reached 661.61million tons in 2017, double the figure of 1978. In recent years China has become the world's largest producer of grain, meat, peanuts and tea, the second-largest producer of rapeseed, and the third-largest producer of sugarcane. China feeds approximately 20 percent of the world's population using less than 10 percent of the arable land, guaranteeing the basic right to subsistence by eradicating hunger and improving nutrition. 温饱问题得到切实解决。改革开放初期,解决近10亿人口温饱问题是中国面临的头等大事。中国改革农村土地制度,实行家庭联产承包责任制,极大激发了农民生产积极性,农业综合生产能力实现质的飞跃。2017年,中国粮食总产量达66161万吨,比1978年翻一番。近年来,中国谷物、肉类、花生、茶叶产量稳居世界第一位,油菜籽产量稳居世界第二位,甘蔗产量稳居世界第三位。中国以不足世界10%的耕地,养活了接近世界20%的人口,从根本上消除了饥饿,持续提升了人民的营养水平,实现了人民的基本生存权。
Safer drinking water. National standards for major drinking water sources have been implemented. In 2016 more than 600 surface water sources each supplying drinking water for 200,000 people or more, and all ground water sources each supplying 20 million or more cubic meters of drinking water annually were incorporated into the Catalogue of China's Major Drinking Water Sources, subject to annual quality assessment. The 2017 assessment results show that 99.5 percent of the drinking water sources met the water supply reliability standard, and 90.9 percent met the water quality standard. A program was launched in 2005 to ensure drinking water safety in rural areas. By the end of 2015 a total of 520 million rural residents and 47 million teachers and students in rural areas had gained access to safe drinking water. Since 2016 the program has been upgraded to reinforce rural drinking water safety. By the end of 2017 the upgrade had benefitted 95.09 million rural residents, among whom 11.69 million were people living below the poverty line. Centralized water supply now covers 85 percent of the rural population and 80 percent of rural people have access to tap water. 饮水安全得到有效保障。实施全国重要饮用水水源地达标建设工程。2016年将600余个供水人口20万以上地表水饮用水水源地及年供水量2000万立方米以上地下水饮用水水源地全部纳入《全国重要饮用水水源地名录》管理,每年开展安全状况评估。2017年评估结果显示,99.5%的水源地供水保证率合格,90.9%的水源地水质合格。实施农村饮水安全工程建设。2005年至2015年,全国累计解决5.2亿农村居民和4700多万农村学校师生的饮水安全问题。2016年以来,实施农村饮水安全巩固提升工程,截至2017年,巩固提升受益人口9509万人,其中,1169万贫困人口的饮水安全问题得到解决,全国农村集中供水率和农村自来水普及率分别达到85%和80%。
Improved housing conditions. The past 40 years have witnessed a remarkable improvement in housing conditions. In 2017 the per capita floor space of urban residents was 36.9 sq m, up from 6.7 sq m in 1978, and that of rural residents was 46.7 sq m, up from 8.1 sq m in 1978. The state has made it a priority to resolve housing problems for poor families. From 2008 to 2017 government subsidies were used to build 64 million housing units in urban areas, and redevelopment of run-down areas helped 100 million people move from sub-standard accommodation to new apartments. By the end of 2017 more than 35 million people in straitened circumstances had moved into public rental housing units, and more than 20 million poor people had received public rental subsidies. Since the 18th CPC National Congress the state has increased funding for dilapidated rural housing renovation, allocating RMB162.5 billion in subsidies for renovating the sub-standard housing of 16.59 million rural households, and helping tens of millions of rural households move into proper accommodation from dilapidated houses built of such materials as beaten earth, and timber and bark. 基本居住条件明显改善。改革开放40年来,人民居住条件显著改善。2017年,城镇居民、农村居民人均住房建筑面积分别为36.9、46.7平方米,比1978年分别增加30.2、38.6平方米。国家高度重视解决困难家庭的住房问题。2008年至2017年,全国城镇保障性安居工程累计开工建设约6400万套,通过棚户区改造帮助约1亿人“出棚进楼”;2017年底,3500多万困难群众住进公租房,累计2000多万困难群众领取公租房租赁补贴。中共十八大以来,加大对农村危房改造的支持力度,累计安排1625亿元补助资金、支持1659万贫困农户改造危房,帮助数千万贫困农民告别原来的破旧泥草房、土坯房、树皮房等危房,住上基本安全房。
More convenient and safer public transport. Over the past 40 years China's steadily-improving public transport network has provided stronger support for the country's economic and social development, and greater convenience and safety to the public. By the end of 2017 China's rail network had grown to 127,000 kilometers, up by 150 percent from 1978, and high-speed rail had reached 25,000 kilometers, accounting for more than 60 percent of the world's total. The high-speed and other railway lines form an extensive passenger transport network covering all provincial capitals in the country. By the end of 2017 China's road network had increased to 4.77 million kilometers, up by 440 percent from 1978, including 136,000 kilometers of expressways. Road density had grown more than fivefold from the beginning of reform and opening up to 49.72 km/100 sq km. Every county in China now has access to roads. Rural transport has seen continuous improvement, with roads connecting 99.99 percent of towns and townships and 99.98 percent of administrative villages. Since 2001 programs have been carried out to renovate dangerous bridges, and reinforce road safety, the protection of the public, and road disaster prevention. Through these programs, 39,000 bridges on roads at township level and above, 660,000 kilometers of high-risk roads, and 31,000 kilometers of disaster-prone roads have been renovated to better safeguard public transport safety. A total of 8,440 new post offices have been built in towns and townships, with the result that every township-level unit has a post office and every village has access to postal services. Express delivery outlets cover 87 percent of towns and townships, establishing a two-way channel that facilitates the transport of manufactured products to rural areas and agricultural products to the cities. 人民出行更加便利安全。40年来,中国交通网络日益完善,有力支撑了经济社会发展,保障人民出行便利安全。截至2017年,全国铁路营业里程达12.7万公里,比1978年增长1.5倍,其中高速铁路达2.5万公里,占世界高铁总量60%以上,高速铁路与其他铁路共同构成的快速客运网基本覆盖全国省会;全国公路总里程达477万公里,比1978年增长4.4倍,其中高速公路通车里程达13.6万公里,公路网密度为49.72公里/百平方公里,是改革开放初期的5.4倍,实现“县县通公路”;全国乡镇和建制村通公路率分别达99.99%和99.98%,农村出行条件持续改善。2001年以来,实施危桥改造、公路安全生命防护和干线公路灾害防治三项工程,共改造乡道及以上公路危桥3.9万座,完成66万公里高风险段整治,改造地质灾害易发路段3.1万公里,使出行安全更有保障。完成8440个空白乡镇邮政局所补建,全国总体实现“乡乡设所,村村通邮”。快递乡镇网点覆盖率超过87%,搭建了“工业品下乡、农特产品进城”的双向大通道。
Better protection of the rights to life and health. Since reform and opening up, and especially since the 18th CPC National Congress, the country has increased public access to health services throughout the life cycle, to quicken its pace toward a healthy China. Life expectancy in China rose from 67.8 in 1981 to 76.7 in 2017, higher than the world average of 72. The maternal mortality rate decreased from 94.7 per 100,000 in 1989 to 19.6 per 100,000 in 2017, and the infant mortality rate dropped from 50.2 per 1,000 in 1991 to 6.8 per 1,000 in 2017, both meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals ahead of schedule. A community-level health service system covering urban and rural areas is in place. The number of health service institutions increased to 987,000 in 2017, up by 480 percent from 1978, with the number of health professionals growing by 260 percent to 8.98 million in 2017. Basic public health services have improved, with national vaccination coverage among children topping 90 percent, and the prevalence of HBsAg in children under five decreasing to 1 percent. China has set up the world's largest online direct reporting system of notifiable epidemics and public health emergencies, and the average reporting time has been shortened to four hours. The national fitness program has thrived, with more than 1.7 million sports venues across the country 生命健康权保障水平大幅提升。改革开放特别是中共十八大以来,健康中国建设加快推进,为人民提供全生命周期的卫生与健康服务。中国人均预期寿命从1981年的67.8岁提高到2017年的76.7岁,高于72岁的世界平均预期寿命。孕产妇死亡率从1989年的十万分之94.7下降到2017年的十万分之19.6,婴儿死亡率从1991年的50.2‰下降到2017年的6.8‰,提前达到联合国千年发展目标所确定的指标要求。覆盖城乡的基层医疗卫生服务体系基本建成。2017年全国共有医疗卫生机构98.7万个,比1978年增长4.8倍;卫生技术人员898万人,比1978年增长2.6倍。国家基本公共卫生服务项目持续推进,适龄儿童国家免疫规划疫苗接种率达90%以上,5岁以下儿童乙肝病毒表面抗原携带率降至1%。建成全球最大的法定传染病疫情和突发公共卫生事件网络直报系统,平均报告时间缩短到4小时。全民健身运动蓬勃发展,全国体育场地总数超过170万个,人均体育场地面积超过1.6平方米。
Expanded social assistance. Through years of effort, China has formed a social assistance system with subsistence allowances, assistance and support for people in extreme difficulty, disaster relief, medical assistance, housing assistance, education assistance, employment assistance, and temporary assistance as the main forms, supplemented by public participation. A subsistence security system has been set up nationwide. Regulations on Subsistence Security for Urban Residents and Interim Measures for Social Assistance have been enacted. Decisions on Improving the Assistance and Support System for People in Extreme Difficulty provide assistance to two groups of people-urban residents without income, the ability to work, or support by family, and rural people eligible for the "Five Guarantees": those who are unable to work and have no source of income, including the elderly, the disabled and minors who have no legal guardians to support them. By the end of 2017, 37,494 towns, townships and neighborhoods had set up social assistance agencies, staffed by 104,673 full-time and part-time personnel-an average of 2.6 per unit. As of September 2018 there were 46,199,000 people living on subsistence allowances, consisting of 10,688,000 urban residents receiving an average of RMB575 per month, and 35,511,000 rural residents receiving an average of RMB4,754 per annum. All rural subsistence allowance standards at the county level meet or exceed the national poverty line. In 2017 medical assistance was granted to 91,381,000 applications, in the form of direct payment for medical service for 35,171,000 people, and as subsidies for 56,210,000 poor people when joining the basic medical insurance. Between January and September 2018 temporary assistance was given to 5,658,000 applications, averaging RMB1,069.4 per application. 社会救助力度不断加大。经过多年发展,中国的社会救助形成了以最低生活保障、特困人员救助供养、灾害救助、医疗救助、住房救助、教育救助、就业救助以及临时救助为主体,以社会力量参与为补充的制度体系。在全国范围内建立最低生活保障制度,颁布《城市居民最低生活保障条例》《社会救助暂行办法》等。国务院出台关于进一步健全特困人员救助供养制度的意见,将城市“三无”人员救助和农村“五保”供养统一为特困人员救助供养,保障城乡特困人员基本生活。截至2017年,全国共有37494个乡镇(街道)设立经办社会救助事务的机构,从事社会救助的专(兼)职工作人员为104673名,平均每个乡镇(街道)2.6人。截至2018年9月,全国共有城乡低保对象4619.9万人,其中,城市低保对象1068.8万人,平均城市低保标准为每人每月575元,农村低保对象3551.1万人,平均农村低保标准为每人每年4754元,所有县(市、区)的农村低保标准全部达到或超过国家扶贫标准。2017年,全国共实施医疗救助9138.1万人次,其中,直接救助3517.1万人次,资助困难群众参加基本医疗保险5621万人。2018年1月至9月,全国共实施临时救助565.8万人次,平均救助水平1069.4元/人次。
Stronger protection of environmental rights. Over the past four decades China has incorporated ecological progress into the national development strategy and intensified its efforts in environmental governance, creating a better environment and effectively safeguarding people's environmental rights. China's first Environmental Protection Law was adopted in 1979. Environmental protection was first included as a salient part of the plan for national economic and social development in 1982, and was designated as a basic state policy in 1983. China's Agenda 21 passed in 1994 made China the first country in the world to formulate and implement a strategy of sustainable development. Committed to green development, China puts an enormous effort into pollution control and takes concrete steps to promote ecological progress toward a beautiful China. The 19th CPC National Congress sounded a clarion call to win the battle against pollution. The National Conference on Environmental Protection established Xi Jinping Thought on ecological progress. The CPC Central Committee and the State Council issued the Decisions on Comprehensively Strengthening Environmental Protection and Resolutely Winning the Battle Against Pollution, setting out the timetable, road map and agenda for pollution prevention and control. In 2017 coal accounted for 60.4 percent of China's total energy consumption, down by 10.3 percentage points from 1978. The proportion of clean energy sources, including natural gas, water, nuclear, wind and electricity, has increased from 6.6 percent in 1978 to 20.8 percent in 2017. Between 2013 and 2017, the average PM10 intensity in 338 cities at and above the prefecture level nationwide fell by 22.7 percent, and the average PM2.5 intensity in 74 major cities fell by 34.7 percent. In 2017, trees were planted on 7.36 million hectares across the country and forest coverage was 21.66 percent; the number of nature reserves totaled 2,750, covering 1.47 million sq km or 14.86 percent of China's land territory. China has played an active role in global environmental governance, and ratified more than 30 multilateral conventions and protocols related to environmental protection. China was the first country to release a national plan on implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and to deposit its instrument of ratification for the Paris Agreement, becoming an important participant, contributor and leader in promoting global ecological progress. 环境权利保障日益加强。改革开放40年来,中国将生态文明建设纳入国家发展总体战略,对生态环境的治理力度不断加大,生态环境状况总体持续好转,人民群众的环保权益得到有效维护。1979年,通过第一部环境保护法。1982年,首次将环境保护作为独立篇章纳入国民经济和社会发展计划。1983年,将保护环境确定为基本国策。1994年,通过《中国21世纪议程》,成为世界上第一个制定实施本国可持续发展战略的国家。中国坚持绿色发展理念,以前所未有的力度治理环境污染,推进生态文明建设,美丽中国建设迈出重要步伐。中共十九大明确提出打好污染防治攻坚战的重大战略部署,全国生态环境保护大会正式确立习近平生态文明思想,中共中央、国务院印发关于全面加强生态环境保护坚决打好污染防治攻坚战的意见,明确了打好污染防治攻坚战的时间表、路线图、任务书。2017年,煤炭在中国能源消费中的比重为60.4%,比1978年下降10.3个百分点;天然气、水、核、风、电等清洁能源消费比重从1978年的6.6%提升至2017年的20.8%。2017年,全国338个地级及以上城市可吸入颗粒物(PM10)平均浓度比2013年下降22.7%,74个重点城市细颗粒物(PM2.5)平均浓度比2013年下降34.7%。2017年,全国完成造林面积736万公顷,森林覆盖率达21.66%;建成2750处自然保护区,总面积147万平方公里,约占陆地国土面积的14.86%。中国积极参与全球环境治理,已批准加入30多项与生态环境有关的多边公约或议定书,率先发布《中国落实2030年可持续发展议程国别方案》,向联合国交存气候变化《巴黎协定》批准文书,成为全球生态文明建设的重要参与者、贡献者、引领者。
III. Fully Developing Human Rights in All Respects   三、有效实现各项人权全面发展
Over the past four decades since the launch of reform and opening up, China has taken all-round development of the human being as the intent and goal of human rights. It has made comprehensive progress in all human rights, ensured economic, social and cultural rights, and enhanced the mechanisms guaranteeing civil and political rights. 改革开放40年来,中国坚持将促进人的全面发展作为人权事业发展的出发点和落脚点,协调推进各项人权全面实现,经济、社会和文化权利保障水平持续提升,公民权利和政治权利保障机制不断加强。
Significant improvement in people's lives. Between 1978 and 2017, China's GDP increased from RMB367.9 billion to RMB82.7 trillion and per capita GDP from RMB385 to RMB59,660, a 22.8-fold increase, or a real growth of 8.5 percent per year adjusted for inflation. Per capita gross national income rose from US$200 in 1978 to US$8,690 in 2017, above the average level of upper middle-income countries. The per capita disposable income of urban and rural residents grew from RMB343 and RMB134 in 1978 to RMB36,396 and RMB13,432 respectively in 2017. In 2017, national per capita consumer spending was RMB18,322, an 18-fold increase over 1978 or a real growth of 7.8 percent per year adjusted for inflation. The country is moving from a society based on subsistence to one based on plenty. The Engel coefficient of urban and rural households in 1978 was 57.5 percent and 67.7 percent, which fell to 28.6 percent and 31.2 percent respectively in 2017. China's human development index (HDI) value has risen significantly from 0.423 in 1980 to 0.752 in 2017, gradually moving into ranks of countries with higher HDI. Among the 47 bottom-ranked countries measured in 1990, China is the only one to have risen into the ranks of the "high human development" countries. 人民生活水平显著提升。1978年至2017年,中国国内生产总值从3679亿元增至827122亿元;人均国内生产总值从385元增至59660元,扣除价格因素,比1978年增长22.8倍,年均实际增长8.5%。中国人均国民总收入由1978年的200美元提高到2017年的8690美元,超过中等偏上收入国家平均水平。中国城镇和农村居民人均可支配收入分别由1978年的343元、134元增长至2017年的36396元和13432元。2017年,全国居民人均消费支出18322元,扣除价格因素,比1978年实际增长18倍,年均增长7.8%。消费层次由温饱型向全面小康型转变。1978年,城镇和农村居民家庭恩格尔系数分别为57.5%和67.7%,2017年分别下降至28.6%和31.2%。中国的人类发展指数大幅提高,从1980年的0.423提高到2017年的0.752,逐步从低人类发展水平国家跃升至高人类发展水平国家。在1990年处于低人类发展水平组别的47个国家中,中国是目前唯一跻身高人类发展水平组的国家。
Increased protection of personal rights and right to dignity. The Constitution confirms citizens' right to dignity. The 19th CPC National Congress again emphasized the protection of personal rights, property rights and right to dignity, demonstrating the humane view of protecting dignity and promoting the all-round development of the human being. General Principles of the Civil Law and Tort Liability Law further establish the system of protection for right to dignity. "Civil rights" as one chapter is included in General Provisions of the Civil Law to elaborate right to dignity. In August 2018, right to dignity as an individual book was contained in the draft Civil Code. China has abolished the detention and repatriation system and the reeducation through labor system. It is now accelerating the reform of the household registration system. In 2014, Decisions on Furthering the Household Registration Reform released by the State Council relaxed the restriction on the transfer of household registration (hukou), enabling eligible regular residents with stable employment in urban areas to localize their residency. In 2017, the urbanization rate of registered population stood at 42.35 percent, up 7 percentage points over 2012. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, more than 14 million people without hukou have completed household registration, basically bringing the entire population into the hukou system. Inviolability of residence, freedom of correspondence and information security are fully protected by law. In 2017, the public security agencies launched special programs to handle cases involving invasion of personal information to effectively curb personal information leakage. 人身人格权保障不断加强。宪法确认了公民人格权。中共十九大再次强调保护人民人身权、财产权、人格权,彰显了保护人格尊严、促进人的全面发展的人文关怀。民法通则侵权责任法进一步建立了人格权保护体系。民法总则专设“民事权利”一章,其中对人格权作了专门规定。2018年8月,提请审议的民法典各分编草案中,设立了独立的人格权编。废止收容遣送制度和劳动教养制度。大力推进户籍制度改革。2014年,国务院印发关于进一步推进户籍制度改革的意见,进一步放宽了户口迁徙政策限制,促进有能力在城镇稳定就业的常住人口有序实现市民化。2017年,全国户籍人口城镇化率达到42.35%,比2012年提高7个百分点。中共十八大以来,共为1400余万无户口人员办理了落户,全国无户口人员登记户口问题已经基本解决。严格依法保障住宅不受侵犯、通信自由和信息安全。2017年,公安机关开展专项行动,集中办理了一批涉嫌侵犯公民个人信息的案事件,泄露公民个人信息案事件得到有效遏制。
Legal protection of property. The Constitution stipulates that the private property of citizens is inviolable. The state protects citizens' property rights and right of inheritance by law, as well as the legitimate rights and interests of non-public commercial sectors such as the individual economy and private enterprise. The Property Law specifies that the property rights of the state, collectives, individuals and other legal persons are under the protection of law and shall not be infringed by any unit or individual. The household contract responsibility system that entitles farmers to manage contracted public-owned land, implemented following reform and opening up, is the cornerstone of China's current rural land system. Since 2014, China has made solid efforts to confirm and register the management rights of contracted land, and to issue titles to land in rural areas. By June 2018, 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) had finished this work, with the total area of contracted land reaching 1.39 billion mu. A total of 189 million land contracts had been signed and improved, and 135 million titles had been issued. The 19th CPC National Congress stated that the land contract relationship should sustain for the foreseeable future, and should be extended for a further 30 years after the second round of contracts expires. 财产权受到法律保护。中国宪法规定,公民的合法的私有财产不受侵犯,国家依照法律规定保护公民的私有财产权和继承权;国家保护个体经济、私营经济等非公有制经济的合法的权利和利益。物权法规定,国家、集体、私人的物权和其他权利人的物权受法律保护,任何单位和个人不得侵犯。改革开放以来实施的家庭联产承包责任制是现行中国农村土地制度的基石,农民依法享有土地承包经营权。2014年以来,中国扎实推进农村土地承包经营权确权登记颁证工作,截至2018年6月,31个省(区、市)均开展了承包地确权工作,承包地确权面积达13.91亿亩,建立完善土地承包合同1.89亿份,颁发土地承包经营权证书1.35亿份。中共十九大明确提出,保持土地承包关系稳定并长久不变,第二轮土地承包到期后再延长三十年。
Effective protection of the right to work. China highlights employment in its economic and social development, advocating a jobs-first strategy and a more proactive employment policy to promote higher-quality jobs and maximum employment. As the economic structure is upgraded, reform of the employment system deepens, gradually putting in place an employment mechanism adapted to the socialist market economy. From 1978 to 2017, China's employed population increased from 401.52 million to 776.4 million. The average annual growth of 9.61 million is faster than total population growth. Since 2003, when a complete statistical system was put in place, the annual increase of new jobs in urban areas has been 11.78 million, and the registered urban unemployment rate has been low over many years, with the surveyed unemployment rate lower than the world average. The average yearly income of urban employees rose from RMB615 in 1978 to RMB76,121 in 2017, an annual increase of 7.7 percent in real terms. The right of remuneration for labor, right to rest and leisure, right to occupational safety and health, special right of women workers and the right to participate in the democratic management of businesses are protected by law. The labor contract mechanism, the collective contract mechanism, and collective consultation are all being implemented. A government-trade union-enterprise tripartite coordination mechanism, a labor security supervision mechanism, and a labor dispute settlement mechanism have all been set up to protect the legitimate rights and interests of workers. In 2017, 90 percent of enterprise employees had signed labor contracts. A workplace safety and accident prevention and control system to protect laborers is being implemented and constantly improved. 工作权得到有效保障。中国把促进就业放在经济社会发展的优先位置,坚持就业优先战略和更加积极的就业政策,努力实现更高质量和更充分就业。伴随着经济体制改革,劳动就业制度改革不断深化,逐步形成了适应社会主义市场经济要求的就业体制机制。1978年至2017年,中国就业人员从40152万人增至77640万人,年均增长961万人,超过总人口增速。城镇新增就业自2003年建立统计制度以来,年均实现新增就业人数1178万人,城镇登记失业率长期处于低位,城镇调查失业率低于世界平均水平。城镇单位在岗职工年平均工资从1978年的615元增长到2017年的76121元,扣除物价因素,年均增长7.7%。劳动者劳动报酬权、休息休假权、职业安全卫生保护权、女性劳动者特殊劳动保护权、参与企业民主管理等各项权利得到依法保障。全面实施劳动合同制度,稳妥推行集体协商和集体合同制度,建设国家协调劳动关系三方机制,建立健全劳动保障监察制度和劳动人事争议处理制度,切实维护劳动者合法权益。2017年,企业职工劳动合同签订率达到90%。加快构建安全生产预防控制体系,有力保障劳动者工作生产安全。
...... 社会保障权享有日益充分。中国建成了世界上规模最大、覆盖人口最多的社会保障体系,拉动世界社保覆盖率提高11个百分点。截至2018年6月,基本养老保险、失业保险、工伤保险参保人数分别达到9.25亿、1.91亿、2.3亿,包括城镇职工基本医疗保险、新型农村合作医疗保险和城镇居民基本医疗保险在内的基本医疗保险覆盖人口超过13亿;社会保障卡持卡人数达11.5亿人,覆盖全国82.81%人口。中国根据经济社会发展水平等因素,稳步提高各项社会保障水平。自2005年起,连续14年提高企业退休人员基本养老金水平。城乡居民基本医保人均财政补助标准由2012年的240元提高到2018年的490元。借助互联网、大数据等信息技术,不断提高社会保障领域公共服务能力。2016年,国家异地就医结算系统正式上线,实现跨省异地就医持社会保障卡即时结算。

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