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INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS [Effective]
公民权利和政治权利国际公约 [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】

INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS

 

公民权利和政治权利国际公约

 (联合国大会1966年12月16日第2200A(XXI)号决议通过并开放给各国签字、批准和加入。按照第四十九条的规定,於1976年3月23日生效。中华人民共和国于1998年10月5日签署本公约,同时声明:台湾当局于1967年10月5日盗用中国名义对《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》所作的签署是非法的和无效的。
 本公约目前仅适用于香港和澳门。
 中央政府为澳门特区所作声明如下:一、公约在澳门特别行政区适用,特别是公约第1条,不影响《联合声明》和《基本法》关于澳门地位的规定。二、公约第12条第4款和第13条,涉及人员出入境及驱逐外国人出境,不在澳门特别行政区适用。有关事宜仍按《联合声明》和《基本法》和澳门特别行政区有关法律的规定办理。三、公约第25条b项,涉及根据《联合声明》和《基本法》确定的由选举产生机构的组成及其成员的选择与选举方式,不在澳门特别行政区适用。四、公约适用于澳门特别行政区的有关规定通过澳门特别行政区的法律予以实施。澳门居民享有的权利和自由除依法规定外不得限制,此种限制不得与公约适用于澳门特别行政区的有关规定抵触。)
PREAMBLE 

序言

 The States Parties to the present Covenant, 本公约缔约各国,
 Considering that,in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations,recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom,justice and peace in the world,
 Recognizing that these rights derive from the inherent dignity of the human person,Recognizing that,in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,the ideal of free human beings enjoying civil and political freedom and freedom from fear and want can only be achieved if conditions are created whereby everyone may enjoy his civil and political rights,as well as his economic,social and cultural rights,Considering the obligation of States under the Charter of the United Nations to promote universal respect for,and observance of,human rights and freedoms,
 Realizing that the individual,having duties to other individuals and to the commtunity to which he belongs,is under a responsibility to strive for the promotion and observance of the rights recognized in the present Covenant,
 Agree upon the following articles:
 考虑到,按照联合国宪章所宣布的原则,对人类家庭所有成员的固有尊严及其平等的和不移的权利的承认,乃是世界自由、正义与和平的基础,确认这些权利是源於人身的固有尊严,确认,按照世界人权宣言,只有在创造了使人人可以享有其公民和政治权利,正如享有其经济、社会和文化权利一样的条件的情况下,才能实现自由人类享有公民及政治自由和免於恐惧和匮乏的自由的理想,考虑到各国根据联合国宪章负有义务促进对人的权利和自由的普遍尊重和遵行,认识到个人对其他个人和对他所属的社会负有义务,应为促进和遵行本公约所承认的权利而努力,兹同意下述各条:
PART Ⅰ 

第一部分

Article 1   第一条
 1.All peoples have the right of self—determination.By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic,social and cultural development. 一、所有人民都有自决权。他们凭这种权利自由决定他们的政治地位,并自由谋求他们的经济、社会和文化的发展。
 2.All peoples may,for their own ends,freely dispose of their natural wealth and resources without prejudice to any obligations arising out of international economic co—operation,based upon the principle of mutual benefit,and international law.In no case may a people be deprived of its own means of subsistence. 二、所有人民得为他们自己的目的自由处置他们的天然财富和资源,而不损害根据基於互利原则的国际经济合作和国际法而产生的任何义务。在任何情况下不得剥夺一个人民自己的生存手段。
 3.The States Parties to the present Covenant.including those having responsibility for the administration of Non—Sel—Governing and Trust Territories.shall promote the realization of the right of self—determination.and shall respect mat right,in conformity with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations. 三、本公约缔约各国,包括那些负责管理非自治领土和托管领土的国家,应在符合联合国宪章规定的条件下,促进自决权的实现,并尊重这种权利。
PART Ⅱ 

第二部分

Article 2   第二条
 1.Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to respect and to ensure to all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction the rights recognized in the present Covenant,without distinction of any kind,such as race,colour,sex,language,religion,political or other opinion,national or social origin,property,birth or other status. 一、本公约每一缔约国承担尊重和保证在其领土内和受其管辖的一切个人享有本公约所承认的权利,不分种族、肤色、性别、语言、宗教、政治或其他见解、国籍或社会出身、财产、出生或其他身分等任何区别。
 2.Where not already provided for by existing legislative or other measures,each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to take the necessary steps.in accordance wim its constitutional processes and with the provisions of the present Covenant,to adopt such legislative or other measures as may be necessary to give effect to the rights recognized in the present Covenant. 二、凡未经现行立法或其他措施予以规定者,本公约每一缔约国承担按照其宪法程序和本公约的规定采取必要的步骤,以采纳为实施本公约所承认的权利所需的立法或其他措施。
 3.Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes: 三、本公约每一缔约国承担:
 1.To ensure that any person whose rights or freedoms as herein recognized are violated shall have an effective remedy,notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons acting in an official capacity; (甲)保证任何一个被侵犯了本公约所承认的权利或自由的人,能得到有效的补救,尽管此种侵犯是以官方资格行事的人所为:
 2.To ensure that any person claiming such a remedy shall have his rights thereto determined by competent judicial,administrative or legislative authorities,or by any other competent authority provided for by the legal system of the State,and to develop the possibilities of judicial remedy; (乙)保证任何要求此种补救的人能由合格的司法、行政或立法当局或由国家法律制度规定的任何其他合格当局断定其在这方面的权利;并发展司法补救的可能性;
 3.To ensure that the competent authorities shall enforce such remedies when granted. (丙)保证合格当局在准予此等补救时,确能付诸实施。
Article 3 The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to ensure the equal right of men and women to the enjoyment of all civil and political rights set forth in the present Covenant.   第三条 本公约缔约各国承担保证男子和妇女在享有本公约所载一切公民和政治权利方面有平等的权利。
Article 4   第四条
 1.In time of public emergency which threatens the life of the nation and the existence of which is officially proclaimed,the States Parties to the present Covenant may take measures derogating from their obligations under the present Covenant to the extent strictly required by the exigencies of the situation,provided that such measures are not inconsistent with their other obligations under international law and do not involve discrimination solely on the ground of race,colour,sex,language,religion or social origin. 一、在社会紧急状态威胁到国家的生命并经正式宣布时,本公约缔约国得采取措施克减其在本公约下所承担的义务,但克减的程度以紧急情势所严格需要者为限,此等措施并不得与它根据国际法所负有的其他义务相矛盾,且不得包含纯粹基於种族、肤色、性别、语言、宗教或社会出身的理由的歧视。
 2.No derogation from articles 6,7,8(paragraphs 1 and 2),11,15,16 and 18 may be made under this provision. 二、不得根据本规定而克减第六条、第七条、第八条(第一款和第二款)、第十一条、第十五条、第十六条和第十八条。
 3.Any State Party to the present Covenant availing itself of the right of derogation shall immediately inform the other States Parties to the present Covenant,through the intermediary of the Secretary—General of the United Nations.of the provisions from which it has derogated and of the reasons by which it was actuated.A further communication shall be made,through the same intermediary,on the date on which it terminates such derogation. 三、任何援用克减权的本公约缔约国应立即经由联合国秘书长将它已克减的各项规定、实行克减的理由和终止这种克减的日期通知本公约的其他缔约国家。
Article 5   第五条
 1.Nothing in the present Covenant may be interpreted as implying for any State,group or person any right to engage in any activity or perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms recognized herein or at their limitation to a greater extent than is provided for in the present Covenant. 一、本公约中任何部分不得解释为隐示任何国家、团体或个人有权利从事於任何旨在破坏本公约所承认的任何权利和自由或对它们加以较本公约所规定的范围更广的限制的活动或行为。
 2.There shall be no restriction upon or derogation from any of the fundamental human rights recognized or existing in any State Party to the present Covenant pursuant to law,conventions,regulations or custom on the pretext that the present Covenant does not recognize such rights or that it recognizes them to a lesser extent. 二、对於本公约的任何缔约国中依据法律、惯例、条例或习惯而被承认或存在的任何基本人权,不得借口本公约未予承认或只在较小范围上予以承认而加以限制或克减。
PART Ⅲ 

第三部分

Article 6   第六条
 1.Every human being has the inherent right to life.This right shall be protected by law.No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life. 一、人人有固有的生命权。这个权利应受法律保护。不得任意剥夺任何人的生命。
 2.In countries which have not abolished the death penalty,sentence of death may be imposed only for the most serious crimes in accordance with the law in force at the time of the commission of the crime and not contrary to the provisions of the present Covenant and to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.This penalty can only be carried out pursuant to a final judgment rendered by a competent court. 二、在未废除死刑的国家,判处死刑只能是作为对最严重的罪行的惩罚,判处应按照犯罪时有效并且不违反本公约规定和防止及惩治灭绝种族罪公约的法律。这种刑罚,非经合格法庭最後判决,不得执行。
 3.When deprivation of life constitutes the crime of genocide.it is understood that nothing in this article shall authorize any State Party to the present Covenant to derogate in any way from any obligation assumed under the provisions of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. 三、兹了解:在剥夺生命构成灭种罪时,本条中任何部分并不准许本公约的任何缔约国以任何方式克减它在防止及惩治灭绝种族罪公约的规定下所承担的任何义务。
 4.Anyone sentenced to death shall have the right to seek pardon or commutation of the sentence.Amnesty,pardon or commutation of the sentence of death may be granted in all cases. 四、任何被判处死刑的人应有权要求赦免或减刑。对一切判处死刑的案件均得给予大赦、特赦或减刑。
 5.Sentence of death shall not be imposed for crimes committed by persons below eighteen years of age and shall not be carded out on pregnant women. 五、对十八岁以下的人所犯的罪,不得判处死刑;对孕妇不得执行死刑。
 6.Nothing in this article shall be invoked to delay or to prevent the abolition of capital punishment by any State Party to the present Covenant. 六、本公约的任何缔约国不得援引本条的任何部分来推迟或阻止死刑的废除。
Article 7 No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel,inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.In particular,no one shall be subjected without his free consent to medical or scientific experimentation.   第七条 任何人均不得加以酷刑或施以残忍的、不人道的或侮辱性的待遇或刑罚。特别是对任何人均不得未经其自由同意而施以医药或科学试验。
Article 8   第八条
 1.No one shall be held in slavery;slavery and the slave—trade in all their forms shall be prohibited. 一、任何人不得使为奴隶;一切形式的奴隶制度和奴隶买卖均应予以禁止。
 2.No one shall be held in servitude. 二、任何人不应被强迫役使。
 3.(1)No one shall be required to perform foreed or compulsory labour; 三、(甲)任何人不应被要求从事强迫或强制劳动;
 (2)Paragraph 3(a)shall not be held to preclude.in countries where imprisonment with hard labour may be imposed as a punishment for a crime,the performance of hard labour in pursuance of a sentence to such punishment by a competent court; (乙)在把苦役监禁作为一种对犯罪的惩罚的国家中,第三款(甲)项的规定不应认为排除按照由合格的法庭关於此项刑罚的判决而执行的苦役;
 (3)For the purpose of this paragraph the term“forced or compulsory labour”shall not include: (丙)为了本款之用,“强迫或强制劳动”一辞不应包括:
 A.Any work or service.not referred to in subparagraph(b),normally required of a person who is under detention in consequence of a lawful order of a court,or of a person during conditional release from such detention; (1)通常对一个依照法庭的合法命令而被拘禁的人或在此种拘禁假释期间的人所要求的任何工作或服务,非属(乙)项所述者;
 B.Any service of a military character and,in countries where conscientious objection is recognized,any national service required by law of conscientious objectors; (2)任何军事性质的服务,以及在承认良心拒绝兵役的国家中,良心拒绝兵役者依法被要求的任何国家服务;
 C.Any service exacted in cases of emergency or calamity threatening the life or well-being of the community; (3)在威胁社会生命或幸福的紧急状态或灾难的情况下受强制的任何服务;
 D.Any work or service which forms part of normal civil obligations. (4)属於正常的公民义务的一部分的任何工作或服务。
Article 9   第九条
 1.Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person.No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention.No one shall be deprived of his liberty except on such grounds and in accordance with such procedure as are established by law. 一、人人有权享有人身自由和安全。任何人不得加以任意逮捕或拘禁。除非依照法律所确定的根据和程序,任何人不得被剥夺自由。
 2.Anyone who is arrested shall be informed,at the time of arrest,of the reasons for his arrest and shall be promptly informed of any charges against him. 二、任何被逮捕的人,在被逮捕时应被告知逮捕他的理由,并应被迅速告知对他提出的任何指控。
 3.Anyone arrested or detained on a criminal charge shall be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorized by law to exercise judicial power and Shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to release.It shall not be the general rule that persons awaiting trial shall be detained in custody,but release may be subject to guarantees to appear for trial,at any other stage of the judicial proceedings,and,should occasion arise,for execution of the judgment. 三、任何因刑事指控被逮捕或拘禁的人,应被迅速带见审判官或其他经法律授权行使司法权力的官员,并有权在合理的时间内受审判或被释放。等候审判的人受监禁不应作为一般规则,但可规定释放时应保证在司法程序的任何其他阶段出席审判,并在必要时报到听候执行判决。
 4.Anyone who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or detention shall be entitled to take proceedings before a court,in order that that court may decide without delay on the lawfulness of his detention and order his release if the detention is not lawful. 四、任何因逮捕或拘禁被剥夺自由的人,有资格向法庭提起诉讼,以便法庭能不拖延地决定拘禁他是否合法以及如果拘禁不合法时命令予以释放。
 5.Anyone who has been the victim of unlawful arrest or detention shall have an enforceable right to compensation. 五、任何遭受非法逮捕或拘禁的受害者,有得到赠偿的权利。
Article 10   第十条
 1.All persons deprived of their liberty shall be treated with humanity and with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person. 一、所有被剥夺自由的人应给予人道及尊重其固有的人格尊严的待遇。
 2.(1)Accused persons shall,save in exceptional circumstances,be segregated from convicted persons and shall be subject to separate treatment appropriate to their status as unconvicted persons; 二、(甲)除特殊情况外,被控告的人应与被判罪的人隔离开,并应给予适合於未判罪者身分的分别待遇;
 (2)Accused juvenile persons shall be separated from adults and brought as speedily as possible for adjudication. (乙)被控告的少年应与成年人分隔开,并应尽速予以判决。
 3.The penitentiary system shall comprise treatment of prisoners the essential aim of which shall be their reformation and social rehabilitation.Juvenile offenders shall be segregated from adults and be accorded treatment appropriate to their age and legal status. 三、监狱制度应包括以争取囚犯改造和社会复员为基本目的的待遇。少年罪犯应与成年人隔离开,并应给予适合其年龄及法律地位的待遇。
Article 11 No one shall be imprisoned merely on the ground of inability to fulfill a contractual obligation.   第十一条 任何人不得仅仅由於无力履行约定义务而被监禁。
Article 12   第十二条
 1.Everyone lawfully within the territory of a State shall,within that territory,have the right to liberty of movement and freedom to choose his residence. 一、合法处在一国领土内的每一个人在该领土内有权享受迁徙自由和选择住所的自由。
 2.Everyone shall be free to leave any country,including his own. 二、人人有自由离开任何国家,包括其本国在内。
 3.The above—mentioned rights shall not be subject to any restrictions except those which are provided by law,are necessary to protect national security,public order(ordre public),public health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others,and are consistent with the other rights recognized in the present Covenant. 三、上述权利,除法律所规定并为保护国家安全、公共秩序、公共卫生或道德、或他人的权利和自由所必需且与本公约所承认的其他权利不抵触的限制外,应不受任何其他限制。
 4.No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of the right to enter his own country. 四、任何人进入其本国权利,不得任意加以剥夺。
Article 13 An alien lawfully in the territory of a State Party to the present Covenant may expelled therefrom only in pursuance of a decision reached in accordance with law and shall,except where compelling reasons of national security otherwise require,be allowed to submit the reasons against his expulsion and to have his case reviewed by,and be represented for the purpose before,the competent authority or a person or persons especially designated by the competent authority. 卧槽不见了  第十三条 合法处在本公约缔约国领土内的外侨,只有按照依法作出的决定才可以被驱逐出境,并且,除非在国家安全的紧迫原因另有要求的情况下,应准予提出反对驱逐出境的理由和使他的案件得到合格当局或由合格当局特别指定的一人或数人的复审,并为此目的而请人作代表。
Article 14   第十四条
 1.All persons shall be equal before the courts and tribunals.In the determination of any criminal charge against him,or of his rights and obligations in a suit at law,everyone shall be entitled to a fair and public hearing by a competent,independent and impartial tribunal established by law.The Press and the public may be excluded from all or part of a trial for reasons of morals,public order(ordre public)or national security in a democratic society,or when the interest of the private lives of the parties so requires,or to the extent strictly necessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice;but any judgment rendered in a criminal case or in a suit at law shall be made public except where the interest of juvenile persons otherwise requires or the proceedings concern matrimonial disputes or the guardianship of children. 一、所有的人在法庭和裁判所前一律平等。在判定对任何人提出的任何刑事指控或确定他在一件诉讼案中的权利和义务时,人人有资格由一个依法设立的合格的、独立的和无偏倚的法庭进行公正的和公开的审讯。由於民主社会中的道德的、公共秩序的或国家安全的理由,或当诉讼当事人的私生活的利益有此需要时,或在特殊情况下法庭认为公开审判会损害司法利益因而严格需要的限度下,可不使记者和公众出席全部或部分审判;但对刑事案件或法律诉讼的任何判刑决应公开宣布,除非少年的利益另有要求或者诉讼系有关儿童监护权的婚姻争端。
 2.Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall have the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law. 二、凡受刑事控告者,在未依法证实有罪之前,应有权被视为无罪。
 3.In the determination of any criminal charge against him,everyone shall be entitled to the following minimum guarantees,in full equality: 三、在判定对他提出的任何刑事指控时,人人完全平等地有资格享受以下的最低限度的保证:
 (1)To be informed promptly and in detail in a language which he understands of the nature and cause of the charge against him;
......
 (甲)迅速以一种他懂得的语言详细地告知对他提出的指控的性质和原因;
......

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