>>>welcome visitor, haven't logged in. Login
Subscribe Now Contact us  
Font Size:  A A A Search “Fabao” Window English 中文 = 简体  繁体
  Favorite   DownLoad   Print
 
Judges Law of the People's Republic of China [Revised]
中华人民共和国法官法 [已被修订]
【法宝引证码】

 

JUDGES LAW OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 

中华人民共和国主席令


(Adopted at the 12th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Eighth National People's Congress on February 28, 1995, promulgated by Order No. 38 of the President of the People's Republic of China on February 28, 1995, and effective as of the date of July 1, 1995)
 
(第三十八号)


 
《中华人民共和国法官法》已由中华人民共和国第八届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十二次会议于1995年2月28日通过,现予公布,自1995年7月1日起施行。
CONTENTS 
中华人民共和国主席 江泽民

 
1995年2月28日
CHAPTER I GENERAL PROVISIONS  
中华人民共和国法官法

 
(1995年2月28日
第八届全国人民代表大会
常务委员会第十二次会议通过)
CHAPTER II FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES  

 目录
CHAPTER III OBLIGATIONS AND RIGHTS  

 第一章 总则
CHAPTER IV QUALIFICATIONS FOR A JUDGE  

 第二章 职责
CHAPTER V APPOINTMENT AND REMOVAL  

 第三章 义务和权利
CHAPTER VI POSTS TO BE AVOIDED  

 第四章 法官的条件
CHAPTER VII GRADES OF JUDGES  

 第五章 任免
CHAPTER VIII APPRAISAL  

 第六章 任职回避
CHAPTER IX TRAINING  

 第七章 法官的等级
CHAPTER X AWARDS  

 第八章 考核
CHAPTER XI PUNISHMENT  

 第九章 培训
CHAPTER XII SALARY, INSURANCE AND WELFARE 不能给市场做人工呼吸 

 第十章 奖励
CHAPTER XIII RESIGNATION AND DISMISSAL  

 第十一章 惩戒
CHAPTER XIV RETIREMENT  

 第十二章 工资保险福利
CHAPTER XV PETITION AND COMPLAINT  

 第十三章 辞职辞退
CHAPTER XVI COMMISSION FOR EXAMINATION AND ASSESSMENT OF JUDGES  

 第十四章 退休
CHAPTER XVII SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS  

 第十五章 申诉控告
CHAPTER I GENERAL PROVISIONS 

 第十六章 法官考评委员会
Article 1 This Law is enacted in accordance with the Constitution to 

ensure that the People's Courts independently exercise judicial
 第十七章 附则

authority according to law and that judges perform their functions and
 


duties according to law, to enhance the quality of judges, and to
 第一章 总则


realize the scientific administration of judges.
 

   第一条 为了保障人民法院依法独立行使审判权,保障法官依法履行职责,提高法官的素质,实现对法官的科学管理,根据宪法,制定本法。
Article 2 Judges are the judicial personnel who exercise the judicial 

authority of the State according to law, including presidents, vice
   第二条 法官是依法行使国家审判权的审判人员,包括最高人民法院、地方各级人民法院和军事法院等专门人民法院的院长、副院长、审判委员会委员、庭长、副庭长、审判员和助理审判员。

presidents, members of judicial committees, chief judges and associate
 

chief judges of divisions, judges and assistant judges of the Supreme
   第三条 法官必须忠实执行宪法和法律,全心全意为人民服务。

People's Court, local People's Courts at various levels and special
 

People's Courts such as military courts.
   第四条 法官依法履行职责,受法律保护。

 

Article 3 Judges must faithfully implement the Constitution and laws, 第二章 职责


and serve the people whole-heartedly.
 

   第五条 法官的职责:
Article 4 Judges, when performing their functions and duties according 

to law, shall be protected by law.
 (一)依法参加合议庭审判或者独任审判案件;

 
CHAPTER II FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES (二)法律规定的其他职责。

 
Article 5 The functions and duties of judges are as follows:   第六条 院长、副院长、审判委员会委员、庭长、副庭长除履行审判职责外,还应当履行与其职务相适应的职责。

 

(1) to take part in a trial as a member of a collegial panel or to try a 第三章 义务和权利


case alone according to law; and
 

   第七条 法官应当履行下列义务:
(2) to perform other functions and duties as provided by law. 

 (一)严格遵守宪法和法律;
Article 6 Presidents, vice presidents, members of judicial committees, 

chief judges, associate chief judges of divisions shall, in addition to
 (二)审判案件必须以事实为根据,以法律为准绳,秉公办案,不得徇私枉法;

the judicial functions and duties, perform other functions and duties
 

commensurate with their posts.
 (三)依法保障诉讼参与人的诉讼权利;

 
CHAPTER III OBLIGATIONS AND RIGHTS (四)维护国家利益、公共利益,维护公民、法人和其他组织的合法权益;

 
Article 7 Judges shall perform the following obligations: (五)清正廉明,忠于职守,遵守纪律;

 
(1) to strictly observe the Constitution and laws; (六)保守国家秘密和审判工作秘密;

 
(2) to take facts as the basis, and laws as the criterion when trying (七)接受法律监督和人民群众监督。

cases, to handle cases impartially, and not to bend law for personal
 

gain;
   第八条 法官享有下列权利:

 
(3) to protect the litigation rights of the participants in proceedings (一)履行法官职责应当具有的职权和工作条件;

according to law;
 

 (二)依法审判案件不受行政机关、社会团体和个人的干涉;
(4) to safeguard the State interests and public interests, and to 

safeguard the lawful rights and
 (三)非因法定事由、非经法定程序,不被免职、降职、辞退或者处分;

interests of citizens, legal persons and other organizations;
 

 (四)获得劳动报酬,享受保险、福利待遇;
(5) to be honest and clean, faithful in the discharge of duties, and to 

abide by discipline;
 (五)人身、财产和住所安全受法律保护;

 
(6) to keep State secrets and the secrets of judicial work; and (六)参加培训;

 
(7) to accept legal supervision and supervision by the masses. (七)提出申诉或者控告;

 
Article 8 Judges shall enjoy the following rights: (八)辞职。

 

(1) to have the power and working conditions which are essential to the 第四章 法官的条件


performance of functions and duties of judges;
 

   第九条 担任法官必须具备下列条件:
(2) to brook no interference from administrative organs, public 

organizations or individuals
 (一)具有中华人民共和国国籍;

in trying cases according to law;
 

 (二)年满二十三岁;
(3) to be not removed or demoted from the post or dismissed, and to be 

not given
 (三)拥护中华人民共和国宪法;

a sanction, without statutory basis and without going through statutory
 

procedures;
 (四)有良好的政治、业务素质和良好的品行;

 
(4) to be remunerated for work and to enjoy insurance and welfare (五)身体健康;

benefits;
 

 (六)高等院校法律专业毕业或者高等院校非法律专业毕业具有法律专业知识,工作满二年的,或者获得法律专业学士学位,工作满一年的;获得法律专业硕士学位、法律专业博士学位的,可以不受上述工作年限的限制。
(5) to enjoy the safety of the person, property and residence as ensured 
本法施行前的审判人员不具备前款第(六)项规定的条件的,应当接受培训,在规定的期限内达到本法规定的条件,具体办法由最高人民法院制定。

by law;
 

   第十条 下列人员不得担任法官:
(6) to receive training; 

 (一)曾因犯罪受过刑事处罚的;
(7) to lodge petitions or complaints; and 

 (二)曾被开除公职的。
(8) to resign their posts. 


 第五章 任免

不接我们电话 也不给拒接原因CHAPTER IV QUALIFICATIONS FOR A JUDGE 

   第十一条 法官职务的任免,依照宪法和法律规定的任免权限和程序办理。
Article 9 A judge must possess the following qualifications: 
最高人民法院院长由全国人民代表大会选举和罢免,副院长、审判委员会委员、庭长、副庭长和审判员由最高人民法院院长提请全国人民代表大会常务委员会任免。

 
地方各级人民法院院长由地方各级人民代表大会选举和罢免,副院长、审判委员会委员、庭长、副庭长和审判员由本院院长提请本级人民代表大会常务委员会任免。
(1) to be of the nationality of the People's Republic of China; 
在省、自治区内按地区设立的和在直辖市内设立的中级人民法院院长,由省、自治区、直辖市人民代表大会常务委员会根据主任会议的提名决定任免,副院长、审判委员会委员、庭长、副庭长和审判员由高级人民法院院长提请省、自治区、直辖市的人民代表大会常务委员会任免。

 
在民族自治地方设立的地方各级人民法院院长,由民族自治地方各级人民代表大会选举和罢免,副院长、审判委员会委员、庭长、副庭长和审判员由本院院长提请本级人民代表大会常务委员会任免。
(2) to have reached the age of 23; 
人民法院的助理审判员由本院院长任免。

 
军事法院等专门人民法院院长、副院长、审判委员会委员、庭长、副庭长和审判员的任免办法,由全国人民代表大会常务委员会另行规定。
(3) to endorse the Constitution of the People's Republic of China; 

   第十二条 初任审判员、助理审判员采用公开考试、严格考核的办法,按照德才兼备的标准,从具备法官条件的人员中择优提出人选。
(4) to have fine political and professional quality and to be good in 
担任院长、副院长、审判委员会委员、庭长、副庭长,应当从具有实际工作经验的人员中择优提出人选。

conduct;
 

   第十三条 法官有下列情形之一的,应当依法提请免除其职务:
(5) to be in good health; and 

 (一)丧失中华人民共和国国籍的;
(6) to have worked for at least two years in the case of graduates from 

law specialties of colleges
 (二)调出本法院的;

or universities or from non-law specialties of colleges or universities
 

but possessing the professional knowledge of law; or to have worked for
 (三)职务变动不需要保留原职务的;

at least one year in the case of Bachelors of Law; those who have
 

Master's Degree of Law or Doctor's Degree of Law may be not subject to
 (四)经考核确定为不称职的;

the above mentioned requirements for the number of years set for work.
 

The judicial personnel who do not possess the qualifications as provided
 (五)因健康原因长期不能履行职务的;

by sub-paragraph (6) of the preceding paragraph prior to the
 

implementation of this Law shall receive training so as to meet the
 (六)退休的;

qualifications as provided by this Law within a prescribed time limit.
 

The specific measures shall be laid down by the Supreme People's Court.
 (七)辞职、辞退的;

 
Article 10 The following persons shall not hold the post of a judge: (八)因违纪、违法犯罪不能继续任职的;

 
(1) to have been subjected to criminal punishment for commission of a (九)因其他原因需要免职的。

crime; or
 

   第十四条 法官不得兼任人民代表大会常务委员会的组成人员,不得兼任行政机关、检察机关以及企业、事业单位的职务,不得兼任律师。
(2) to have been discharged from public employment. 


 第六章 任职回避

CHAPTER V APPOINTMENT AND REMOVAL 

   第十五条 法官之间有夫妻关系、直系血亲关系、三代以内旁系血亲以及近姻亲关系的,不得同时担任下列职务:
Article 11 A judge shall be appointed or removed from the post in 

accordance with the limit of authority for, and procedures of,
 (一)同一人民法院的院长、副院长、审判委员会委员、庭长、副庭长;

appointment or removal as prescribed by the Constitution and laws.
 

The President of the Supreme People's Court shall be elected or removed
 (二)同一人民法院的院长、副院长和审判员、助理审判员;

by the National People's Congress. The vice-presidents, members of the
 

judicial committee, chief judges and associate chief judges of divisions
 (三)同一审判庭的庭长、副庭长、审判员、助理审判员;

and judges shall be appointed or removed by the Standing Committee of
 

the National People's Congress upon the recommendation of the President
 (四)上下相邻两级人民法院的院长、副院长。

of the Supreme People's Court.
 


The presidents of the local People's Courts at various levels shall be
 第七章 法官的等级


elected or removed by the local People's Congresses at various levels.
 

The vice-presidents, members of the judicial committees, chief judges
   第十六条 法官的级别分为十二级。

and associate chief judges of divisions and judges shall be appointed or
 
最高人民法院院长为首席大法官,二至十二级法官分为大法官、高级法官、法官。

removed by the standing committees of the people's congresses at the
 

corresponding levels upon the recommendation of the presidents of those
   第十七条 法官的等级的确定,以法官所任职务、德才表现、业务水平、审判工作实绩和工作年限为依据。

courts.
 

The appointment or removal of the presidents of the intermediate
   第十八条 法官的等级编制、评定和晋升办法,由国家另行规定。

People's Courts set up in prefectures of the provinces or autonomous
 


regions or set up in the municipalities directly under the Central
 第八章 考核


Government shall be decided on by the standing committees of the
 

people's congresses of the provinces, autonomous regions or
   第十九条 对法官的考核,由所在人民法院组织实施。

municipalities directly under the Central Government on the basis of the
 

nominations made by the respective councils of chairmen. The vice-
   第二十条 对法官的考核,应当客观公正,实行领导和群众相结合,平时考核和年度考核相结合。

presidents, members of the judicial committees, chief judges and
 

associate chief judges of divisions and judges shall be appointed or
   第二十一条 对法官的考核内容包括:审判工作实绩,思想品德,审判业务和法学理论水平,工作态度和审判作风。重点考核审判工作实绩。

removed by the standing committees of the people's congresses of the
 

provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities directly under the
   第二十二条 年度考核结果分为优秀、称职、不称职三个等次。

Central Government upon the recommendations of the presidents of the
 
考核结果作为对法官奖惩、培训、辞退以及调整等级和工资的依据。

higher People's Courts.
 

The presidents of the local People's Courts at various levels set up in
   第二十三条 考核结果以书面形式通知本人。本人对考核结果如有异议,可以申请复议。

the national autonomous areas shall be elected or removed by the
 


people's congresses at various levels of the national autonomous areas.
 第九章 培训


The vice-presidents, members of the judicial committees, chief judges
 

and associate chief judges of divisions and judges shall be appointed or
   第二十四条 对法官应当有计划地进行理论培训和业务培训。

removed by the standing committees of the people's congresses at the
 
法官的培训,贯彻理论联系实际、按需施教、讲求实效的原则。

corresponding levels upon the recommendations of the presidents of those
 

courts.
   第二十五条 国家法官院校和其他法官培训机构按照有关规定承担培训法官的任务。

The assistant judges of the People's Courts shall be appointed or
 

removed by the presidents of the courts where they work.
   第二十六条 法官在培训期间的学习成绩和鉴定,作为其任职、晋升的依据之一。

The measures for the appointment or removal of the presidents, vice-
 


presidents, members of
 第十章 奖励法小宝


the judicial committees, chief judges and associate chief judges of
 

divisions and judges of the special People's Courts such as the military
   第二十七条 法官在审判工作中有显著成绩和贡献的,或者有其他突出事迹的,应当给予奖励。

courts shall be formulated by the Standing Committee of the National
 
对法官的奖励,实行精神鼓励和物质鼓励相结合的原则。

People's Congress separately.
 

   第二十八条 法官有下列表现之一的,应当给予奖励:
Article 12 Persons to be appointed judges or assistant judges for the 

first time shall be selected through public examination and strict
 (一)在审理案件中秉公执法,成绩显著的;

appraisal, from among the best qualified for the post, and in accordance
 

with the standards of having both ability and political integrity.
 (二)总结审判实践经验成果突出,对审判工作有指导作用的;

Persons to be appointed presidents, vice-presidents, members of the
 

judicial committees, chief judges, associate chief judges of divisions
 (三)对审判工作提出改革建议被采纳,效果显著的;

shall be selected from among those who are experienced in practical
 

work.
 (四)保护国家、集体和人民利益,使其免受重大损失,事迹突出的;

 
Article 13 If a judge is found to be in any of the following (五)勇于同违法犯罪行为作斗争,事迹突出的;

circumstances, a report shall be submitted according to law concerning
 

the removal of his or her post:
 (六)提出司法建议被采纳或者开展法制宣传、指导人民调解委员会工作,效果显著的;

 
(1) having forfeited the nationality of the People's Republic of China; (七)保护国家秘密和审判工作秘密,有显著成绩的;

 
(2) having been transferred out of this court; (八)有其他功绩的。

 
(3) having no need to maintain his or her original post after a change   第二十九条 奖励分为:嘉奖,记三等功、二等功、一等功,授予荣誉称号。

of post;
 
奖励的权限和程序按照有关规定办理。

 

(4) being determined to be incompetent in the post through appraisal; 第十一章 惩戒


 
(5) being unable to perform the functions and duties of a judge for a   第三十条 法官不得有下列行为:

long period of time due to poor health;
 

 (一)散布有损国家声誉的言论,参加非法组织,参加旨在反对国家的集会、游行、示威等活动,参加罢工;
(6) having retired from the post; 

 (二)贪污受贿;
(7) having resigned the post, or having been dismissed; 

 (三)徇私枉法;
(8) being disqualified from continuing to hold the post because of 

violation of discipline, law or commission of a crime; or
 (四)刑讯逼供;

 
(9) other circumstances that call for removal of the post. (五)隐瞒证据或者伪造证据;

 
Article 14 No judges may concurrently be members of the standing (六)泄露国家秘密或者审判工作秘密;

committees of the people's congresses, or hold posts in administrative
 

organs, procuratorial organs, enterprises or institutions, or serve as
 (七)滥用职权,侵犯公民、法人或者其他组织的合法权益;

lawyers.
 

 (八)玩忽职守,造成错案或者给当事人造成严重损失;
CHAPTER VI POSTS TO BE AVOIDED 

 (九)故意拖延办案,贻误工作;
Article 15 Judges who are connected by husband-wife relationship, or who 

are directly related by blood, collateral related within three
 (十)利用职权为自己或者他人谋取私利;

generations, or closely related by marriage may not, at the same time,
 

hold the following posts:
 (十一)从事营利性的经营活动;

 
(1) the president, vice-presidents, members of the judicial committee, (十二)私自会见当事人及其代理人,接受当事人及其代理人的请客送礼;

chief judges or associate chief judges of divisions in the same People's
 

Court;
 (十三)其他违法乱纪的行为。

 
(2) the president, vice-presidents, judges or assistant judges in the   第三十一条 法官有本法第三十条所列行为之一的,应当给予处分;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

same People's Court;
 

   第三十二条 处分分为:警告、记过、记大过、降级、撤职、开除。
(3) the chief judge, associate chief judges, judges or assistant judges 
受撤职处分的,同时降低工资和等级。

in the same division; or
 

   第三十三条 处分的权限和程序按照有关规定办理。
(4) presidents or vice-presidents of the People's Courts at the levels 


next to each other.
 第十二章 工资保险福利


 
CHAPTER VII GRADES OF JUDGES   第三十四条 法官的工资制度和工资标准,根据审判工作特点,由国家规定。

 
Article 16 Judges are divided into twelve grades.   第三十五条 法官实行定期增资制度。经考核确定为优秀、称职的,可以按照规定晋升工资;有特殊贡献的,可以按照规定提前晋升工资。

The President of the Supreme People's Court is the Chief Justice. Judges
 

from the second grade to the twelfth grade are composed of associate
   第三十六条 法官享受国家规定的审判津贴、地区津贴、其他津贴以及保险和福利待遇。

justices, senior Judges and Judges.
 


 第十三章 辞职辞退

Article 17 Grades of judges shall be determined on the basis of their 

posts, their actual working ability and political integrity, their
   第三十七条 法官要求辞职,应当由本人提出书面申请,依照法律规定的程序免除其职务。

professional competence, their achievements in judicial work and their
 

seniority.
   第三十八条 法官有下列情形之一的,可以予以辞退:

 
Article 18 The grades of judges shall be established and the measures (一)在年度考核中,连续两年确定为不称职的;

for their evaluation and promotion shall be formulated separately by the
 

State.
 (二)不胜任现职工作,又不接受另行安排的;

 
CHAPTER VIII APPRAISAL (三)因审判机构调整或者缩减编制员额需要调整工作,本人拒绝合理安排的;

 
Article 19 Appraisal of judges shall be conducted by the People's Courts (四)旷工或者无正当理由逾假不归连续超过十五天,或者一年内累计超过三十天的;

the judges belong to.
 

 (五)不履行法官义务,经教育仍不改正的。
Article 20 The appraisal of judges shall be carried out objectively and 

impartially, through the combined efforts of the leaders and masses, and
   第三十九条 辞退法官应当依照法律规定的程序免除其职务。

routinely and annually.
 


 第十四章 退休

Article 21 The appraisal of judges shall include their achievements in 

judicial work, their ideological level and moral characters, their
   第四十条 法官的退休制度,根据审判工作特点,由国家另行规定。

competence in judicial work and their mastery of law theories, their
 

attitude in and style of work. However, emphasis shall be laid on the
   第四十一条 法官退休后,享受国家规定的养老保险金和其他待遇。

achievements in judicial work.
 


 第十五章 申诉控告

Article 22 The results of the annual appraisal shall fall into three 

grades: excellent, competent and incompetent.
   第四十二条 法官对人民法院关于本人的处分不服,自收到处分决定之日起三十日内可以向原处理机关申请复议,并有权向原处理机关的上级机关申诉。

The result of appraisal shall be taken as the basis for award,
 
受理申诉的机关必须按照规定作出处理。

punishment, training, dismissal of a judge, and for readjustment of his
 
复议和申诉期间,不停止对法官处分决定的执行。

or her grade and salary.
 

   第四十三条 对于国家机关及其工作人员侵犯本法第八条规定的法官权利的行为,法官有权提出控告。
Article 23 A judge shall be informed of the result of the appraisal in 
行政机关、社会团体或者个人干涉法官依法审判案件的,应当依法追究其责任。

written form. If the judge disagrees with the result, he or she may
 

apply for reconsideration.
   第四十四条 法官提出申诉和控告,应当实事求是。对捏造事实、诬告陷害的,应当依法追究其责任。

 
CHAPTER IX TRAINING   第四十五条 对法官处分错误的,应当及时予以纠正;造成名誉损害的,应当恢复名誉、消除影响、赔礼道歉;造成经济损失的,应当赔偿。对打击报复的直接责任人员,应当依法追究其责任。

 

Article 24 Theoretical and professional training for judges shall be 第十六章 法官考评委员会


carried out in a planned way.
 

The principles of integrating theory with practice, giving lectures in
   第四十六条 人民法院设法官考评委员会。

light of the needs, and
 
法官考评委员会的职责是指导对法官的培训、考核、评议工作。具体办法另行规定。

emphasizing practical results shall be applied in the training of
 
最高人民法院法官考评委员会依照本法第十二条的规定,组织初任审判员、助理审判员的全国统一考试。

judges.
 

   第四十七条 法官考评委员会的组成人员为五至九人。
Article 25 The judges colleges and universities of the State and other 
法官考评委员会主任由本院院长担任。

institutions for training judges shall, in accordance with the relevant
 


regulations, undertake the task of training judges.
 第十七章 附则


 
Article 26 The results of the studies of judges and the appraisals made   第四十八条 对人民法院的执行员,参照本法有关规定进行管理。

during their training shall be taken as one of the bases for their
 
人民法院的书记员的管理办法,由最高人民法院制定。

appointment and promotion.
 
对人民法院的司法行政人员,依照国家有关规定进行管理。

 
CHAPTER X AWARDS   第四十九条 本法自1995年7月1日起施行。

 

Article 27 Judges who have made significant achievements and contributions in judicial work, or performed other outstanding deeds shall be 

rewarded.
 

The principle of combining moral encouragement with material reward
 

shall be applied in rewarding judges.
 

 
Article 28 Judges who have any of the following achievements to their 

credit shall be rewarded:
 

 
(1) having achieved notable successes in enforcing laws and handling 

cases impartially;
 

 
(2) having accumulated rich experience in judicial practice that may 

serve as a guide in judicial work;
 

 
(3) having made proposals for the reform of judicial work that have been 

adopted and have produced remarkable results;
 

 
(4) having performed outstanding deeds in safeguarding the interests of 

the State, the collective and the people against heavy losses;
 

 
(5) having performed outstanding deeds by bravely fighting against 

illegal or criminal acts;
 

 
(6) having made judicial proposals that have been adopted, and have 

produced remarkable results, or having scored outstanding successes in
 

publicizing the importance of the legal system and guiding the work of
 

the people's mediation committees;
 

 
(7) having scored outstanding achievements in protecting State secrets 

and secrets of judicial work; or
 

 
(8) having performed other meritorious deeds. 

 
Article 29 The awards include: Citation for Meritorious Deeds, Merit 

Citation Class III, Merit Citation Class II, Merit Citation Class I, and
 

a title of honour.
 

The awards shall be authorized and procedures gone through in accordance
 

with the relevant regulations.
 

 
CHAPTER XI PUNISHMENT 

 
Article 30 No judges may commit any of the following acts: 

 
(1) to spread statements damaging the prestige of the State; to join 

illegal organizations; to take part in such activities as assembly,
 

procession and demonstration against the State; and to participate in
 

strikes;
 

 
(2) to embezzle money or accept bribes; 

 
(3) to bend law for personal gain; 

 
(4) to extort confessions by torture; 

 
(5) to conceal or falsify evidence; 

 
(6) to divulge State secrets or secrets of judicial work; 

 
(7) to abuse functions and powers; and to infringe upon the legitimate 

rights and interests of citizens, legal persons or other organizations;
 

 
(8) to neglect his or her duty so as to wrongly judge a case or to cause 

heavy losses to the party concerned;
 

 
(9) to intentionally delay the handling of a case so as to affect the 

work adversely;
 

 
(10) to take advantage of the functions and powers to seek gain for 

himself or herself or other people;
 

 
(11) to engage in profit-making activities; 

 
(12) to meet the party concerned or his or her agent without 

authorization and attend dinners or accept presents given by the party
 

concerned or his or her agent; or
 

 
(13) to commit other acts in violation of law or discipline. 

 
Article 31 A judge who has committed any of the acts listed in Article 

30 of this Law shall be given sanctions; if the case constitutes a
 

crime, he or she shall be investigated for criminal responsibility.
 

 
Article 32 Sanctions include a disciplinary warning, a demerit recorded, 

a grave demerit recorded, demotion, dismissal from the post and
 

discharge from public employment.
 

The salary of a judge who has been dismissed from the post shall at the
 

same time be reduced and his or her grade be demoted.
 

 
Article 33 A sanction shall be authorized and procedures gone through in 

accordance with the relevant regulations
 

 
CHAPTER XII SALARY, INSURANCE AND WELFARE 

 
Article 34 The salary system and scales for judges shall, in light of 

the characteristics of judicial work, be formulated by the State.
 

 
Article 35 The system under which the salaries of judges are increased 

regularly shall be practised. The salary of a judge who has been
 

confirmed through appraisal as being excellent or competent may be
 

raised in accordance with the regulations; the salary of a judge who has
 

made special contributions may be raised in advance in accordance with
 

regulations.
 

 
Article 36 Judges shall enjoy judicial allowances, regional allowances 

and other allowances and insurance and welfare benefits as prescribed by
 

the State.
 

 
CHAPTER XIII RESIGNATION AND DISMISSAL 

 
Article 37 If a judge requests resignation, he or she shall present an 

application in written form before he or she shall be removed in
 

accordance with the procedures as provided by law.
 

 
Article 38 A judge may be dismissed if he or she is found to be in any 

of the following
 

circumstances:
 

 
(1) to be confirmed by annual appraisal as being incompetent for two 

successive years;
 

 
(2) to be unqualified for the present post and decline to accept other 

assignments;
 

 
(3) to refuse to accept reasonable transfer, which is necessitated by 

restructuring of the judicial organ or reduction of the size of the
 

staff;
 

 
(4) to have stayed away from work without leave or to have overstayed 

his or her leave for fifteen days or more in succession, or for thirty
 

days or more in a year aggregated; or
 

 
(5) to fail to perform a judge's duty, and make no rectification after 

criticism.
 

 
Article 39 A judge who is dismissed shall be removed from the post in 

accordance with the procedures as provided by law.
 

 
CHAPTER XIV RETIREMENT 

 
Article 40 The retirement system regarding judges shall, in light of the 

characteristics of judicial work, be formulated separately by the State.
 

 
Article 41 After retirement judges shall enjoy the insurance of old-age 

pension and other benefits as prescribed by the State.
 

 
CHAPTER XV PETITION AND COMPLAINT 

 
Article 42 If a judge disagrees with the sanction given to him or her by 

a People's Court, he or she may, within thirty days from the date of
 

receiving the decision on the sanction, apply for reconsideration to the
 

organ which handled the case and shall have the right to appeal to the
 

organ at a level higher than the organ which handled the case.
 

The organ that receives the appeal must make a decision on it in
 

accordance with regulations.
 

Execution of a decision on a sanction given to a judge shall not be
 

suspended during the period of reconsideration or petition.
 

 
Article 43 If a State organ or any of its functionaries commits an act 

infringing upon the rights of a judge as provided by Article 8 of this
 

Law, the judge shall have the right to make a complaint.
 

If an administrative organ, a public organization or an individual
 

interferes in a case that a judge is trying according to law, that
 

organ, organization or individual shall be investigated for
 

responsibility according to law.
 

 
Article 44 The petition or complaint made by a judge shall be true to 

facts. If a judge makes up a story or lodges a false accusation against
 

an innocent person, he or she shall be investigated for responsibility
 

according to law.
 

 
Article 45 Where a sanction given to a judge is wrong, it shall be put 

right without delay; if it has damaged the judge's reputation, the
 

reputation shall be rehabilitated, the ill effects shall be eliminated
 

and an apology shall be made; if it has caused financial losses to the
 

judge, compensations shall be made. The persons who are directly
 

responsible for retaliation shall be investigated for responsibility
 

according to law.
 

 
CHAPTER XVI COMMISSION FOR EXAMINATION AND ASSESSMENT OF JUDGES 

 
Article 46 A People's Court shall establish a commission for examination 

and assessment of judges.
 

The functions and duties of a commission for examination and assessment
 

of judges are to guide the training, examination, appraisal and
 

assessment of judges. Specific measures therefor shall be formulated
 

separately.
 

The commission for examination and assessment of judges of the Supreme
 

People's Court shall, in accordance with the provisions of Article 12 of
 

this Law, organize unified national examination for judges and assistant
 

judges to be appointed as such for the first time.
 

 
Article 47 The number of persons on a commission for examination and 

assessment of judges shall be five to nine.
 

The chairman of a commission for examination and assessment of judges
 

shall be assumed by the president of the court it belongs to.
 

 
CHAPTER XVII SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS 

 
Article 48 The executors of the People's Courts shall be administered 

with reference to the relevant provisions of this Law.
 

Measures for the administration of the clerks of the People's Courts
 

shall be formulated by the Supreme People's Court.
 

The administrative judicial personnel of the People's Courts shall be
 

administered in accordance with the relevant regulations of the State.
 

 
Article 49 This Law shall come into force as of July 1, 1995.

 
     
     
Scan QR Code and Read on Mobile
【法宝引证码】        北大法宝en.pkulaw.cn
Message: Please kindly comment on the present translation.
 
Confirmation Code:
Click image to reset code
 
  Translations are by lawinfochina.com, and we retain exclusive copyright over content found on our website except for content we publish as authorized by respective copyright owners or content that is publicly available from government sources.

Due to differences in language, legal systems, and culture, English translations of Chinese law are for reference purposes only. Please use the official Chinese-language versions as the final authority. Lawinfochina.com and its staff will not be directly or indirectly liable for use of materials found on this website.

We welcome your comments and suggestions, which assist us in continuing to improve the quality of our materials as we dynamically expand content.
 
Home | About us | Disclaimer | Chinese