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Opinion of the Supreme People's Court on the Application of Laws for the Trials of Criminal Cases Involving Robbery or Seizure [Effective]
最高人民法院印发《关于审理抢劫、抢夺刑事案件适用法律若干问题的意见》的通知 [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】

 

Opinion of the Supreme People's Court on the Application of Laws for the Trials of Criminal Cases Involving Robbery or Seizure
(No. 8 [2005] of the Supreme People's Court, June 8, 2005)




Robbery and seizure are frequently committed crimes that injure the right of property. After the Criminal Law was amended in 1997, and for the purpose of offering better guidance to the work of trial, the Supreme People's Court has promulgated the Interpretations on the Relevant Issues Concerning the Specific Application of Laws for the Trial of Robbery Cases (hereinafter referred to as the Interpretations on Robbery) and the Interpretations on the Relevant Issues Concerning the Specific Application of Laws for the Trial of Seizure Cases (hereinafter referred to as the Interpretations on Seizure). However, the criminal cases of robbery and seizure are rather complicated, so the people's courts of all regions still encounter many new situations and problems in the process of trial. In order to apply laws in an accurate and uniform manner, we hereby put forward our opinions on some salient issues concerning the application of laws for the trail of robbery and seizure cases as follows:
 

最高人民法院印发《关于审理抢劫、抢夺刑事案件适用法律若干问题的意见》的通知
(2005年6月8日 法发[2005]8号)


(相关资料:地方法规1篇裁判文书97篇相关论文9篇
各省、自治区、直辖市高级人民法院,解放军军事法院,新疆维吾尔自治区高级人民法院生产建设兵团分院:
现将《最高人民法院关于审理抢劫、抢夺刑事案件适用法律若干问题的意见》印发,供参照执行。执行中有什么问题,请及时报告我院。

最高人民法院关于审理抢劫、


^抢夺刑事案件适用法律若干问题的意见
抢劫、抢夺是多发性的侵犯财产犯罪。1997年刑法修订后,为了更好地指导审判工作,最高人民法院先后发布了《关于审理抢劫案件具体应用法律若干问题的解释》(以下简称《抢劫解释》)和《关于审理抢夺刑事案件具体应用法律若干问题的解释》(以下简称《抢夺解释》)。但是,抢劫、抢夺犯罪案件的情况比较复杂,各地法院在审判过程中仍然遇到了不少新情况、新问题。为准确、统一适用法律,现对审理抢劫、抢夺犯罪案件中较为突出的几个法律适用问题,提出意见如下:

I.Determination of “Intruding into Another Person's Residence to Rob”
According to the provisions of Article 1 of the Interpretations on Robbery, when determining condition “intruding into another person's residence to rob”, we should pay attention to the following points: The first is the range of “residence”. The term “residence” in this context refers to a domicile, the characteristics of which are embodied in two aspects of “a place for the family life of the ‘another person'” and “being comparatively isolated from the outside”. The former is the functionary characteristic and the latter is the locational characteristic. As a general rule, a collective dormitory, hotel or work shed as temporarily built up shall not be deemed as “residence”. However, under some specific circumstances, where a place has the aforesaid characteristics, it may be deemed as “residence”. The second point is that the purpose of “intruding into another person's residence” is illegal. The purpose of intruding into another person's residence shall be to commit such crimes as robbery. Although the act of robbery takes place within the residence, where the actor doesn't intrude into another person's residence on purpose of committing a robbery but only has a temporary idea of robbery therein, it shall not be deemed as “intruding into another person's residence to rob”. The third point is that the violence or violent coercion shall take place indoors. Where anyone is found to intrude into any residence to commit a robbery, and the actor resorts to violence or threatens to use violence on the spot for the purpose of concealing the booty, resisting arrest or destroying the evidence of criminal offence, and if the violence or threat to use violence is committed indoor, it may be deemed as “intruding into another person's residence to rob”. Where the aforesaid act takes place outdoors, it shall not be deemed as “intruding into another person's residence to rob”.
   一、关于“入户抢劫”的认定
根据《抢劫解释》一条规定,认定“入户抢劫”时,应当注意以下三个问题:一是“户”的范围。“户”在这里是指住所,其特征表现为供他人家庭生活和与外界相对隔离两个方面,前者为功能特征,后者为场所特征。一般情况下,集体宿舍、旅店宾馆、临时搭建工棚等不应认定为“户”,但在特定情况下,如果确实具有上述两个特征的,也可以认定为“户”。二是“入户”目的的非法性。进入他人住所须以实施抢劫等犯罪为目的。抢劫行为虽然发生在户内,但行为人不以实施抢劫等犯罪为目的进入他人住所,而是在户内临时起意实施抢劫的,不属于“入户抢劫”。三是暴力或者暴力胁迫行为必须发生在户内。入户实施盗窃被发现,行为人为窝藏赃物、抗拒抓捕或者毁灭罪证而当场使用暴力或者以暴力相威胁的,如果暴力或者暴力胁迫行为发生在户内,可以认定为“入户抢劫”;如果发生在户外,不能认定为“入户抢劫”。
(相关资料:裁判文书7篇
II.Determination of “Robbing on Board the Means of Public Transportation”
The travelers on board the means of public transportation may be an uncertain number of people. According to the provisions of Article 2 of the Interpretations on Robbery, the term “robbing on board the means of public transportation” mainly refers to the robbery of travelers, drivers or conductors or personnel on board of automotive means of public transportation in operation, e.g., all kinds of buses, big or medium sized taxis, trains, vessels and planes that engage in passenger transportation. The act of robbing any driver or conductor on board any big or medium sized means of public transportation that is not in operation or robbing in any small-sized taxi shall not be classified as “robbing on board the means of public transportation”.
   二、关于“在公共交通工具上抢劫”的认定
公共交通工具承载的旅客具有不特定多数人的特点。根据《抢劫解释》二条规定,“在公共交通工具上抢劫”主要是指在从事旅客运输的各种公共汽车、大、中型出租车、火车、船只、飞机等正在运营中的机动公共交通工具上对旅客、司售、乘务人员实施的抢劫。在未运营中的大、中型公共交通工具上针对司售、乘务人员抢劫的,或者在小型出租车上抢劫的,不属于“在公共交通工具上抢劫”。
(相关资料:裁判文书2篇
III.Determination of “Committing Robbery Repeatedly”
The term “committing robbery repeatedly” as prescribed in item (4) of Article 263 of the Criminal Law refers to robbery for no less than three times.
As for the determination of the condition “repeatedly”, we should regard it a precondition that each robbery as committed by an actor has constituted a crime, take into comprehensive consideration such factors as the rise of criminal intent, the time and place of committing the crime so as to analyze and determine it in an objective way. Where an actor commits a crime out of one criminal intent, e.g., committing robbery against several people in a same place at the same time; or where the actor commits robbery repeatedly in a same place, e.g., committing robbery repeatedly to several people that pass by a place; or where he intrudes into several people's residence in a same residential building to rob repeatedly, it shall, as a general rule, be deemed as once offence.
......
   三、关于“多次抢劫”的认定
刑法二百六十三条第(四)项中的“多次抢劫”是指抢劫三次以上。
对于“多次”的认定,应以行为人实施的每一次抢劫行为均已构成犯罪为前提,综合考虑犯罪故意的产生、犯罪行为实施的时间、地点等因素,客观分析、认定。对于行为人基于一个犯意实施犯罪的,如在同一地点同时对在场的多人实施抢劫的;或基于同一犯意在同一地点实施连续抢劫犯罪的,如在同一地点连续地对途经此地的多人进行抢劫的;或在一次犯罪中对一栋居民楼房中的几户居民连续实施入户抢劫的,一般应认定为一次犯罪。
(相关资料:裁判文书7篇
......

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