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UN Climate Action Summit: China's Position and Action [Effective]
联合国气候行动峰会:中方的立场和行动 [现行有效]

UN Climate Action Summit: China's Position and Action 


(2019/09/16) (2019年9月16日)

China appreciates and supports UN Secretary-General Guterres's initiative to hold the UN Climate Action Summit. 中方赞赏和支持联合国秘书长古特雷斯倡议举办联合国气候行动峰会。
China has always attached great importance to addressing climate change. Upholding a national strategy of attaching equal importance to mitigation and adaptation, China has regarded addressing climate change as a great opportunity to achieve high-quality economic development and promote ecological progress. China will continue, as always, to firmly implement the Paris Agreement, fully honor its commitments, promote the establishment of an equitable, rational, and win-win global climate governance mechanism, and work with others to build a community with a shared future for mankind. 中方一贯高度重视应对气候变化工作,坚持减缓和适应并重的国家战略,将其作为实现经济高质量发展、推进生态文明建设的重大机遇。中方将一如既往地落实《巴黎协定》,百分之百兑现承诺,推动构建公平合理、合作共赢的全球气候治理体系,共同构建人类命运共同体。
China firmly upholds multilateralism and has always been an active participant in and defender of the multilateral efforts to address climate change. China takes the position that all parties should earnestly implement the principles and spirit of the UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement, including the principles of equitable, common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances, and execute the institutional arrangement of nationally determined contributions. In particular, the developed countries should implement and strengthen their commitments to providing financial and technological assistance to developing countries, opening markets and carrying out practical technological cooperation, thus creating the basis for mutual trust and important conditions for comprehensive and effective implementation of the Paris Agreement. 中方坚定支持多边主义,一直是气候多边进程的积极参与者和维护者。中方主张各方切实落实《联合国气候变化框架公约》、《京都议定书》和《巴黎协定》的原则和精神,坚持公平、共同但有区别的责任和各自能力原则并考虑各国国情,将“国家自主贡献”制度安排落到实处。特别是发达国家应落实和加强对发展中国家资金和技术支持承诺,开放市场,开展务实技术合作,这是全面有效实施《巴黎协定》的互信基础和重要条件。
As a co-lead of the Nature-Based Solution, China is ready to work together with all parties to help bring about positive outcomes at this Summit, thus injecting robust political impetus into international cooperation on addressing climate change and the implementation of the Paris Agreement. 作为联合国气候行动峰会“基于自然的解决方案”领域共同牵头国,中方愿与各方共同努力,推动这次峰会取得积极成果,为加强应对气候变化国际合作、落实《巴黎协定》注入强劲动力。
1. Nature-Based Solutions   一、基于自然的解决方案
Man and nature form a community of life. Human beings must respect nature, follow its ways, and protect it. As a co-lead of NBS, China actively pushes for all parties to systematically understand the relationship between human beings and nature, fully recognize the ecological value of earth on which human beings live, rely on natural forces to deal with the risks posed by climate change, and foster a low-emission and climate-resilient society. 人与自然是生命共同体,人类必须尊重自然、顺应自然、保护自然。作为“基于自然的解决方案”领域共同牵头国,中方积极推动各方系统理解人与自然的关系,充分认识人类赖以生存地球家园的生态价值,依靠自然的力量应对气候风险,构筑温室气体低排放和气候韧性社会。
China has actively promoted efforts to address climate change in the areas of biodiversity, forestry and grassland, agriculture, oceans and water resources. With regard to biodiversity, ecological red lines are identified to effectively protect biodiversity and mitigate the impact of climate change. In the context of forestry and grassland, we have made solid progress in the nation-wide land greening campaign, and have increased forest, grassland and wetland resources, and enhanced the ecosystem's functions; we have also comprehensively strengthened the conservation of resources, enhanced the prevention and control of disasters, and made concerted efforts to increase carbon sinks. In agriculture, the use of chemical fertilizers has achieved negative growth ahead of schedule, the comprehensive utilization rate of livestock and poultry waste and straws has increased significantly, and biomass energy has developed rapidly. With regard to oceans, we have organized monitoring and assessment on sea level rise, supported blue carbon researches and pilot projects, and carried out marine ecosystems restoration. In the field of water resources, measures for climate change adaptation include improving the flood control, drought relief and disaster mitigation system, optimizing water resources allocation, strengthening the building of a water-saving society, and comprehensively implementing the River&Lake Chief System. 中国在国内积极推动生物多样性保护、林业和草原、农业、海洋、水资源等领域应对气候变化工作。生物多样性保护方面,划定生态红线,有效保护生物多样性,减缓气候变化的不利影响。林业和草原方面,推进大规模国土绿化,增加森林、草原、湿地等资源总量,增强生态系统功能,加强资源保护及灾害防控,协同推进增加碳汇。农业方面,化肥用量提前实现负增长,畜禽粪污、秸秆综合利用水平明显提升,生物质能源快速发展。海洋方面,开展海平面监测评估工作,开展蓝色碳汇研究及试点工作,开展海洋生态修复。水资源方面,完善防洪排涝减灾体系,优化水资源配置,加强节水型社会建设,全面推行河长制湖长制。
China expects all parties to actively support the work in the field of the NBS, participate in the establishment of a Group of Friends for NBS, promote the incorporation of the NBS into the "Global Biodiversity Framework 2020", give full consideration to the potential of natural system in facilitating mitigation and adaptation while making policy decisions on climate change, and take practical actions in the related areas to deepen international and regional cooperation. 中方期待各方积极支持“基于自然解决方案”领域工作,参与建立“基于自然的解决方案之友”,将“基于自然的解决方案”纳入“2020年全球生物多样性框架”,在本国应对气候变化决策中充分考虑自然系统在气候变化减缓和适应等方面的潜力,在相关领域采取切实行动,深化相关国际地区合作。
2. Social & Political Drivers   二、社会和政治驱动
Advancing ecological progress is vital for the sustained development of the Chinese nation. China has made important contributions in the area of climate change by upholding the concept that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets, implementing the basic national policy of protecting the environment, adopting the holistic approach of conserving the mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands, lakes and grasslands as well as the strictest systems for ecological and environmental protection. 中国将生态文明建设作为中华民族永续发展的千年大计,秉持绿水青山就是金山银山理念,坚持保护环境的基本国策,统筹山水林田湖草系统治理,实行最严格生态环境保护制度,为全球应对气候变化作出重要贡献。
China has proposed the Climate Action Targets for 2020 and 2030, implemented China's National Plan on Climate Change (2014-2020), stepped up efforts to establish a legal and policy framework that promotes green production and consumption, fostered a sound economic structure that facilitates green, low-carbon, and circular development, established regulatory agencies to manage state-owned natural resource assets and monitor natural ecosystems, and established an environmental and climate governance system in which government takes the lead, enterprises assume main responsibility, and social organizations and the public also participate. China actively fulfills the commitments on emissions reduction and strengthens climate adaptation. 中国提出2020年和2030年气候行动目标,实施《国家应对气候变化规划(2014-2020年)》,加快建立绿色生产和消费的法律制度和政策导向,建立健全绿色低碳循环发展的经济体系,设立国有自然资产管理和自然生态监管机构,构建政府为主导、企业为主体、社会组织和公众共同参与的环境气候治理体系,积极落实减排承诺,强化气候适应。
When formulating, implementing and assessing climate change policies, programs and projects, China takes the needs, aspirations and roles of women into full consideration, attaches great importance to increasing their voice and encourages their full and equal participation. China continues the campaign to prevent and control air pollution and make our skies blue again. China also carries out the mechanisms of impacts and adaptation of climate change on human health, strengthens the prevention and control of diseases that are closely related to climate change and enhances health emergency protection on climate change. Efforts have been made to relocate employees in the steel and coal industry. Since 2016, more than 1.2 million employees in this industry laid off due to overcapacity have been properly relocated. 中国在制定、实施和评估应对气候变化政策、方案和项目时充分考虑妇女的需求、愿望和作用,重视提升妇女话语权、鼓励妇女充分平等参与。积极推进大气治理,打赢蓝天保卫战,开展气候变化对人类健康的影响及适应机制,加强与气候变化密切相关的疾病防控和气候变化卫生应急保障。做好钢铁、煤炭行业职工分流安置。2016年以来,共妥善分流安置120多万名钢铁煤炭行业去产能职工。
China is willing to work with all parties to strengthen policy support and social policy incentives, strengthen global action to address climate change, and play a positive role in promoting the comprehensive and effective implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Paris Agreement. 中方愿同各方共同努力,加强政策保障和社会政策激励,强化全球应对气候变化行动力度,为推进《联合国气候变化框架公约》和《巴黎协定》全面有效实施发挥积极作用。
3. Youth & Mobilization   三、青年和动员
Young people are the future of a country and should be active champions, participants and promoters of climate efforts. 青年是国家的未来,应成为应对气候变化的积极倡导者、参与者和推动者。
China values, encourages and supports the important role of young people in ecological protection and climate action. We have been actively raising their awareness of ecological civilization and advocating a frugal, moderate, green and low-carbon lifestyle. We have carried out online and offline activities, such as Buy No More Than You Need, Say No To Plastic Bags and Empty Dishes Action. We have launched various promotion activities such as the "Beautiful China, I am an Actor" thematic activity, environmental protection education in school, youth environmental protection cultural festivals, environmental protection competitions, debates and photography contests, with more than 50 million young people participating in these activities in 2018. From 1999 to the end of 2018, by carrying out Mother River Protection Operation,we raised RMB 600 million to build over 5,700 green projects, covering more than 3,467 square kilometers and attracting more than 600 million young people. Through international cooperation, for example, over 98.32 million trees were planted across China and around 20,000 young people overseas participated in the events. China also attaches importance to helping youth environmental protection organizations with their capacity building. In 2018, we cultivated over 20,000 young leaders for youth environmental groups of all levels and established youth environmental protection voluntary teams, tree planting youth teams and environmental protection promotion teams. 中国重视、鼓励和支持广大青少年在生态环保和气候行动中发挥生力军作用,积极引导广大青少年树立生态文明理念,践行简约适度、绿色低碳的生活方式。设计开展线上线下相结合的系列活动,发出“按需消费拒绝浪费”“向塑料袋SAY NO”“光盘行动”等环保倡议,广泛开展“美丽中国行,我是行动者”主题实践活动,以及环保教育进课堂、青年环保文化节、环保公益大赛、环保主题辩论赛、摄影大赛等活动,2018年全年参与青少年超过5000万人次。1999年至2018年底,保护母亲河行动共筹资近6亿元,建设绿化工程5700多个,总面积520多万亩,吸引青少年参与共计6亿人次。其中,通过国际项目合作,在全国各地共植树9832万多株,2万外国青少年来华交流并参与植树活动。中国还高度重视加强青少年生态环保组织能力建设,2018年培育各级青年环保组织骨干共计2万余人,成立青少年生态环保志愿服务队、植树护绿青年突击队、环保宣传队等绿色队伍。
On the occasion of the Climate Action Summit and the Youth Summit, China expects young people and youth organizations around the world to share at the summit their best practices and latest achievements on youth engagement in climate action. We also call on governments to educate young people about environmental protection, listen to the suggestions of the youth, support young people in participating in climate action, and facilitate their employment and entrepreneurship in related areas. 中方期待以气候行动峰会和青年峰会为契机,与各国青年和青年组织分享青年参与气候行动的良好实践和最新成果,呼吁各国政府加强青少年环保教育,更多倾听青年建议,支持青年参与气候行动,促进青年绿色就业、绿色创业。
4. Energy Transition   四、能源转型
As the world's largest renewable energy producer and consumer, China pays high attention to the important effects of energy transition on tackling climate change and vigorously promotes energy transition. China promotes energy consumption revolution, energy supply revolution, energy technology revo1ution, energy system revolution, and all-round energy security strategy in enhancing international cooperation, so as to make positive contributions to global climate change mitigation and adaptation. 中国是世界上最大的可再生能源生产和消费国,高度重视能源转型对应对气候变化的重要作用,积极推动能源发展转型,提出推动能源消费革命、供给革命、技术革命、体制革命、全方位加强国际合作的能源安全新战略,为气候变化减缓和适应做出积极贡献。
China adheres to building a cleaner and lower carbon energy system, promoting renewable energy development, prioritizing energy conservation, implementing the dual cap policies (total energy consumption cap and energy intensity cap) during the 13th Five-Year Plan period (2016-2020), and upgrading clean energy equipment manufacturing technologies. In 2018, China's total installed power capacity of renewables exceeded 728 GW, including 352 GW of hydropower, 184 GW of wind power and 174 GW of solar PV. Clean energy accounted for 22.1% in the total energy consumption mix, or 7.6 percentage point higher than that of 2012. Coal accounted for about 59% in the total energy consumption mix, or 9.5 percentage point lower than that of 2012. The installed capacity of non-fossil power accounted for nearly 40% of the total installed capacity, and the power generation of non-fossil energy accounted for 30% of the total power generation. Energy intensity (energy consumption per unit of GDP) was cumulatively 23% lower than that of 2012. The power supply coal consumption of China's coal-fired power units with a capacity of or over 6,000 kW was 308 gce per kWh, or 17 gce lower than that of 2012. By 2018, China had phased out more than 800 million tons of coal production capacity. In recent years, China has closed down over 110 GW of small coal-fired power units with high pollution and low efficiency. 中国坚持能源清洁低碳的发展方向,大力发展可再生能源,坚持节约优先,落实“十三五”能耗总量和碳排放强度“双控”制度,推动清洁能源装备制造技术不断升级。2018年,全国可再生能源发电装机突破7.28亿千瓦,其中水电、风电、光伏发电装机分别达到3.52亿、1.84亿和1.74亿千瓦。清洁能源消费比重约22.1%,比2012年提高7.6个百分点。煤炭消费比重约59%,比2012年下降9.5个百分点。非化石能源发电装机占比约40%,发电量占比接近30%。单位GDP能耗较2012年累计下降23%,全国6000千瓦及以上火电机组供电煤耗每千瓦时308克标准煤,比2012年下降17克标准煤。截至2018年,累计退出煤炭产能8亿吨以上。近年来,累计关停高污染、高能耗的小火电机组1.1亿千瓦以上。
In the coming future, Chins will continue to enhance cooperation with other countries in the energy field to build a clean, low carbon, safe and efficient energy system together, to promote sustainable energy development worldwide and to safeguard global energy security. 中方愿同各国加强能源领域合作,共同构建清洁低碳、安全高效的能源体系,促进全球能源可持续发展,维护全球能源安全。
5. Industrial Transformation   五、来自北大法宝工业转型
China attaches great importance to the positive role of the industrial sector in combating climate change. It has clearly identified the approaches, objectives and tasks for the industrial sector to tackle climate change and vigorously promotes green and low carbon transformation of the sector. 中国高度重视工业转型对应对气候变化的积极作用,明确了工业领域应对气候变化的思路、目标和任务,大力推动工业绿色低碳转型发展。
China has been active in strengthening industrial energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Official recommendation has been released on 728 industrial energy-saving technologies and pieces of equipment together with efforts to promote their application for higher energy efficiency. A total of 715 industrial energy efficiency and green standards have been developed. Supervision on industrial energy efficiency is strengthened, and businesses are urged to implement mandatory energy-saving standards. Vigorous actions have been taken to develop low-carbon industries, including energy-saving and new-energy vehicle industry. By June 2019, the new energy fleet in China reached 3.44 million vehicles while photovoltaic, wind power and other new energy equipment became internationally comparable. Active efforts have also been made to enable a production pattern featuring intensive layout of factories, hazard-free raw materials, clean production, recyclable waste, low-carbon energy and green industries and to build a green manufacturing system with 800 green factories, 79 green industrial campuses, 40 model enterprises for green supply chain management, and 726 kinds of green designed products. From 2016 to 2018, energy consumption per unit of industrial added value by enterprises above designated scale nationwide dropped by over 13%, saving an equivalent of 400 million tons of standard coal while reducing 1 billion tons of CO2 emission. 中国积极强化工业节能,减少温室气体排放,发布728项国家推荐工业节能技术装备,推广高效节能技术装备应用,研究制定715项工业节能与绿色标准,加强工业节能监察工作力度,督促企业执行强制性节能标准。大力发展低碳产业,推动节能与新能源汽车产业发展。截至2019年6月,全国新能源汽车保有量达344万辆,光伏、风电等新能源装备达到国际水平。努力推动形成厂房集约化、原料无害化、生产洁净化、废物资源化、能源低碳化、产业绿色化的生产方式,构建绿色制造体系,建设800家绿色工厂、79家绿色园区和40家绿色供应链管理示范企业,发布726种绿色设计产品。2016年至2018年,全国规模以上企业单位工业增加值能耗累计下降超过13%,实现节能量约4亿吨标准煤,减排二氧化碳约10亿吨。
China stands ready to work with all parities to accelerate green and low-carbon transformation, promote green manufacturing comprehensively, further innovate green technologies and enhance industrial energy efficiency and carbon reduction so that the industrial sector can be more empowered to address climate change. 中方愿同各方一道,加快绿色低碳转型发展,全面推行绿色制造,推进绿色技术创新,加强工业节能降碳,增强工业应对气候变化能力。
6. Infrastructure, Cities and Local Action   六、基础设施、城市和地方行动
Taking climate action, energy conservation and emission reduction as important components of building a beautiful China and beautiful cities, China makes great efforts to accelerate the building of climate adaptive cities, promote sponge city development, ecological restoration and urban renovation, increase urban greenways and public parks, enhance climate change mitigation in buildings and energy conservation and emission reduction in the urban development sector, and improve residential building energy-saving standards and energy-saving levels for buildings. By the end of 2018, a total of 538 cities made special plans for building a "sponge city" , and more than 4,900 projects were completed in 30 pilot sponge cities, which played an important role in flood control and mitigation of damages caused extreme weather, and a total of 56,000 kilometers of greenways and 7,240,000 hectares of park green land were built in China. The living environment in urban areas has been greatly improved. 中国把应对气候变化和节能减排作为建设美丽中国、美丽城市的重要内容。加快气候适应型城市建设,推动海绵城市建设,大力推进生态修复、城市修补工作,增加城市绿道和公园绿地,推动建筑减缓气候变化和城市建设领域节能减排,完善居住建筑节能标准,提高建筑节能水平。截至2018年底,中国共有538个城市编制海绵城市建设专项规划,30个海绵城市试点完成建设4900余个项目,在缓解内涝灾害、减少极端天气造成的损失方面发挥了明显作用。全国共建有绿道5.6万公里和公园绿地72.4万公顷,城市人居环境大幅提高。
China actively strengthens local action to address climate change, and develops low carbon pilot projects in provinces and cities. According to the development stages, resource endowments and progress in ecological protection, China categorizes the target of carbon emission in each province, establishing related mechanism to ensure the realization of the goal. China incorporates low-carbon development into the system of poverty alleviation and formulates differential support policies and evaluation index systems to support low-carbon development in poor areas. 中国积极加强应对气候变化地方行动,开展低碳省市试点。根据各地发展阶段、资源禀赋、生态环保等因素,分类确定各省碳强度下降目标,并建立相应体制机制,确保目标落实。将低碳发展纳入扶贫开发目标任务体系,制定支持贫困地区低碳发展的差别化扶持政策和评价指标体系。
China formulates the environmental protection standards and norms of infrastructure construction. Taking green development as a key component of the Belt and Road Initiative, China strengthens the guarantee for ecological environment quality, improves service and support for ecological and environmental protection of major "Belt and Road" infrastructure projects. China also promotes energy-saving and environmental protection standards and practices in industries like green transportation, green building and clean energy. 中国制定基础设施建设环保标准和规范,把绿色作为共建“一带一路”的底色,强化生态环境质量保障,加大对“一带一路”重大基础设施项目的生态环保服务与支持,推广绿色交通、绿色建筑、清洁能源等行业节能环保标准和实践。
Guided by the vision of green development, China looks forward to strengthening cooperation and sharing of experience with other countries in fields of local climate action, green infrastructure development, and climate adaptive cities development, and meet the challenge of climate change through concerted efforts. 中方期待与各国以绿色发展为引领,在地方气候行动、绿色基础设施建设、气候适应型城市发展等领域深化合作,分享有益经验,共同应对气候变化挑战。
7. Mitigation Strategy   七、主要排放者战略
China attaches great importance to addressing climate change and takes green and low-carbon development as an important part of the efforts to advance ecological progress. China makes significant contributions to global climate action. 中国高度重视应对气候变化工作,把绿色低碳发展作为生态文明建设的重要内容,为全球气候行动作出重要贡献。
China takes the targets of emission intensity reduction, forest coverage and stock volume as binding indicators, and has incorporated them into the five-year plan for national economic and social development and delegated the tasks for local implementation. In recent years, China's carbon emission intensity has continued to decline. By the end of 2018, its carbon emission intensity had decreased by 45.8% compared with the level in 2005, basically reversing the rapid growth of greenhouse gas emissions. The forest coverage rate reached 22.96% and the forest stock volume increased by 4.56 billion cubic meters over the level in 2005. From 2016 to 2018, China's energy consumption per unit of GDP decreased by 11.35%, saving about 540 million tons of standard coal equivalent. This laid a solid foundation for the realization of the targets of the 13th Five-Year Plan on controlling greenhouse gas emissions and the 2030 targets of our nationally determined contributions. 中国将碳排放强度下降、森林覆盖率和蓄积量等目标作为约束性指标,纳入国民经济和社会发展五年规划并分解到地方落实。近年来,中国碳排放强度持续下降。截至2018年底,碳排放强度比2005年累计下降45.8%,基本扭转了温室气体排放快速增长的局面。森林覆盖率达22.96%,森林蓄积量比2005年增加45.6亿立方米。2016-2018年,中国单位GDP能耗累计降低11.35%,节约能源约5.4亿吨标准煤,为落实“十三五”控制温室气体排放目标和2030年国家自主贡献奠定坚实基础。
China has carried out national low carbon pilot projects in 6 provinces and 81 cities. We actively carry out pilot projects in low-carbon industrial parks, low-carbon cities (towns) and low-carbon communities. We also promote the implementation of demonstration projects in near-zero carbon emission areas and explore low-carbon development paths. At present, 73 pilot provinces and cities have proposed their peaking targets. The pilot provinces have accelerated the use of low-carbon technologies to upgrade traditional industries, popularized green low-carbon products, promoted local economic quality and efficiency, and enhanced the level of green development. 中国在6省、81市开展国家低碳省市试点,积极开展低碳工业园区、低碳城(镇)、低碳社区试点工作,推动实施近零碳排放区示范工程,探索低碳发展路径。目前,已有73个试点省市提出峰值年份目标,试点省市加快运用低碳技术改造提升传统产业,推广绿色低碳产品,推动地方经济提质增效,提升绿色发展水平。
China is willing to strengthen its communication with all other parties in the implementation of nationally determined contributions and the formulation of mid-to- long term climate strategy. We will also deepen practical cooperation in the aspects of standard system for greenhouse gas emissions control and capacity building, and jointly promote the green and low-carbon transition of the economic and social development . 中方愿同各方在国家自主贡献实施、中长期气候战略制定等领域加强交流,深化控制温室气体排放的标准体系、能力建设等方面务实合作,共同推动经济社会发展向绿色低碳转型。
8. Resilience & Adaptation   八、韧性与适应
China attaches importance to both mitigation and adaptation. The National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy has been formulated as part of the efforts to actively adapt to climate change. Based on the people-oriented principle, China has strengthened technological support, integrated adaptation into economic and social development and comprehensively strengthened adaptation actions in climate-sensitive and vulnerable areas and for relevant regions and groups, thus thoroughly improving public awareness of adaptation, and enhancing resilience and adaptability. 中国强调减缓与适应并重,制定《国家适应气候变化战略》,积极采取适应气候变化行动。坚持以人为本,加强科技支撑,将适应气候变化的要求与经济社会发展相统筹,强化气候敏感脆弱领域、区域和人群的适应行动,全面提高全社会适应意识,提升适应能力。
China has actively strengthened disaster and risk management, improved the monitoring, early warning and emergency system for major infrastructure-related disasters, made sound plans for construction and protection of urban lifeline systems, strengthened agricultural monitoring, early warning and disaster prevention and reduction measures, improved the adaptability of the planting industry, and provided farmers with more on adaptation technologies. China has also strengthened its water resources protection and soil erosion control, built a water-saving society and improved flood control and disaster relief systems. China has rationally planned offshore development activities and strengthened coastal ecological restoration, vegetation protection and marine disaster monitoring and early warning. China has formulated the Action Plan for Forestry to Adapt to Climate Change (2016-2020), which aims to strengthen the sustainable management of forests, effectively control forest disasters, promote a virtuous cycle of grassland ecology, improve the network of nature reserves, and strengthen ecological protection and governance. China has formulated the Action Plan for Urban Adaptation to Climate Change, and carried out pilot projects in 28 cities. In 2018, as one of the sponsors, China set up the Global Adaptation Committee and supported the launch of Global Adaptation Center's China Office to actively promote international cooperation on climate change adaptation. 中国积极加强灾害风险管理,完善重大基础设施灾害监测预警和应急系统,科学规划建设和保障城市生命线系统运行。加强农业监测预警和防灾减灾措施,提高种植业适应能力,加强农民适应技术培训。加强水资源保护和水土流失治理,建设节水型社会,健全防汛抗灾体系。合理规划涉海开发活动,加强沿海生态修复、植被保护和海洋灾害监测预警。制定《林业适应气候变化行动方案(2016-2020年)》,加强森林可持续经营管理,有效控制森林灾害,促进草原生态良性循环,完善自然保护区网络,加强生态保护和治理。制定《城市适应气候变化行动方案》,在28个城市开展气候适应型城市建设试点。2018年共同发起成立全球适应委员会并支持全球适应中心建立中国办公室,积极推动适应气候变化国际合作。
China will keep on its actions in strengthening climate adaptation and expand the relative international cooperation. It will continue policy communications with all stakeholders in climate change adaptation in order to build a climate adaptive society together. 中方将继续积极强化气候适应行动,推动相关国际合作,与各方在适应气候变化领域加强政策交流,携手共建气候适应型社会。
9. Climate Finance & Carbon Pricing   九、气候融资与碳价
Climate finance is one of the mayor aspects of effective tackling of climate change. As the largest developing country, China is also entitled to funds support. China urges the developed countries to honor the commitment of US$ 100 billion allocation each year from 2020 on to support the developing world in addressing climate change. 气候融资是有效应对气候变化的关键问题之一。中国作为最大的发展中国家,亦享有资金受助权。中方敦促发达国家履行到2020年每年动员1000亿美元的资金承诺,为发展中国家应对气候变化提供支持。
China focuses on its goal of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions to actively guide and promote the flow of more capital toward climate action. China is enthusiastically deepening its pragmatic cooperation with multilateral institutions including the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank and promoting the climate financing activities of institutions such as the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, the Silk Road Fund and Chinese banks, and helping the participating countries of the Belt and Road Initiative to gain a win-win outcome in terms of both addressing climate change and embracing economic growth. 中国聚焦国家自主贡献目标,积极引导和促进更多资金投向气候行动。积极深化与世界银行、亚洲开发银行等多边机构务实合作,并推动亚洲基础设施投资银行、丝路基金、中资银行等机构开展气候投融资活动,帮助共建“一带一路”参与国家实现应对气候变化和发展双赢。
China will implement the carbon emission trading system as one of the major policies for greenhouse gas emission control, promote low-carbon development, and carry out the exploration for pilot of trading quota carbon emission right. By June 2019, 7 pilot regions had seen a total trading quota of about 330 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent or around RMB 7.1 billion yuan. Major emitters in pilot regions show a high compliance rate as a whole and the pilot regions see a tendency of reduction both in total carbon emission and in carbon intensity. 中国将推行碳排放权交易作为控制温室气体排放重要政策,积极促进低碳发展,开展碳排放权交易试点探索实践。截至2019年6月,7个碳排放权交易试点地区配额累计成交量约3.3亿吨二氧化碳当量,累计成交额约71亿元人民币。试点地区重点排放单位整体履约率保持较高水平,试点范围内碳排放总量和碳强度保持双降趋势。
China will continue to make contribution to global climate financing to the best of its ability and promote the fostering of a national carbon market. China will strengthen its exchanges and cooperation with various parties in terms of policies and rules of carbon market development, quota management, and capacity building. China is willing to work with various parties to complete the negotiations on market mechanisms and non-market mechanisms as mentioned in Article VI of the Paris Agreement, at the Santiago UN Climate Change Conference. 中国将继续为全球气候融资作出力所能及的贡献,并继续推进全国碳排放权交易市场建设,加强同各方在碳市场建设政策规则、配额管理、能力建设等方面交流合作。中方愿同各方一道努力,推动联合国气候变化圣地亚哥大会完成《巴黎协定》第六条市场机制和非市场机制谈判。
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