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Ecological Progress on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
青藏高原生态文明建设状况
【法宝引证码】

Ecological Progress on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

 

青藏高原生态文明建设状况

(State Council information Office of the People's Republic of China) 中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室
July 2018 2018年7月

Contents 目录
Preamble 前言
I. An Improving System for Ensuring Ecological Progress 一、生态文明制度逐步健全
II. Prominent Progress in Ecosystem Conservation 二、生态保育成效显著
III. Steady Improvement of Environmental Quality 三、环境质量持续稳定
IV. Steady Development of Green Industry 四、绿色产业稳步发展
V. Sci-tech Support System Is in Place 五、科技支撑体系基本建立
VI. A Developing Culture That Values Ecological Awareness 六、生态文化逐渐形成
Conclusion 结束语
Preamble 前言
Located in Southwest China, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau covers the entire Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai Province, in addition to parts of Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu and Xinjiang. It is about 2.6 million sq km in area and most of it lies at an altitude of more than 4,000 m above sea level. Hailed as the “roof of the world”, the “third pole” and the “water tower of Asia”, the Plateau is a natural habitat for rare animals and a gene pool of plateau life. It is a key eco-safety barrier in China and Asia, and a focus of China's drive to promote ecological progress. 青藏高原位于中国西南部,包括西藏和青海两省区全部,以及四川、云南、甘肃和新疆等四省区部分地区,总面积约260万平方公里,大部分地区海拔超过4000米。青藏高原被誉为“世界屋脊”“地球第三极”“亚洲水塔”,是珍稀野生动物的天然栖息地和高原物种基因库,是中国乃至亚洲重要的生态安全屏障,是中国生态文明建设的重点地区之一。
The Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Chinese government have always valued ecological progress. Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping as its core has laid down ecological progress as a cornerstone for sustainable development of the Chinese nation, and made it one of the integral components of the development strategy for Chinese socialism together with economic, political, cultural, and social progress. China is striving to raise the awareness that “clear waters and green mountains are invaluable assets” and to put it into practice. We will value the ecological environment as we value our lives, and we will continue to pursue green development and build a beautiful China. 中国共产党和中国政府高度重视生态文明建设。中国共产党第十八次全国代表大会以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央,视建设生态文明为中华民族永续发展的根本大计,将生态文明建设与经济、政治、文化与社会建设一起纳入中国特色社会主义事业“五位一体”总体布局。中国大力树立和践行绿水青山就是金山银山的理念,像对待生命一样对待生态环境,坚持走文明发展之路,努力建设美丽中国。
Ecological progress on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has a vital bearing on sustainable growth in the region and environmental protection in China and around the globe. The CPC and the Chinese government have taken ecological conservation as a top priority, and protection of the Plateau as a vital task for China's survival and development. Now a system in this regard is being improved step by step on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, with solid achievements in improving ecological conservation and environment quality. Steady growth has been witnessed in the local green industry with a system of technological support in place, and an eco-culture is taking shape to showcase the Plateau's exemplary role in ecological development. 青藏高原生态文明建设,对推动高原可持续发展、促进中国和全球生态环境保护有着十分重要的影响。中国共产党和中国政府坚持生态保护第一,将保护好青藏高原生态作为关系中华民族生存和发展的大事。目前,青藏高原生态文明制度逐步健全,生态保育成效明显,环境质量稳定良好,绿色产业稳步发展,科技支撑体系基本建立,生态文化逐渐形成,青藏高原生态文明建设示范作用正在显现。
I. An Improving System for Ensuring Ecological Progress   一、生态文明制度逐步健全
As China advances in environmental conservation, it is also improving its ecology-related policies and regulations for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to form an increasingly complete system for ensuring ecological progress. 随着国家生态文明建设的不断推进,青藏高原生态文明建设相关政策和法规日益完善,高原生态文明制度体系逐步健全。
Ecology-related laws and regulations have been improved. 生态文明建设法律法规逐步完善
In recent years China has enacted, amended or revised the following laws: Environmental Protection Law of the People's Republic of China, Atmospheric Pollution Prevention and Control Law of the People's Republic of China, Water Pollution Prevention and Control Law of the People's Republic of China, Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Environment Pollution Caused by Solid Wastes, Environmental Protection Tax Law of the People's Republic of China, Law of the People's Republic of China on Environmental Impact Assessment, Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Wildlife, Water Law of the People's Republic of China, Meteorology Law of the People's Republic of China, and Grassland Law of the People's Republic of China. 近年来,国家制定或修改了《中华人民共和国环境保护法》《中华人民共和国大气污染防治法》《中华人民共和国水污染防治法》《中华人民共和国固体废物污染环境防治法》《中华人民共和国环境保护税法》《中华人民共和国环境影响评价法》《中华人民共和国野生动物保护法》《中华人民共和国水法》《中华人民共和国气象法》《中华人民共和国草原法》等。这些法律的制定和实施,为青藏高原生态环境保护与区域社会经济发展提供了重要的法律制度保障。
The promulgation and implementation of these laws has provided a legal guarantee for protecting the ecological environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and boosting regional socio-economic development. 2015年,《中共中央国务院关于加快推进生态文明建设的意见》和《生态文明体制改革总体方案》发布,提出生态文明建设和生态文明体制改革的总体要求、目标愿景、重点任务和制度体系,明确了路线图和时间表。目前,中国已建立起覆盖全国的主体功能区制度和资源环境管理制度,中央环保督察实现了31个省区市全覆盖,对省以下环保机构监测监察执法实行垂直管理,并全面实行河长制、湖长制及控制污染物排放许可制。开展按流域设置环境监管和行政执法机构试点,增强流域环境监管和行政执法合力,实现流域环境保护统一规划、统一标准、统一环评、统一监测、统一执法。确立生态文明建设目标评价考核、领导干部自然资源资产离任审计等监督机制,形成环保职责明确、追究严格的责任制度链条,落实“党政同责”“一岗双责”。推动建立生态保护红线制度,制定自然资源统一确权登记、自然生态空间用途管制办法和全民所有自然资源资产有偿使用制度改革的指导意见,推进“多规合一”、国家公园体制等试点。健全生态保护补偿机制,设置跨地区环保机构生态环境损害赔偿制度改革试点。
Two documents were issued in 2015, and they were the Opinions of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on Accelerating Ecological Progress, and the General Plan for Reforming the System for Ecological Conservation, laying out the overall requirements, prospected goals, key tasks, and institutional arrangements to ensure ecological progress and reform the ecological sector, complete with a roadmap and timetable. To date, China has established a nationwide system of main functional areas and a resource-environment administration system. The central supervisory mechanism for environmental protection covers all 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government, with the central environment watchdog directly overseeing the activities of environmental protection organs below provincial level, such as those commissioned for environmental monitoring, inspection, and law enforcement. It has also put in place a “river and lake chief” system – where selected local Party and government officials ensure their assigned rivers and lakes are free from pollution – and a licensing mechanism for controlling pollutant discharge. China has run pilot programs to carry out river basin-related environment monitoring and law enforcement, in order to strengthen supervision in different river basins and boost synergistic law enforcement, and to have unified planning, standards, assessment, monitoring, and law enforcement activities within the same basins. To assess the performance of officials in providing leadership to ecological conservation, China has set up an ecological goal appraisal system, and a supervisory system for auditing the natural resource assets when a relevant official leaves office. In this way, a clear-cut and rigorous liability mechanism has been put in place so that both Party and government officials take responsibility for environmental protection, and they both fulfill official duties and uphold clean governance. The state has set red lines for ecological conservation, and put in force unified registration of natural resource rights, measures for managing natural and ecological space, and guidelines on reforming paid use of natural resource assets owned by the whole people. Different regulations and measures have been integrated for simplification, and pilot programs on state parks have been rolled out. China has improved its ecological compensation mechanism, and run trials to reform the ecological damage compensation system coordinated between cross-regional environmental protection institutions. 与此同时,西藏、青海、四川、甘肃、云南等省区结合高原实际,制定了与生态文明建设相关的地方性法规和实施办法。西藏自治区制定了《关于着力构筑国家重要生态安全屏障 加快推进生态文明建设的实施意见》《关于建设美丽西藏的意见》《西藏自治区环境保护考核办法》等。青海省制定了《青海省生态文明制度建设总体方案》《青海省生态文明建设促进条例》《青海省创建全国生态文明先行区行动方案》等。四川省制定了《四川省自然保护区管理条例》等。甘肃省制定了《甘肃祁连山国家级自然保护区管理条例》等。云南省制定了《迪庆州“两江”流域生态安全屏障保护与建设规划》《滇西北生物多样性保护行动计划》等。青藏高原诸省区生态文明制度体系基本形成。
Each taking into account their local geographical conditions, Tibet, Qinghai, Sichuan, Gansu and Yunnan have formulated their own regulations and measures regarding ecological conservation. The Tibet Autonomous Region issued the Opinions on Building an Important National Barrier for Ecological Security and Accelerating Ecological Progress, Opinions on Building a Beautiful Tibet, and Measures of Tibet Autonomous Region on Environmental Conservation Appraisal. Qinghai Province released the General Plan of Qinghai Province on Developing a System for Ecological Progress, Regulations of Qinghai Province on Promoting Ecological Progress, and Action Plan of Qinghai Province on Pioneering an Ecological Model. Sichuan issued the Regulations of Sichuan Province on the Management of Nature Reserves; Gansu, the Regulations on the Management of Qilian Mountain State Nature Reserve; and Yunnan, the Plan on the Protection of the Two Rivers Ecological Barrier in Deqen Prefecture and Action Plan on the Protection of Biodiversity in Northwest Yunnan. Through these efforts a system has been established in all relevant provinces and autonomous regions to ensure ecological progress on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. 自然保护地体系初步建立
A system of protected natural areas has been set up. 自然保护地体系是保护生物多样性、维护自然资本和生态系统服务、保障国家乃至全球民众福祉的重要管理手段。目前,青藏高原自然保护地体系正在由以自然保护区为主体向以国家公园为主体转变。
The system of protected natural areas is an important means of management to protect biodiversity, preserve natural capital, maintain ecosystem services, and safeguard the wellbeing of Chinese people and the peoples of the world. Currently the protected natural areas on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are more and more composed of national parks than of nature reserves. 1963年,青藏高原第一个国家级自然保护区(现白水江国家级自然保护区)成立。1994年《中华人民共和国自然保护区条例》颁布实施后,明确了自然保护区等级体系、管理机构和功能区,青藏高原的自然保护区建设进入快速稳定发展阶段。目前,青藏高原已经建成各级自然保护区155个(其中国家级41个、省级64个),面积达82.24万平方公里,约占高原总面积的31.63%,占中国陆地自然保护区总面积的57.56%,基本涵盖了高原独特和脆弱生态系统及珍稀物种资源。
In 1963, the Plateau delineated its first state nature reserve (now the Baishuijiang State Nature Reserve). The Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Nature Reserves, promulgated in 1994, defined the ranking system, the management structure and the function zones of nature reserves, ushering in a period of rapid development of nature reserves on the Plateau. To date, the Plateau has established in total 155 nature reserves at all levels (41 state and 64 provincial ones), covering a total area of 822,400 sq km. This is equivalent to 31.63 percent of the Plateau's landmass and represents 57.56 percent of China's land nature reserve areas. Basically, all of the Plateau's unique and fragile ecosystems and rare species can be found in these reserves. 随着生态文明体制改革的深入推进,中国政府提出建立以国家公园为主体的自然保护地体系。2016年,国家正式批准《三江源国家公园体制试点方案》,这是中国第一个国家公园体制改革试点,核心是实现三江源重要自然生态资源国家所有、全民共享、世代传承。青海省制定了《三江源国家公园条例(试行)》,从公园本底调查、保护对象、产权制度、资产负债表、生物多样性保护、生态环境监测、文化遗产保护、生态补偿、防灾减灾、检验检疫等方面对公园管理做出明确规定。2018年1月,国家发展改革委印发《三江源国家公园总体规划》,进一步明确了三江源国家公园建设的基本原则、总体布局、功能定位和管理目标等。三江源国家公园建设将为青藏高原及周边地区的绿色发展发挥引领和示范作用。
As China reforms its system for ecological progress, the government has issued a directive to establish a system of protected natural areas, with state parks as the main element. In 2016, the state ratified the Plan for the Trial Run of the State Park at Sanjiangyuan (literally, source of three large rivers), the first pilot reform program to introduce state parks in China. The core aim is to make sure that the ecological resources of the Sanjiangyuan area, where the headwaters of the Yangtze River, Yellow River and Lancang River converge, are owned by the state, shared by the people, and passed down to future generations. The Regulations of Sanjiangyuan State Park (Trial), issued by Qinghai Province, defines clear provisions on the parks' management in terms of background survey, targets of protection, ownership structure, assets and liabilities, biodiversity preservation, environmental monitoring, cultural legacy protection, ecological compensation, disaster prevention and reduction, and inspection and quarantine. In January 2018, the National Development and Reform Commission released the Overall Plan of Sanjiangyuan State Park, which further clarified the principles of running the park, its layout, functions, and management targets. The park will serve as a role model to guide green development on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and in surrounding areas. 生态补偿制度得到确立
An ecological compensation mechanism is in place. 生态补偿制度是国家保护生态环境的重要举措。国家在青藏高原建立了重点生态功能区转移支付、森林生态效益补偿、草原生态保护补助奖励、湿地生态效益补偿等生态补偿机制。2008-2017年,中央财政分别下达青海、西藏两省区重点生态功能区转移支付资金162.89亿元和83.49亿元,补助范围涉及两省区77个重点生态县域和所有国家级禁止开发区。
The ecological compensation mechanism is an important step taken by the state to protect the environment. In the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau region, China has initiated a series of ecological compensation mechanisms, including transfer payments to key ecological function zones, forest ecological benefit compensation, grassland ecological protection subsidy and reward, and wetland ecological benefit compensation. In 2008-2017, the central government made transfer payments of RMB16.29 billion and RMB8.35 billion to the key ecological function zones in Qinghai and Tibet, covering 77 key counties and all areas prohibited to development by the state. “十五”(2001-2005年)以来,西藏自治区获得国家下达的森林、草原、湿地、重点生态功能区等各类生态补偿资金累计达316亿元。其中,“十二五”(2011-2015年)期间,国家累计下达西藏草原生态保护补助奖励资金108.8亿元。2015年以来,自治区探索建立野生动物肇事补偿机制,投入8500万元帮助牧民减轻因野生动物肇事带来的损失。
Since the 10th Five-year Plan period (2001-2005), Tibet Autonomous Region has received RMB31.6 billion in ecological compensation for its forests, grasslands, wetlands, and key ecological function zones. During the 12th Five-year Plan period (2011-2015), the state paid a total of RMB10.9 billion to Tibet in grassland conservation subsidy and rewards. Since 2015, the autonomous region has been experimenting with a compensation program for damage caused by wildlife, mitigating herdsmen's losses to a total amount of RMB85 million. 国家对青海省生态建设投入力度不断加大。2013年起,中央财政累计安排资金164亿元,陆续实施了草原、森林和湿地等生态效益补偿类项目。为实现生态保护和脱贫有机结合,青海省推出生态公益管护员制度,每年安排补助资金8.8亿元。“十二五”以来,青海省有62.23万户农牧民住房得到改善,162.4万人喝上洁净水,65万无电人口用上可靠电,人民生活水平得到较大改善。云南省迪庆州自2009年起实施公益林生态效益补偿制度,至2017年国家累计补助资金达11.03亿元。2017年,四川省甘孜州和阿坝州有效管护集体公益林分别为128.23万公顷和69.60万公顷,公益林森林生态效益年度补偿资金分别为2.84亿元和1.54亿元。
Funds to encourage ecological progress in Qinghai Province have been increased. Since 2013, the central government has allotted a total of RMB16.4 billion in ecological compensation for grasslands, forests and wetlands in Qinghai. To integrate conservation and poverty reduction, Qinghai has initiated a public ranger program to monitor the environment, with an annual subsidy of RMB880 million. Since the 12th Five-year Plan period the state has helped 622,300 farming and herding households in Qinghai to obtain better housing, provided clean drinking water to 1.6 million people, and ensured reliable power access to 650,000 people. This represents a considerable improvement of quality of life. In Deqen Prefecture of Yunnan Province, an ecological compensation mechanism for public benefit forests has been in place since 2009, receiving a total of RMB1.1 billion in state subsidies by 2017. In 2017, Ganzi Prefecture of Sichuan Province had 1,282,300 ha of public benefit forests under effective protection and received RMB284 million in ecological compensation; the corresponding figures for Aba Prefecture were 696,000 ha and RMB154 million. 
II. Prominent Progress in Ecosystem Conservation   二、生态保育成效显著
Since the 1960s, and especially over the last three decades, the Chinese government has put in place various ecosystem conservation projects, including wildlife protection and nature reserve development, the construction of key shelter forests, natural forest conservation, returning farmland to forest and grassland, restoring grazing land to grassland, water and soil conservation, and wetland conservation and restoration. The Tibet Autonomous Region has implemented a project for the protection and construction of an eco-safety barrier, and a project for afforestation in the basins of the Yarlung Tsangpo, Nujiang, Lhasa, Nyangchu, Yalong, and Shiquan rivers. Qinghai Province implemented a project for the conservation and restoration of the Qilian Mountain ecosystem, composed of mountains, rivers, forest, farmland, lakes, and grassland, a project for the conservation and comprehensive improvement of the Qinghai Lake ecosystem, and a project for the ecological conservation and construction of Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve. In 2011, the Chinese government issued and implemented the Plan for Regional Ecological Construction and Environmental Protection on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2011-2030). A number of eco-projects have been implemented, achieving positive results in ecosystem conservation, bringing under control the degradation of the local ecosystem, restoring the biodiversity, and the ecological functions of several regions where key eco-projects were implemented have been comprehensively improved. 20世纪60年代以来,特别是90年代以来,中国政府在青藏高原部署了类型多样的生态保育工程,包括野生动植物保护及自然保护区建设、重点防护林体系建设、天然林资源保护、退耕还林还草、退牧还草、水土流失治理以及湿地保护与恢复等。西藏自治区实施了生态安全屏障保护与建设工程和“两江四河”(雅鲁藏布江、怒江、拉萨河、年楚河、雅砻河、狮泉河)流域造林绿化工程等。青海省实施了祁连山“山水林田湖草”生态保护修复工程、青海湖流域生态环境保护与综合治理工程、三江源生态保护和建设等重点生态工程。2011年,《青藏高原区域生态建设与环境保护规划(2011-2030年)》颁布实施。一系列生态建设工程的实施在生态保育方面取得了积极效果,生态系统退化的趋势得到控制,生物多样性持续恢复,一些重点生态工程区的生态功能全面好转。
...... 生态退化得到有效控制
 高寒草地是青藏高原最主要的生态系统类型,发挥着重要的生态安全屏障功能,也是高原畜牧业的基础。由于气候变化和超载过牧等原因,高寒草地不断退化,至20世纪80年代中期,西藏自治区和青海省的草地面积为82万平方公里。此后,随着退牧还草、草原生态保护补助奖励政策以及草原鼠虫害防治等一系列草地生态保护建设工程的陆续实施,青藏高原草地保育成效逐步显现。研究表明,1982-2009年,青藏高原草地覆盖度和净初级生产力总体呈增加态势,草地覆盖度增加的区域约占草地总面积的47%,净初级生产力明显增加的面积达32%以上。近十年来,草地生态系统稳定向好。
 青藏高原森林主要分布在滇西北、藏东南、川西、甘南和青海东部地区。1950年以来,森林资源在面积、蓄积、类型及空间分布格局等方面均发生了显著变化。2016年第九次全国森林资源清查结果显示,西藏林地面积达1798.19万公顷,森林面积1490.99万公顷,森林覆盖率12.14%,活立木总蓄积23.05亿立方米,与2011年第八次全国森林资源清查结果相比,林地与森林面积分别增加14.75万和19.87万公顷,森林覆盖率提高0.16个百分点,森林蓄积量增加2047万立方米,实现了森林面积和蓄积“双增”。
 青藏高原是中国湿地分布最广、面积最大的区域。1990年,青藏高原湿地面积约为13.45万平方公里。1990-2006年,青藏高原湿地呈现出持续退化状态,以每年0.13%的速率减少,总面积减少了约3000平方公里。2006年以来,在湿地保护与自然因素综合作用下,湿地面积明显回升。至2011年,仅西藏自治区和青海省湿地面积已达14.67万平方公里,湿地退化态势总体上得到遏制。至2014年,青海省湿地面积达8.14万平方公里。近年来,随着保护力度的加大,湿地生态系统进一步好转。
 ......

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