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Land Administration Law of the People's Republic of China (2019 Amendment) [Not Yet Effective]
中华人民共和国土地管理法(2019修正) [尚未生效]
【法宝引证码】

Land Administration Law of the People's Republic of China 

中华人民共和国土地管理法

(Adopted at the 16th Session of the Standing Committee of the Sixth National People's Congress on June 25, 1986; amended for the first time according to the Decision on Amending the Land Administration of the People's Republic of China at the Fifth Session of the Standing Committee of the Seventh People's Republic of China; revised at the Fourth Session of the Standing Committee of the Ninth National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on August 29, 1998; amended for the second time according to the Decision on Amending the Land Administration of the People's Republic of China at the 11th Session of the Standing Committee of the Tenth National People's Congress on August 28, 2004; and amended for the third time in accordance with the Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress to Amend the Land Administration Law of the People's Republic of China and the Urban Real Estate Administration Law of the People's Republic of China at the 12th Session of the Standing Committee of the Thirteenth National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on August 26, 2019) (1986年6月25日第六届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十六次会议通过 根据1988年12月29日第七届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第五次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国土地管理法〉的决定》第一次修正 1998年8月29日第九届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第四次会议修订 根据2004年8月28日第十届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十一次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国土地管理法〉的决定》第二次修正 根据2019年8月26日第十三届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十二次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国土地管理法〉、〈中华人民共和国城市房地产管理法〉的决定》第三次修正)
CONTENTS 目录
CHAPTER ONE GENERAL PROVISIONS 第一章 总则
CHAPTER TWO OWNERSHIP AND RIGHT OF USE OF LAND 第二章 土地的所有权和使用权
CHAPTER THREE GENERAL PLANS FOR THE UTILIZATION OF LAND 第三章 土地利用总体规划
CHAPTER FOUR PROTECTION OF CULTIVATED LAND 第四章 耕地保护
CHAPTER FIVE LAND FOR CONSTRUCTION PURPOSES 第五章 建设用地
CHAPTER SIX SUPERVISION AND EXAMINATION 第六章 监督检查
CHAPTER SEVEN LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES 第七章 法律责任
CHAPTER EIGHT SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS 第八章 附则
CHAPTER ONE GENERAL PROVISIONS 

第一章 总则

Article 1 The law is formulated in compliance with the Constitution with a view to strengthening the administration of land, safeguarding the socialist public ownership of land, protecting and developing land resources, ensuring a rational use of and giving a real protection to cultivated land to promote sustainable development of the socialist economy.   第一条 为了加强土地管理,维护土地的社会主义公有制,保护、开发土地资源,合理利用土地,切实保护耕地,促进社会经济的可持续发展,根据宪法,制定本法。
Article 2 The People's Republic of China resorts to a socialist public ownership i.e. an ownership by the whole people and ownerships by collectives, of land.   第二条 中华人民共和国实行土地的社会主义公有制,即全民所有制和劳动群众集体所有制。
In ownership by the whole people, the State Council is empowered to be on behalf of the State to administer the land owned by the State. 全民所有,即国家所有土地的所有权由国务院代表国家行使。
No unit or individual is allowed to occupy, trade or illegally transfer land by other means. Land use right may be transferred by law. 任何单位和个人不得侵占、买卖或者以其他形式非法转让土地。土地使用权可以依法转让。
The state may make expropriation or requisition on land according to law for public interests, but shall give compensations accordingly. 国家为了公共利益的需要,可以依法对土地实行征收或者征用并给予补偿。
The State introduces the system of compensated use of land owned by the State except the land has been allocated for use by the State according to law. 国家依法实行国有土地有偿使用制度。但是,国家在法律规定的范围内划拨国有土地使用权的除外。
Article 3 To cherish and give a rational use to the land as well as to give a true protection to the cultivated land are seen as a basic principle of land use in the country. The people's governments at all levels should manage to make an overall plan for the use of land to strictly administer, protect and develop land resources and stop any illegal occupation of land.   第三条 十分珍惜、合理利用土地和切实保护耕地是我国的基本国策。各级人民政府应当采取措施,全面规划,严格管理,保护、开发土地资源,制止非法占用土地的行为。
Article 4 The State is to place a strict control on the usages of land.   第四条 国家实行土地用途管制制度。
The State shall compile general plans to set usages of land including those of farm or construction use or unused. A strict control is to place on the turning of land for farm use to that for construction use to control the total amount of land for construction use and exercise a special protection on cultivated land. 国家编制土地利用总体规划,规定土地用途,将土地分为农用地、建设用地和未利用地。严格限制农用地转为建设用地,控制建设用地总量,对耕地实行特殊保护。
"Land for farm use" refers to land directly used for agricultural production, including cultivated land, wooded land, grassland, land for farmland water conservancy and water surfaces for breeding; "land for construction use" refers to land on which buildings and structures are put up, including land for urban and rural housing and public facilities, land for industrial and mining use, land for building communications and water conservancy facilities, land for tourism and land for building military installations. The term "land unused" refers to land other than that for agricultural and construction uses. 前款所称农用地是指直接用于农业生产的土地,包括耕地、林地、草地、农田水利用地、养殖水面等;建设用地是指建造建筑物、构筑物的土地,包括城乡住宅和公共设施用地、工矿用地、交通水利设施用地、旅游用地、军事设施用地等;未利用地是指农用地和建设用地以外的土地。
Land should be used strictly in line with the purposes of land use defined in the general plan for the utilization of the land whether by units or individuals. 使用土地的单位和个人必须严格按照土地利用总体规划确定的用途使用土地。
Article 5 The department of natural resources of the State Council shall be unifiedly responsible for the administration and supervision of land in the whole country.   第五条 国务院自然资源主管部门统一负责全国土地的管理和监督工作。
The setup and functions of departments of natural resources of people's governments at and above the county level shall be decided by the people's governments of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities under the direct jurisdiction of the central government (hereinafter referred to as "municipalities" for short) according to the relevant provisions of the State Council. 县级以上地方人民政府自然资源主管部门的设置及其职责,由省、自治区、直辖市人民政府根据国务院有关规定确定。
Article 6 The land utilization and land administration of the people's governments of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government and the people's governments of cities determined by the State Council shall be subject to the supervision and inspection by the agency empowered by the State Council.   第六条 国务院授权的机构对省、自治区、直辖市人民政府以及国务院确定的城市人民政府土地利用和土地管理情况进行督察。
Article 7 Units or individuals shall all be obliged to abide by the laws and regulations concerning land administration and have the right to report or prosecute acts of violating land administration law and regulations.   第七条 任何单位和个人都有遵守土地管理法律、法规的义务,并有权对违反土地管理法律、法规的行为提出检举和控告。
Article 8 People's governments shall award units or individuals who have made outstanding achievements in protecting and developing land resources, rational utilization of land and in carrying out research in this regard.   第八条 在保护和开发土地资源、合理利用土地以及进行有关的科学研究等方面成绩显著的单位和个人,由人民政府给予奖励。
CHAPTER TWO OWNERSHIP AND RIGHT OF USE OF LAND 

第二章 土地的所有权和使用权

Article 9 Land in urban districts shall be owned by the State.   第九条 城市市区的土地属于国家所有。
Land in the rural areas and suburban areas, except otherwise provided for by the State, shall be collectively owned by peasants including house site, land and hills allowed to be retained by peasants. 农村和城市郊区的土地,除由法律规定属于国家所有的以外,属于农民集体所有;宅基地和自留地、自留山,属于农民集体所有。
Article 10 Land owned by the State and land collectively owned by peasants may be allocated to be used by units or individuals according to law. Units or individuals using land shall be responsible for the protection, management and a rational use of the land.   第十条 国有土地和农民集体所有的土地,可以依法确定给单位或者个人使用。使用土地的单位和个人,有保护、管理和合理利用土地的义务。
Article 11 In lands collectively owned by peasants those have been allocated to villagers for collective ownership according to law shall be operated and managed by village collective economic organizations or villagers' committee and those have allocated to two or more peasants collective economic organizations of a village, shall be operated and managed jointly by the collective economic organizations of the village or villagers' groups; and those have allocated to township (town) peasant collectives shall be operated and managed by the rural collective economic organizations of the township (town).   第十一条 农民集体所有的土地依法属于村农民集体所有的,由村集体经济组织或者村民委员会经营、管理;已经分别属于村内两个以上农村集体经济组织的农民集体所有的,由村内各该农村集体经济组织或者村民小组经营、管理;已经属于乡(镇)农民集体所有的,由乡(镇)农村集体经济组织经营、管理。
Article 12 The registration of land ownership and rights to use land shall be governed by the laws and administrative regulations related to real estate registration.   第十二条 土地的所有权和使用权的登记,依照有关不动产登记的法律、行政法规执行。
The legally registered land ownership and rights to use land shall be protected by the law, and no entity or individual shall infringe thereupon. 依法登记的土地的所有权和使用权受法律保护,任何单位和个人不得侵犯。
Article 13 The arable land, woodland, and grassland owned by farmers collectively or owned by the state but legally used by farmers collectively, as well as other land legally used for agriculture, shall be available for family-based contracting within a rural collective economic organization, while barren hills, gullies, mounds, and beaches, among others, that are not fit for family-based contracting may be available for contracting by means such as bidding, auction, and open consultation for planting, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishery production. In the case of family-based contracting, the term of a contract for arable land shall be 30 years, the term of a contract for grassland shall be 30 to 50 years, and the term of a contract for woodland shall be 30 to 70 years; and upon expiry, a contract shall be renewed for a term of 30 years for arable land or be legally renewed accordingly for grassland or woodland.   第十三条 农民集体所有和国家所有依法由农民集体使用的耕地、林地、草地,以及其他依法用于农业的土地,采取农村集体经济组织内部的家庭承包方式承包,不宜采取家庭承包方式的荒山、荒沟、荒丘、荒滩等,可以采取招标、拍卖、公开协商等方式承包,从事种植业、林业、畜牧业、渔业生产。家庭承包的耕地的承包期为三十年,草地的承包期为三十年至五十年,林地的承包期为三十年至七十年;耕地承包期届满后再延长三十年,草地、林地承包期届满后依法相应延长。
Land owned by the state but legally used for agriculture may be available for contracting by entities or individuals for planting, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishery production. 国家所有依法用于农业的土地可以由单位或者个人承包经营,从事种植业、林业、畜牧业、渔业生产。
The landowner and a usufructuary shall enter into a contract according to the law to agree on the rights and obligations of both parties. Entities and individuals as usufructuaries shall have the obligations to protect and for the purposes specified in the contract, rationally utilize the land. 发包方和承包方应当依法订立承包合同,约定双方的权利和义务。承包经营土地的单位和个人,有保护和按照承包合同约定的用途合理利用土地的义务。
Article 14 Disputes arising from the ownership or use right of land shall be settled through consultation among parties concerned; should consultation fails, the disputes should be handled by people's governments.   第十四条 土地所有权和使用权争议,由当事人协商解决;协商不成的,由人民政府处理。
Disputes among units shall be handled by the people's government at and above the county level; disputes among individuals or between individuals and units shall be handled by township level people's government or people's governments at the county level or above. 单位之间的争议,由县级以上人民政府处理;个人之间、个人与单位之间的争议,由乡级人民政府或者县级以上人民政府处理。
Whereas parties concerned refuse to accept the decisions by related people's government the dispute may be brought before the people's court within 30 days after the notification on the decision is received. 当事人对有关人民政府的处理决定不服的,可以自接到处理决定通知之日起三十日内,向人民法院起诉。
No party shall change the status quo of the land before the disputes over ownership and use right are settled. 在土地所有权和使用权争议解决前,任何一方不得改变土地利用现状。
CHAPTER THREE GENERAL PLANS FOR THE UTILIZATION OF LAND 

第三章 土地利用总体规划

Article 15 People's governments at all levels shall manage to compile general plans for land uses in accordance with the national economic and social development program, requirements of national land consolidation and resources and environmental protection, land supply capacity and the requirements of various construction projects.   第十五条 各级人民政府应当依据国民经济和社会发展规划、国土整治和资源环境保护的要求、土地供给能力以及各项建设对土地的需求,组织编制土地利用总体规划。
The validity term of the general plans for land use shall be determined by the State Council. 土地利用总体规划的规划期限由国务院规定。
Article 16 General plans for land use at a lower level shall be compiled according to the general plans for the utilization of land at the next higher level.   第十六条 下级土地利用总体规划应当依据上一级土地利用总体规划编制。
The total amount of land for construction uses in the general plans of land use compiled by local people's governments at all levels shall not exceed the controlled targets set in the general plans for land use at the next higher level and the total amount of cultivated land should not be lower than the controlled targets set in the general plans for land use at the next higher level. 地方各级人民政府编制的土地利用总体规划中的建设用地总量不得超过上一级土地利用总体规划确定的控制指标,耕地保有量不得低于上一级土地利用总体规划确定的控制指标。
In mapping out the general plans for land use, the provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities shall ensure than the total amount of cultivated land under their jurisdiction shall not be reduced. 省、自治区、直辖市人民政府编制的土地利用总体规划,应当确保本行政区域内耕地总量不减少。
Article 17 The comprehensive plans for land utilization shall be prepared under the following principles:   第十七条 土地利用总体规划按照下列原则编制:
(1) Implementing the requirements for territorial spatial development and protection and strictly controlling the purposes of land. (一)落实国土空间开发保护要求,严格土地用途管制;
(2) Strictly protecting permanent basic farmland and strictly controlling the occupation of agricultural land for non-agricultural purposes. (二)严格保护永久基本农田,严格控制非农业建设占用农用地;
(3) Improving the conservation and intensive utilization of land. (三)提高土地节约集约利用水平;
(4) Coordinating the land use arrangements for urban and rural production, living, and ecology, meeting the reasonable land use needs of rural industries and infrastructure, and promoting the integrated development urban and rural areas. (四)统筹安排城乡生产、生活、生态用地,满足乡村产业和基础设施用地合理需求,促进城乡融合发展;
(5) Protecting and improving ecology and environment and ensuring the sustainable utilization of land. (五)保护和改善生态环境,保障土地的可持续利用;
(6) Maintaining a quantitative balance and a qualitative equivalence between the arable land occupied and the arable land developed and from reclamation. (六)占用耕地与开发复垦耕地数量平衡、质量相当。
Article 18 The state shall establish a territorial spatial planning system. Territorial spatial plans shall be prepared by adhering to the prioritization of ecology, the green and sustainable development, the scientific, orderly, and coordinated arrangement of ecological, agricultural, urban, and other functional spaces, the optimization of the territorial spatial structure and layout, and the improvement of quality and efficiency of territorial spatial development and protection.   第十八条 国家建立国土空间规划体系。编制国土空间规划应当坚持生态优先,绿色、可持续发展,科学有序统筹安排生态、农业、城镇等功能空间,优化国土空间结构和布局,提升国土空间开发、保护的质量和效率。
Territory spatial plans legally approved shall be the primary basis for various activities of development, protection, and construction. Where a territorial spatial plan has been prepared, the comprehensive plan for land utilization and the urban-rural plan shall no longer be prepared. 经依法批准的国土空间规划是各类开发、保护、建设活动的基本依据。已经编制国土空间规划的,不再编制土地利用总体规划和城乡规划。
Article 19 General plans for land use at the county level should define the areas and purposes of land use.   第十九条 县级土地利用总体规划应当划分土地利用区,明确土地用途。
General plans for the land use at the township (town) level should define the areas for the utilization of land and define the purpose of each tract of land according to the actual conditions for the use of land and make an announcement. 乡(镇)土地利用总体规划应当划分土地利用区,根据土地使用条件,确定每一块土地的用途,并予以公告。
Article 20 General plans for land use shall be examined and approved level by level.   第二十条 土地利用总体规划实行分级审批。
General plans for land use of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities shall be approved by the State Council. 省、自治区、直辖市的土地利用总体规划,报国务院批准。
General plans for land of cities where the people's governments of province and autonomous regions and municipalities are seated and cities with a population of over one million and cities designated by the State Council shall be examined by the People's governments of related provinces and autonomous regions and municipalities and submit them to the State Council for approval. 省、自治区人民政府所在地的市、人口在一百万以上的城市以及国务院指定的城市的土地利用总体规划,经省、自治区人民政府审查同意后,报国务院批准。
General plans for land use other than those provided for in the second and third paragraphs of this article shall be submitted for approval step by step to the people's governments of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. General plans for land uses of townships (towns) may be approved by the people's governments of cities or autonomous prefectures authorized by the provincial level people's governments. 本条第二款、第三款规定以外的土地利用总体规划,逐级上报省、自治区、直辖市人民政府批准;其中,乡(镇)土地利用总体规划可以由省级人民政府授权的设区的市、自治州人民政府批准。
Once approved, the general plans for the land use shall be implemented strictly. 土地利用总体规划一经批准,必须严格执行。
Article 21 The amount of land used for urban construction shall conform to the standards prescribed by the State so as to make full use of the existing land for construction purposes, not to occupy or occupy as less agricultural land as possible.   第二十一条 城市建设用地规模应当符合国家规定的标准,充分利用现有建设用地,不占或者尽量少占农用地。
Urban general planning and the planning of villages and market towns should be in line with the general plans for land use. The amount of land for construction use in the urban general planning and the planning of villages and market towns shall not exceed the amount of land used for construction purposes in cities, villages and market towns fixed in the general plans for the utilization of land. 城市总体规划、村庄和集镇规划,应当与土地利用总体规划相衔接,城市总体规划、村庄和集镇规划中建设用地规模不得超过土地利用总体规划确定的城市和村庄、集镇建设用地规模。
The land for construction purposes in cities, villages and market towns within the planned areas of cities, villages and market towns shall conform to the city planning and the planning of villages and market towns. 在城市规划区内、村庄和集镇规划区内,城市和村庄、集镇建设用地应当符合城市规划、村庄和集镇规划。
Article 22 The plans for the comprehensive control, development and utilization of rivers and lakes should be in accordance with the general plans for land use. Land uses within the areas of management and protection of rivers, lakes and reservoirs and flood storage and detention areas should be in line with plans for the comprehensive control, development and utilization of rivers and lakes and to the requirements of river channels, flood flows of rivers and lakes, flood storage and water transmission.   第二十二条 江河、湖泊综合治理和开发利用规划,应当与土地利用总体规划相衔接。在江河、湖泊、水库的管理和保护范围以及蓄洪滞洪区内,土地利用应当符合江河、湖泊综合治理和开发利用规划,符合河道、湖泊行洪、蓄洪和输水的要求。
Article 23 People's governments at all levels shall strengthen the administration of plans for land use and exercise control of the aggregate land for construction purposes.   第二十三条 各级人民政府应当加强土地利用计划管理,实行建设用地总量控制。
An annual plan for land utilization shall be prepared on the basis of the national economic and social development plan, the national industrial policies, the comprehensive plan for land utilization, and the actual condition of land utilization. An annual plan for land utilization shall make reasonable arrangements for the collectively owned for-profit construction land as specified in Article 63 of this Law. The preparation and approval procedures for an annual plan for land utilization shall be the same as those for the comprehensive plan for land utilization, and once approved and issued, the annual plan must be strictly implemented. 土地利用年度计划,根据国民经济和社会发展计划、国家产业政策、土地利用总体规划以及建设用地和土地利用的实际状况编制。土地利用年度计划应当对本法第六十三条规定的集体经营性建设用地作出合理安排。土地利用年度计划的编制审批程序与土地利用总体规划的编制审批程序相同,一经审批下达,必须严格执行。
Article 24 The people's governments of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities shall report the implementations of their annual plans for the use of land to the people's congresses at the same level as part of the implementation of their economic and social development plans.   第二十四条 省、自治区、直辖市人民政府应当将土地利用年度计划的执行情况列为国民经济和社会发展计划执行情况的内容,向同级人民代表大会报告。
Article 25 Revision of the general plans for land use shall be approved by the original organ of approval. Without approval, the usages of land defined in the general plans for the utilization of land shall not be changed.   第二十五条 经批准的土地利用总体规划的修改,须经原批准机关批准;未经批准,不得改变土地利用总体规划确定的土地用途。
Whereas the purpose of land use defined in the general plans for the utilization of land needs to be changed due to the construction of large energy, communications, water conservancy and other infrastructure projects approved by the State Council, it shall be changed according to the document of approval issued by the State Council. 经国务院批准的大型能源、交通、水利等基础设施建设用地,需要改变土地利用总体规划的,根据国务院的批准文件修改土地利用总体规划。
If the purpose of land defined in the general plans for the utilization of land needs to be changed due to the construction of large energy, communications, water conservancy and other infrastructure projects approved by provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, it shall be changed according to the document of approval issued by the provincial level people's governments if it falls into their terms of reference. 经省、自治区、直辖市人民政府批准的能源、交通、水利等基础设施建设用地,需要改变土地利用总体规划的,属于省级人民政府土地利用总体规划批准权限内的,根据省级人民政府的批准文件修改土地利用总体规划。
Article 26 The State fosters land survey system.   第二十六条 国家建立土地调查制度。
The departments of natural resources of the people's governments at and above the county level shall carry out land surveys together with related departments at the same level. Land owners or users should provide good cooperation and necessary data and materials required. 县级以上人民政府自然资源主管部门会同同级有关部门进行土地调查。土地所有者或者使用者应当配合调查,并提供有关资料。
Article 27 The departments of natural resources of the people's government at and above the county level shall, together with related departments at the same level, grade the land according to the results of the surveys, their planned uses and the unified standards formulated by the State.   第二十七条 县级以上人民政府自然资源主管部门会同同级有关部门根据土地调查成果、规划土地用途和国家制定的统一标准,评定土地等级。
Article 28 The State establishes the land statistical system.   第二十八条 国家建立土地统计制度。
The statistics agencies and the departments of natural resources of the people's governments at or above the county level shall conduct land statistical investigation according to the law, and issue land statistics on a regular basis. The owners or users of land shall provide the relevant materials, and shall not refuse or delay reporting or provide untrue or incomplete materials. 县级以上人民政府统计机构和自然资源主管部门依法进行土地统计调查,定期发布土地统计资料。土地所有者或者使用者应当提供有关资料,不得拒报、迟报,不得提供不真实、不完整的资料。
The land area statistics jointly issued by the statistics agencies and the departments of natural resources shall be the basis for the comprehensive plans for land utilization prepared by the people's governments at all levels. 统计机构和自然资源主管部门共同发布的土地面积统计资料是各级人民政府编制土地利用总体规划的依据。
Article 29 The State shall establish the national land management information system to conduct dynamic monitoring of the utilization of land.
......
   第二十九条 国家建立全国土地管理信息系统,对土地利用状况进行动态监测。
......

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