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Opinions of the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security, and the Ministry of Justice on Several Issues Concerning Handling Criminal Cases Involving Commission of "Non-physical Violence" [Effective]
最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部关于办理实施“软暴力”的刑事案件若干问题的意见 [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】

Opinions of the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security, and the Ministry of Justice on Several Issues Concerning Handling Criminal Cases Involving Commission of "Non-physical Violence" 

最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部关于办理实施“软暴力”的刑事案件若干问题的意见

For the purposes of thoroughly implementing the decisions and arrangements of the CPC Central Committee with respect to launching the special campaign against organizations of a gangland nature and gang-like groups, correctly understanding and applying the provisions on punishing crimes committed by "non-physical violence" according to the law of the Guiding Opinions of the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security, and the Ministry of Justice on Certain Issues concerning Handling of Criminal Cases Involving Organizations of a Gangland Nature and Gang-like Groups (No. 1 [2018], SPC, hereinafter referred to as the "Guiding Opinions"), and handling related criminal cases according to the law, the following opinions are offered under the Criminal Law, the Criminal Procedure Law and relevant judicial interpretations and regulatory documents: 为深入贯彻落实中央关于开展扫黑除恶专项斗争的决策部署,正确理解和适用最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部《关于办理黑恶势力犯罪案件若干问题的指导意见》(法发〔2018〕1号,以下简称《指导意见》)关于对依法惩处采用“软暴力”实施犯罪的规定,依法办理相关犯罪案件,根据《刑法》《刑事诉讼法》及有关司法解释、规范性文件,提出如下意见:
I. "Non-physical violence" means illegal and criminal means that in order to seek unlawful interests or gain unlawful influence an actor causes nuisance, conducts harassment, makes noise, or gather a crowd as a publicity stunt, against another person or in a relevant place, in a manner sufficient to cause fear or panic and psychological compulsion in the other person, or affect or restrict the freedom of the person, endanger the safety of the person and property, or affect normal life, work, production, or operation.   一、“软暴力”是指行为人为谋取不法利益或形成非法影响,对他人或者在有关场所进行滋扰、纠缠、哄闹、聚众造势等,足以使他人产生恐惧、恐慌进而形成心理强制,或者足以影响、限制人身自由、危及人身财产安全,影响正常生活、工作、生产、经营的违法犯罪手段。
II. The illegal and criminal means of "non-physical violence" is usually in the following forms:   二、“软暴力”违法犯罪手段通常的表现形式有:
(1) Means of infringement of personal rights, democratic rights and property rights, including but not limited to stalking and approaching, threatening to spread disease, disclosure of private facts, malicious reporting, false accusation and frame-up, sabotage, and trespass to chattels or land. (一)侵犯人身权利、民主权利、财产权利的手段,包括但不限于跟踪贴靠、扬言传播疾病、揭发隐私、恶意举报、诬告陷害、破坏、霸占财物等;
(2) Means of disrupting the normal life, work, production, and operation order, including but not limited to trespass to a person's residence, sabotaging living facilities, setting up obstacles to life, posting leaflets and spraying writing, posting a banner, setting off firecrackers, playing a musical lament, placing a wreath, spilling filth, cutting off water and power, blocking the gate to interrupt work, and directly or indirectly controlling a plant, office, business premises, or the like by compelling employees, stationing guards or any other means. (二)扰乱正常生活、工作、生产、经营秩序的手段,包括但不限于非法侵入他人住宅、破坏生活设施、设置生活障碍、贴报喷字、拉挂横幅、燃放鞭炮、播放哀乐、摆放花圈、泼洒污物、断水断电、堵门阻工,以及通过驱赶从业人员、派驻人员据守等方式直接或间接地控制厂房、办公区、经营场所等;
(3) Means of disturbing the social order, including but not limited to staging a demonstration, gathering a crowd to cause nuisance, and blocking a road and causing a disturbance. (三)扰乱社会秩序的手段,包括但不限于摆场架势示威、聚众哄闹滋扰、拦路闹事等;
(4) Means of "non-physical violence" that otherwise meet the provisions of Article I of these Opinions. (四)其他符合本意见第一条规定的“软暴力”手段。
The illegal or criminal means of using an information network or communication tool which meets the provisions of Article I of these Opinions shall be determined as "non-physical violence." 通过信息网络或者通讯工具实施,符合本意见第一条规定的违法犯罪手段,应当认定为“软暴力”。
III. "Non-physical violence" committed by an actor which has any of the following circumstances may be determined to be sufficient to cause fear or panic and psychological compulsion in another person, or affect or restrict the freedom of the person, endanger the safety of the person and property, or affect normal life, work, production, or operation:   三、行为人实施“软暴力”,具有下列情形之一,可以认定为足以使他人产生恐惧、恐慌进而形成心理强制或者足以影响、限制人身自由、危及人身财产安全或者影响正常生活、工作、生产、经营:
(1) Committed by an organization of a gangland nature or gang-like group. (一)黑恶势力实施的;
(2) Committed in the name of an organization of a gangland nature or gang-like group. (二)以黑恶势力名义实施的;
(3) Committed by a person who received criminal punishment for organizing, leading, or participating in an organization of a gangland nature, gang-like group crime syndicate, or gang-like group, or for crime such as forced transactions, false imprisonment, extortion, gathering a crowd to fight another, and provocative and disturbing acts. (三)曾因组织、领导、参加黑社会性质组织、恶势力犯罪集团、恶势力以及因强迫交易、非法拘禁、敲诈勒索、聚众斗殴、寻衅滋事等犯罪受过刑事处罚后又实施的;
(4) Committed with arms. (四)携带凶器实施的;
(5) Committed in an organized manner, or in a manner sufficient to convince another person of the realistic possibility of the violence or threat. (五)有组织地实施的或者足以使他人认为暴力、威胁具有现实可能性的;
(6) Circumstances sufficient to cause fear or panic and psychological compulsion in another person, or affect or restrict the freedom of the person, endanger the safety of the person and property, or affect normal life, work, production, or operation. (六)其他足以使他人产生恐惧、恐慌进而形成心理强制或者足以影响、限制人身自由、危及人身财产安全或者影响正常生活、工作、生产、经营的情形。
Commission by more than one person, assault by falsifying or expressing illegal or criminal records, or using an express or implied means sufficient to cause another person to discern the organized nature of the relevant conduct such as disclosing the name of an organization or head, wearing the same clothing, and showing a tattoo or special mark, shall be determined as "commission in the name of an organization of a gangland nature or gang-like group." 由多人实施的,编造或明示暴力违法犯罪经历进行恐吓的,或者以自报组织、头目名号、统一着装、显露纹身、特殊标识以及其他明示、暗示方式,足以使他人感知相关行为的有组织性的,应当认定为“以黑恶势力名义实施”。
In the case of commission by more than one person, such determination shall be made as long as certain actors have the circumstances as set forth in sub-paragraphs (1) through (4) of paragraph 1 of this article. 由多人实施的,只要有部分行为人符合本条第一款第(一)项至第(四)项所列情形的,该项即成立。
Even if no actor that commits the "non-physical violence" does not have the circumstances set forth in sub-paragraphs (1) and (3) of paragraph 1 of this article, such determination shall be made if the employer, instigator or organizer has such circumstances. 虽然具体实施“软暴力”的行为人不符合本条第一款第(一)项、第(三)项所列情形,但雇佣者、指使者或者纠集者符合的,该项成立。
IV. The means of "non-physical violence" is the "characteristics of the acts of organizations of a gangland nature" in paragraph 5(3), Article 294 of the Criminal Law and "other means" in the definition of "gang-like group" in Article 14 of the Guiding Opinions.   四、“软暴力”手段属于《刑法》第二百九十四条第五款第(三)项“黑社会性质组织行为特征”以及《指导意见》第14条“恶势力”概念中的“其他手段”。
V. Using the means of "non-physical violence" and causing fear or psychological compulsion in another person are respectively "threat" in Article 226 of the Criminal Law and "assault" in paragraph 1(2), Article 293 of the Criminal Law and shall be punished on conviction for forced transaction and crime of provocative and disturbing acts, if the other elements of the crime are committed.   五、采用“软暴力”手段,使他人产生心理恐惧或者形成心理强制,分别属于《刑法》第二百二十六条规定的“威胁”、《刑法》第二百九十三条第一款第(二)项规定的“恐吓”,同时符合其他犯罪构成要件的,应当分别以强迫交易罪、寻衅滋事罪定罪处罚。
The "more than once" in Articles 2 through 4 of the Interpretation on Several Issues concerning the Application of Law in the Handling of Criminal Cases of Provocative and Disturbing Acts shall generally be understood to mean the commission of provocative and disturbing acts three or more times for two years. Such provocative and disturbing acts may be either of the same type or of different types, or either acts that have been administratively punished, or those that have not. 关于办理寻衅滋事刑事案件适用法律若干问题的解释》第二条至第四条中的“多次”一般应当理解为二年内实施寻衅滋事行为三次以上。三次以上寻衅滋事行为既包括同一类别的行为,也包括不同类别的行为;既包括未受行政处罚的行为,也包括已受行政处罚的行为。
VI. A person who illegally imprisons another for a short period more than once in an organized manner shall be determined to "illegally deprive him or her of the freedom of his or her person by any other means" under Article 238 of the Criminal Law. A person who illegally imprisons another three or more times, either for four or more hours at each time or accumulatively for 12 or more hours, shall be convicted of false imprisonment and punished.   六、有组织地多次短时间非法拘禁他人的,应当认定为《刑法》第二百三十八条规定的“以其他方法非法剥夺他人人身自由”。非法拘禁他人三次以上、每次持续时间在四小时以上,或者非法拘禁他人累计时间在十二小时以上的,应当以非法拘禁罪定罪处罚。
VII. A person who illegally enters or stays in the residence of another by means of "non-physical violence" shall be determined to "trespass on another person's residence" under Article 245 of the Criminal Law and convicted of trespass on a residence and punished if the other elements of the crime are committed.   七、以“软暴力”手段非法进入或者滞留他人住宅的,应当认定为《刑法》第二百四十五条规定的“非法侵入他人住宅”,同时符合其他犯罪构成要件的,应当以非法侵入住宅罪定罪处罚。
VIII. A person who forcibly takes public or private property by means of "non-physical violence" for the purpose of conversion and commits the other elements of the crime as specified in Article 274 of the Criminal Law shall be convicted of extortion and punished.   八、以非法占有为目的,采用“软暴力”手段强行索取公私财物,同时符合《刑法》第二百七十四条规定的其他犯罪构成要件的,应当以敲诈勒索罪定罪处罚。
"Extortion three or more times for two years" in Article 3 of the Several Issues concerning the Application of Law in the Handling of Criminal Cases of Extortion shall include acts that have been administratively punished. 关于办理敲诈勒索刑事案件适用法律若干问题的解释》第三条中“二年内敲诈勒索三次以上”,包括已受行政处罚的行为。
IX. A person who commits two or more crimes by means of "non-physical violence" shall be convicted of the crime punishable by heavier or heaviest punishment according to the law, except as otherwise provided by law.   九、采用“软暴力”手段,同时构成两种以上犯罪的,依法按照处罚较重的犯罪定罪处罚,法律另有规定的除外。
X. Where an actor is held criminally liable for an act for which administrative punishment has been imposed according to the provisions of Articles V and VIII of these Opinions, the administrative detention of the actor shall be offset against the sentence, and the fine shall be offset against the penalty.   十、根据本意见第五条、第八条规定,对已受行政处罚的行为追究刑事责任的,行为人先前所受的行政拘留处罚应当折抵刑期,罚款应当抵扣罚金。
XI. Where a person is employed or instigated to conduct forced transaction or extortion by means of "non-physical violence" and commits the crime of forced transaction or extortion, the employer or the instigator shall generally be treated as the principal in a joint crime.   十一、雇佣、指使他人采用“软暴力”手段强迫交易、敲诈勒索,构成强迫交易罪、敲诈勒索罪的,对雇佣者、指使者,一般应当以共同犯罪中的主犯论处。
If in order to collect debt not protected by law or for any other illegal purpose, a person is employed or instigated to illegally deprive another of the freedom of his or her person by means of "soft violence" and commits false imprisonment, or he or she is employed or instigated to trespass on the residence of another or perform provocative and disturbing acts and commits the crime of trespass to residence or the crime of provocative and disturbing acts, the employer or instigator shall generally be treated as the principal in a joint crime; and employment or instigation which conducted as a result of a civil conflict relating to the employer or instigator or his or her close relations such as collection of legal debt, marriage, relationship, family, and neighborhood disputes, without serious consequences, shall not generally be treated as crime, unless employment or instigation proceeds after the relevant authorities criticizes, stops, handles or punishes it. 为强索不受法律保护的债务或者因其他非法目的,雇佣、指使他人采用“软暴力”手段非法剥夺他人人身自由构成非法拘禁罪,或者非法侵入他人住宅、寻衅滋事,构成非法侵入住宅罪、寻衅滋事罪的,对雇佣者、指使者,一般应当以共同犯罪中的主犯论处;因本人及近亲属合法债务、婚恋、家庭、邻里纠纷等民间矛盾而雇佣、指使,没有造成严重后果的,一般不作为犯罪处理,但经有关部门批评制止或者处理处罚后仍继续实施的除外。
XII. These Opinions shall come into force on April 9, 2019.   十二、本意见自2019年4月9日起施行。
     
     
【法宝引证码】        北大法宝en.pkulaw.cn
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