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Special Administrative Measures (Negative List) for the Access of Foreign Investment (2018) [Effective]
外商投资准入特别管理措施(负面清单)(2018年版) [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】

Order of the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Commerce 

国家发展和改革委员会、商务部令

(No. 18) (第18号)

The Special Administrative Measures (Negative List) for the Access of Foreign Investment (2018), as approved by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, are hereby issued with effect from July 28, 2018, upon which the Special Administrative Measures for the Access of Foreign Investment (Negative List for the Access of Foreign Investment) in the Catalogue of Industries for Guiding Foreign Investment (2017 Revision) issued by the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Commerce on June 28, 2017, are repealed and the Catalogue of Encouraged Industries for Foreign Investment continues to be implemented. 《外商投资准入特别管理措施(负面清单)(2018年版)》已经党中央、国务院同意,现予以发布,自2018年7月28日起施行。2017年6月28日国家发展和改革委员会、商务部发布的《外商投资产业指导目录(2017年修订)》中的外商投资准入特别管理措施(外商投资准入负面清单)同时废止,鼓励外商投资产业目录继续执行。
He Lifeng, Director of the National Development and Reform Commission 国家发展和改革委员会主任:何立峰
Zhong Shan, Minister of Commerce 商务部部长:钟山
June 28, 2018 2018年6月28日
Special Administrative Measures (Negative List) for the Access of Foreign Investment (2018) 外商投资准入特别管理措施 (负面清单)(2018年版)
Notes 说 明
I. The Special Administrative Measures (Negative List) for the Access of Foreign Investment (hereinafter referred to as the "Negative List") uniformly set forth the ownership requirements, requirements for senior executives, and other special administrative measures for the access of foreign investment. Fields not on the Negative List shall be administered under the principle of equal treatment to both domestic and foreign investment.   一、《外商投资准入特别管理措施(负面清单)》(以下简称《外商投资准入负面清单》)统一列出股权要求、高管要求等外商投资准入方面的特别管理措施。《外商投资准入负面清单》之外的领域,按照内外资一致原则实施管理。
II. The Negative List includes the transitional periods for access restrictions to be canceled or relaxed in certain fields, at the expiry of which such restrictions shall be canceled or relaxed as scheduled.   二、《外商投资准入负面清单》对部分领域列出了取消或放宽准入限制的过渡期,过渡期满后将按时取消或放宽其准入限制。
III. An overseas investor may not engage in investment or operation as an individual industrial and commercial household, proprietorship investor, or member of a specialized farmers' cooperative.   三、境外投资者不得作为个体工商户、个人独资企业投资人、农民专业合作社成员,从事投资经营活动。
IV. An overseas investor may not invest in any prohibited field for foreign investment on the Negative List; if a foreign investor is to invest in a field not prohibited on the Negative List, a foreign investment access permit must be applied for; and if a foreign investor is to invest in a field with ownership requirements, it may not establish a foreign-funded partnership.   四、境外投资者不得投资《外商投资准入负面清单》中禁止外商投资的领域;投资《外商投资准入负面清单》之内的非禁止投资领域,须进行外资准入许可;投资有股权要求的领域,不得设立外商投资合伙企业。
V. Where a company legally established or controlled overseas by a domestic company, enterprise, or natural person mergers or acquires any domestic company affiliated to the domestic company, enterprise, or natural person, the involved foreign investment project or establishment or modification of an enterprise shall be governed by the provisions currently in force.   五、境内公司、企业或自然人以其在境外合法设立或控制的公司并购与其有关联关系的境内公司,涉及外商投资项目和企业设立及变更事项的,按照现行规定办理。
VI. Measures relating to administrative approval, qualifications, and national security, among others, in culture, finance, and other fields shall, if not on the Negative List, be governed by the provisions currently in force.   六、《外商投资准入负面清单》中未列出的文化、金融等领域与行政审批、资质条件、国家安全等相关措施,按照现行规定执行。
VII. The Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement and its supplementary agreements, the Mainland and Macao Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement and its supplementary agreements, the Cross-Straits Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement and its supplementary agreements, the free trade zone agreements and investment treaties signed between China and other relevant countries, and international treaties acceded to by China shall apply, if they provide any more favorable opening measures for qualified investors. If a pilot free trade zone or any other special economic zone provides any more favorable opening measures for qualified investors, the relevant provisions shall apply.   七、内地与香港关于建立更紧密经贸关系的安排》及其后续协议、《内地与澳门关于建立更紧密经贸关系的安排》及其后续协议、《海峡两岸经济合作框架协议》及其后续协议、我国与有关国家签订的自由贸易区协议和投资协定、我国参加的国际条约对符合条件的投资者有更优惠开放措施的,按照相关协议或协定的规定执行。在自由贸易试验区等特殊经济区域对符合条件的投资者实施更优惠开放措施的,按照相关规定执行。
VIII. The Negative List shall be subject to interpretation by the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Commerce in conjunction with relevant departments.   八、《外商投资准入负面清单》由发展改革委、商务部会同有关部门负责解释。
Special Administrative Measures (Negative List) for the Access of Foreign Investment (2018) 外商投资准入特别管理措施(负面清单)(2018年版)
S/N
FieldSpecial Administrative Measures 

┌───┬────┬─────────────────────────────────────┐

│序号 │领域  │  特别管理措施                             │

├───┴────┴─────────────────────────────────────┤

│一、农、林、牧、渔业                                    │

├───┬────┬─────────────────────────────────────┤

│   │    │1. 小麦、玉米新品种选育和种子生产须由中方控股。            │

│   │    │2. 禁止投资中国稀有和特有的珍贵优良品种的研发、养殖、种植以及相关繁殖材│

│ (一)│ 种业 │  料的生产(包括种植业、畜牧业、水产业的优良基因)。          │

│   │    │3. 禁止投资农作物、种畜禽、水产苗种转基因品种选育及其转基因种子(苗)生 │

│   │    │  产。                                │

├───┼────┼─────────────────────────────────────┤

│ (二)│ 渔业 │4. 禁止投资中国管辖海域及内陆水域水产品捕捞。             │

├───┴────┴─────────────────────────────────────┤

│二、采矿业                                         │

├───┬────┬─────────────────────────────────────┤

│   │石油和天│                                     │

│ (三)│然气开采│5. 石油、天然气(含煤层气,油页岩、油砂、页岩气等除外)的勘探、开发限于 │

│   │业   │  合资、合作。                             │

├───┼────┼─────────────────────────────────────┤

│   │有色金属│                                     │

│   │矿和非金│6. 禁止投资钨、钼、锡、锑、萤石勘查、开采。              │

│ (四)│属矿采选│7. 禁止投资稀土勘查、开采及选矿。                   │

│   │及开采辅│8. 禁止投资放射性矿产勘查、开采及选矿。                │

│   │助活动 │                                     │

├───┴────┴─────────────────────────────────────┤

│三、制造业                                         │

├───┬────┬─────────────────────────────────────┤

│ (五)│ 印刷业│9. 出版物印刷须由中方控股。                      │

├───┼────┼─────────────────────────────────────┤

│   │核燃料及│                                     │

│ (六)│核辐射加│10.禁止投资放射性矿产冶炼、加工,核燃料生产。              │

│   │工业  │                                     │

├───┼────┼─────────────────────────────────────┤

│   │中药饮片│                                     │

│ (七)│加工及中│11.禁止投资中药饮片的蒸、炒、炙、煅等炮制技术的应用及中成药保密处方产品 │

│   │    │  的生产。                               │

│   │成药生产│                                     │

├───┼────┼─────────────────────────────────────┤

│   │    │12.除专用车、新能源汽车外,汽车整车制造的中方股比不低于50%,同一家外商 │

│   │汽车制造│  可在国内建立两家及两家以下生产同类整车产品的合资企业。 (2020年取消商│

│ (八)│    │                                     │

│   │业   │  用车制造外资股比限制。2022年取消乘用车制造外资股比限制以及同一家外商 │

│   │    │  可在国内建立两家及两家以下生产同类整车产品的合资企业的限制)     │

├───┼────┼─────────────────────────────────────┤

│   │通信设备│                                     │

│ (九)│    │13.卫星电视广播地面接收设施及关键件生产。                │

│   │制造  │                                     │

├───┼────┼─────────────────────────────────────┤

│   │其他制造│                                     │

│ (十)│    │14.禁止投资宣纸、墨锭生产。                       │

│   │业   │                                     │

└───┴────┴─────────────────────────────────────┘

┌────┬────┬────────────────────────────────────┐

│ 序号 │ 领域 │  特别管理措施                            │

├────┴────┴────────────────────────────────────┤

│四、电力、热力、燃气及水生产和供应业                            │

├────┬────┬────────────────────────────────────┤

│(十一) │核力发电│15.核电站的建设、经营须由中方控股。                  │

├────┼────┼────────────────────────────────────┤

│    │    │16.城市人口50万以上的城市燃气、热力和供排水管网的建设、经营须由中方控 │

│ (十二)│管网设施│                                    │

│    │    │  股。                                │

├────┴────┴────────────────────────────────────┤

│五、批发和零售业                                      │

├────┬────┬────────────────────────────────────┤

│ (十三)│烟草制品│17.禁止投资烟叶、卷烟、复烤烟叶及其他烟草制品的批发、零售。      │

├────┴────┴────────────────────────────────────┤

│六、交通运输、仓储和邮政业                                 │

├────┬────┬────────────────────────────────────┤

│    │水上运输│18.国内水上运输公司须由中方控股。                   │

│(十四) │    │                                    │

│    │业   │19.国内船舶代理公司须由中方控股。                   │

├────┼────┼────────────────────────────────────┤

│    │航空客货│20.公共航空运输公司须由中方控股,且一家外商及其关联企业投资比例不得超过│

│ (十五)│    │                                    │

│    │运输  │  25%,法定代表人须由中国籍公民担任。                │

├────┼────┼────────────────────────────────────┤

│    │通用航空│21.通用航空公司的法定代表人须由中国籍公民担任,其中农、林、渔业通用航空│

│ (十六)│    │                                    │

│    │服务  │  公司限于合资,其他通用航空公司限于中方控股。            │

├────┼────┼────────────────────────────────────┤

│    │机场和空│                                    │

│ (十七)│中交通管│22.民用机场的建设、经营须由中方相对控股。               │

│    │理   │23.禁止投资空中交通管制。                       │

├────┼────┼────────────────────────────────────┤

│ (十八)│ 邮政业│24.禁止投资邮政公司、信件的国内快递业务。               │

├────┴────┴────────────────────────────────────┤

│七、信息传输、软件和信息技术服务业                            │

├────┬────┬────────────────────────────────────┤

│    │    │25.电信公司:限于中国入世承诺开放的电信业务,增值电信业务的外资股比不超│

│ (十九)│ 电信 │                                    │

│    │    │  过50%(电子商务除外),基础电信业务须由中方控股。          │

├────┼────┼────────────────────────────────────┤

│    │互联网和│26.禁止投资互联网新闻信息服务、网络出版服务、网络视听节目服务、互联网文│

│ (二十)│    │  化经营(音乐除外)、互联网公众发布信息服务(上述服务中,中国入世承诺 │

│    │相关服务│                                    │

│    │    │  中己开放的内容除外)。                       │

├────┴────┴────────────────────────────────────┤

│八、金融业                                         │

├────┬────┬────────────────────────────────────┤

│    │资本市场│27.证券公司的外资股比不超过51%,证券投资基金管理公司的外资股比不超过 │

│(二十一)│    │  51%。 (2021年取消外资股比限制)                  │

│    │服务  │                                    │

│    │    │28.期货公司的外资股比不超过51%。 (2021年取消外资股比限制)      │

├────┼────┼────────────────────────────────────┤

│(二十二)│ 保险业│29.寿险公司的外资股比不超过51%。 (2021年取消外资股比限制)      │

├────┴────┴────────────────────────────────────┤

│九、租赁和商务服务业                                    │

├────┬────┬────────────────────────────────────┤

│    │    │30.禁止投资中国法律事务(提供有关中国法律环境影响的信息除外),不得成为 │

│(二十三)│法律服务│                                    │

│    │    │  国内律师事务所合伙人。                       │

├────┼────┼────────────────────────────────────┤

│    │咨询与调│31.市场调查限于合资、合作,其中广播电视收听、收视调查须由中方控股。  │

│(二十四)│    │                                    │

│    │查   │32.禁止投资社会调查。                         │

├────┴────┴────────────────────────────────────┤

│十、科学研究和技术服务业                                  │

└──────────────────────────────────────────────┘

┌────┬────┬────────────────────────────────────┐

│ 序号 │ 领域 │  特别管理措施                            │

├────┼────┼────────────────────────────────────┤

│    │研究和试│33.禁止投资人体干细胞、基因诊断与治疗技术开发和应用。         │

│(二十五)│    │                                    │

│    │验发展 │34.禁止投资人文社会科学研究机构。                   │

├────┼────┼────────────────────────────────────┤

│    │    │35.禁止投资大地测量、海洋测绘、测绘航空摄影、地面移动测量、行政区域界线│

│    │专业技术│  测绘,地形图、世界政区地图、全国政区地图、省级及以下政区地图、全国性│

│(二十六)│    │  教学地图、地方性教学地图、真三维地图和导航电子地图编制,区域性的地质│

│    │服务业 │                                    │

│    │    │  填图、矿产地质、地球物理、地球化学、水文地质、环境地质、地质灾害、遥│

│    │    │  感地质等调查。                           │

├────┴────┴────────────────────────────────────┤

│十一、水利、环境和公共设施管理业                              │

├────┬────┬────────────────────────────────────┤

│    │野生动植│                                    │

│(二十七)│    │36.禁止投资国家保护的原产于中国的野生动植物资源开发。         │

│    │物保护 │                                    │

├────┴────┴────────────────────────────────────┤

│十二、教育                                         │

├────┬────┬────────────────────────────────────┤

│    │    │37.学前、普通高中和高等教育机构限于中外合作办学,须由中方主导(校长或者│

│    │    │  主要行政负责人应当具有中国国籍,理事会、董事会或者联合管理委员会的中│

│(二十八)│ 教育 │                                    │

│    │    │  方组成人员不得少于1/2)。                     │

│    │    │38.禁止投资义务教育机构、宗教教育机构。                │

├────┴────┴────────────────────────────────────┤

│十三、卫生和社会工作                                    │

├────┬────┬────────────────────────────────────┤

│(二十九)│ 卫生 │39.医疗机构限于合资、合作。                      │

├────┴────┴────────────────────────────────────┤

│十四、文化、体育和娱乐业                                  │

├────┬────┬────────────────────────────────────┤

│    │    │40.禁止投资新闻机构(包括但不限于通讯社)。               │

│ (三十)│新闻出版│41.禁止投资图书、报纸、期刊、音像制品和电子出版物的编辑、出版、制作业 │

│    │    │  务。                                │

├────┼────┼────────────────────────────────────┤

│    │广播电视│42.禁止投资各级广播电台(站)、电视台(站)、广播电视频道(率)、广播电   │

│    │播出、传│  视传输覆盖网(发射台、转播台、广播电视卫星、卫星上行站、卫星收转站、│

│(三十一)│    │  微波站、监测台及有线广播电视传输覆盖网等),禁止从事广播电视视频点播│

│    │输、 制│                                    │

│    │作、经营│  业务和卫星电视广播地面接收设施安装服务。              │

│    │    │43.禁止投资广播电视节目制作经营(含引进业务)公司。           │

├────┼────┼────────────────────────────────────┤

│    │电影制 │                                    │

│(三十二)│作、 发│44.电影院建设、经营须由中方控股。                   │

│    │行、放映│45.禁止投资电影制作公司、发行公司、院线公司以及电影引进业务。     │

├────┼────┼────────────────────────────────────┤

│(三十三)│文物保护│46.禁止投资文物拍卖的拍卖公司、文物商店和国有文物博物馆。       │

├────┼────┼────────────────────────────────────┤

│    │    │47.演出经纪机构须由中方控股。                     │

│(三十四)│文化娱乐│                                    │

│    │    │48.禁止投资文艺表演团体。                       │

└────┴────┴────────────────────────────────────┘
I. Agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishing 
 
1.Breeding (1) For selection and cultivation of new wheat or corn varieties or production of seeds, the Chinese party shall have a controlling stake. (2) Investment in the research, development, and raising or cultivation of any valuable or fine variety which is rare and peculiar to China or the production of relevant propagation materials (including fine genes in planting, animal husbandry, or aquaculture) shall be prohibited. (3) Investment in the selection and cultivation of a genetically modified variety of any crop, breeding stock, or broodstock or the production of genetically modified seeds (offspring) of it shall be prohibited.
2.Fishing(4) Investment in the harvesting of aquatic products in the territorial waters or inland waters of China shall be prohibited.
II. Mining 
 
3.Oil and gas extraction(5) The exploration and development of oil or gas (including coal-bed methane but excluding oil shale, oil sands, and shale gas) shall be restricted to equity joint ventures and contractual joint ventures.
4.Non-ferrous metal and nonmetallic mining and beneficiating and support activities for mining(6) Investment in the exploration or mining of tungsten, molybdenum, tin, antimony, or fluorite shall be prohibited. (7) Investment in the exploration, mining, or beneficiating of rare earth shall be prohibited. (8) Investment in the exploration, mining, or beneficiating of radioactive minerals shall be prohibited.
III. Manufacturing 
 
5.Printing(9) For printing of publications, the Chinese party shall have a controlling stake.
6.Nuclear fuels and nuclear radiation processing(10) Investment in the smelting or processing of radioactive minerals or the manufacturing of nuclear fuels shall be prohibited.
7.Chinese medicinal Herb Slices processing and patented traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing(11) Investment in the application of steaming, frying, roasting, calcining, or other processing technology for prepared Chinese medicinal herb slices or the manufacturing of patented traditional Chinese medicine based on a classified formula shall be prohibited.
8. Automobile manufacturing (12) For the manufacturing of automobiles other than special-purpose vehicles and new energy vehicles, the Chinese party shall have a stake of not less than 50%, and the same foreign investor may establish not more than two equity joint ventures manufacturing the same line of automobiles in China. (For the manufacturing of commercial vehicles, the restriction on foreign stake will be canceled in 2020. In 2022, the restriction on foreign stake for the manufacturing of passenger vehicles and the restriction that the same foreign investor may establish not more than two equity joint ventures manufacturing the same line of automobiles in China will be canceled).
9.Communications equipment manufacturing(13) Manufacturing of satellite television broadcast ground receiving facilities and critical components.
10.Miscellaneous manufacturing(14) Investment in the manufacturing of Xuan paper or ink sticks shall be prohibited.
S/NFieldSpecial Administrative Measures
IV. Electric power, heat, gas, and water generation and supply 
 
11.Nuclear electric power generation(15) For the building or operation of a nuclear electric power plant, the Chinese party shall have a controlling stake.
12.Pipe network facilities(16) For the building or operation of an urban gas, heat, water, or drainage pipeline network for a city with a population of not less than 500,000, the Chinese party shall have a controlling stake
V. Wholesale and retail trade 
 
13.Tobacco products(17) Investment in the wholesale or retail trade in leaf tobacco, cigarettes, redried tobacco, or any other tobacco products shall be prohibited.
VI. Transportation, warehousing, and postal service 
 
14.Water transportation(18) The Chinese party shall have a controlling stake in a domestic water transportation company. (19) The Chinese party shall have a controlling stake in a domestic marine shipping agency company.
15.Passenger and freight air transportation(20) The Chinese party shall have a controlling stake in a public air transportation company, in which the investment of a foreign investor and its affiliate(s) shall not exceed 25% and whose legal representative shall be a Chinese citizen.
16.General aviation service(21) The legal representative of a general aviation company shall be a Chinese citizen, general aviation companies for agriculture, forestry, or fishing shall be restricted to equity joint ventures, and the Chinese party shall have a controlling stake in a general aviation company for any other field.
17.Airports and air traffic control(22) For the building or operation of a civil airport, the Chinese party shall have a relatively controlling stake. (23) Investment in air traffic control shall be prohibited.
18.Postal service(24) Investment in a post company or domestic express mail delivery services shall be prohibited.
VII. Information transmission, software, and information technology service  
 
19. Telecommunications (25) Telecommunications carriers: limited to the opening of telecommunications services in the commitments made by China upon WTO accession, the foreign stake in a value-added telecommunications service may not exceed 50% (except e-commerce), and the Chinese party shall have a controlling stake in basic telecommunications.
20. Internet and relevant services (26) Investment in Internet news information services, Internet publication services, Internet video and audio program services, Internet cultural business (except music), and Internet social networking services (save the part of such services already opening up in the commitments of China made upon WTO accession) shall be prohibited.
VIII. Finance 
 
21.Capital market services(27) The foreign stake in a securities company shall not exceed 51%, and the foreign stake in a securities investment fund management company shall not exceed 51%. (The restriction on foreign stake will be canceled in 2021) (28) The foreign stake in a futures company shall not exceed 51%. (The restriction on foreign stake will be canceled in 2021)
22.Insurance(29) The foreign stake in a life insurance company shall not exceed 51%. (The restriction on foreign stake will be canceled in 2021)
IX. Leasing and commercial services 
 
23.Legal services(30) Investment in Chinese legal affairs (except the provision of information on the implications of China's legal environment) shall be prohibited, and a foreign investor may not be a partner in a domestic law firm.
24. Consulting and survey(31) Market survey shall be restricted to equity joint ventures or contractual joint ventures, and for broadcast media rating services, the Chinese party shall have a controlling stake. (32) Investment in social survey shall be prohibited.
X. Scientific research and technical services 
 
S/NFieldSpecial Administrative Measures
25. Research and experimental development(33) Investment in the development and application of human stem cells and genetic diagnosis and therapy shall be prohibited. (34) Investment in research institutions of humanistic and social sciences shall be prohibited.
26.Professional and technical services(35) Investment in geodetic surveying, hydrographic surveying and mapping, aerial photography for surveying and mapping, ground movement measurement, and administrative region boundary surveying and mapping; the preparation of relief maps, political maps of the world, national political maps, political maps at or below the provincial level, classroom national maps, classroom regional maps, true-3D image maps, and navigation electronic maps; and regional geological mapping, minerals and geology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrogeology, environmental geology, geological disaster, remote sensing geology, and other surveying shall be prohibited
XI. Water resources, environment, and utility management 
 
27.Protection of wild fauna and flora(36) Investment in the development of wild fauna and flora resources originating in China under national protection shall be prohibited.
XII. Education 
 
28.Education(37) A preschool, a regular senior secondary school, or a higher education institution shall be restricted to Chinese-foreign contractual joint venture, under the control of the Chinese party (the principal or the chief executive shall be a Chinese citizen, and the council, board of directors, or joint management committee shall consist of members from the Chinese party accounting for not less than one half of the total number of members). (38) Investment in a compulsory educational institution or a religious educational institution shall be prohibited.
XIII. Human health and social work activities 
 
29.Health(39) Medical institutions shall be restricted to equity joint ventures or contractual joint ventures.
XIV. Culture, sports, and entertainment 
 
30.News and publication(40) Investment in news organizations (including without limitation news agencies) shall be prohibited. (41) Investment in the editing, publishing, and production of books, newspapers, periodicals, audiovisual recordings, and electronic publications shall be prohibited.
31.Radio and television broadcasting, transmission, program making, and operation (42) Investment in radio stations, television stations, radio and television channels (frequencies), and radio and television transmission coverage networks (transmitting stations, relay stations, radio and television satellites, satellite uplink stations, satellite receiving and relay stations, microwave stations, monitoring stations, and cable radio and television transmission coverage networks) shall be prohibited, and engaging in radio and television video-on-demand services or installation services for ground receiving facilities for television broadcasting by satellite shall be prohibited. (43) Investment in a radio and television program making or operation (including import business) company shall be prohibited.
32.Motion picture production, distribution, and exhibition(44) For the building or operation of a motion picture theater, the Chinese party shall have a controlling stake. (45) Investment in a motion picture production company, distribution company, theater company, or motion picture import business shall be prohibited.
33.Cultural relics protection(46) Investment in a cultural relics auction company, a cultural relics store, or a state-owned cultural relics museum shall be prohibited.
34. Cultural recreation (47) The Chinese party shall have controlling stake in a performance brokerage agency. (48) Investment in a performing arts group shall be prohibited.
 
     
     
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