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Constitution of the People's Republic of China (2018 Amendment) [Effective]
中华人民共和国宪法(2018修正) [现行有效]


Constitution of the People's Republic of China



(Adopted at the Fifth Session of the Fifth National People's Congress and promulgated for implementation by the Announcement of the National People's Congress on December 4, 1982, amended in accordance with the Amendments to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China adopted respectively at the First Session of the Seventh National People's Congress on April 12, 1988, the First Session of the Eighth National People's Congress on March 29, 1993, the Second Session of the Ninth National People's Congress on March 15, 1999, the Second Session of the Tenth National People's Congress on March 14, 2004, and the First Session of the Thirteenth National People's Congress on March 11, 2018) (1982年12月4日第五届全国人民代表大会第五次会议通过 1982年12月4日全国人民代表大会公告公布施行 根据1988年4月12日第七届全国人民代表大会第一次会议通过的《中华人民共和国宪法修正案》、1993年3月29日第八届全国人民代表大会第一次会议通过的《中华人民共和国宪法修正案》、1999年3月15日第九届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过的《中华人民共和国宪法修正案》、2004年3月14日第十届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过的《中华人民共和国宪法修正案》和2018年3月11日第十三届全国人民代表大会第一次会议通过的《中华人民共和国宪法修正案》修正)
Preface 序言
Preface 序言
China is a country with one of the longest histories in the world. The people of all of China's nationalities have jointly created a culture of grandeur and have a glorious revolutionary tradition. 中国是世界上历史最悠久的国家之一。中国各族人民共同创造了光辉灿烂的文化,具有光荣的革命传统。
After 1840, feudal China was gradually turned into a semi-colonial and semi-feudal country. The Chinese people waged many successive heroic struggles for national independence and liberation and for democracy and freedom. 一八四○年以后,封建的中国逐渐变成半殖民地、半封建的国家。中国人民为国家独立、民族解放和民主自由进行了前仆后继的英勇奋斗。
Great and earthshaking historical changes have taken place in China in the 20th century. 二十世纪,中国发生了翻天覆地的伟大历史变革。
The Revolution of 1911, led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, abolished the feudal monarchy and gave birth to the Republic of China. But the historic mission of the Chinese people to overthrow imperialism and feudalism remained unaccomplished. 一九一一年孙中山先生领导的辛亥革命,废除了封建帝制,创立了中华民国。但是,中国人民反对帝国主义和封建主义的历史任务还没有完成。
After waging protracted and arduous struggles, armed and otherwise, along a zigzag course, the Chinese people of all nationalities led by the Communist Party of China with Chairman Mao Zedong as its leader ultimately, in 1949, overthrew the rule of imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat-capitalism, won a great victory in the New-Democratic Revolution and founded the People's Republic of China. Since then the Chinese people have taken control of state power and become masters of the country. 一九四九年,以毛泽东主席为领袖的中国共产党领导中国各族人民,在经历了长期的艰难曲折的武装斗争和其他形式的斗争以后,终于推翻了帝国主义、封建主义和官僚资本主义的统治,取得了新民主主义革命的伟大胜利,建立了中华人民共和国。从此,中国人民掌握了国家的权力,成为国家的主人。
After the founding of the People's Republic, China gradually achieved its transition from a New-Democratic to a socialist society. The socialist transformation of the private ownership of the means of production has been completed, the system of exploitation of man by man abolished and the socialist system established. The people's democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants, which is in essence the dictatorship of the proletariat, has been consolidated and developed. The Chinese people and the Chinese People's Liberation Army have defeated imperialist and hegemonist aggression, sabotage and armed provocations and have thereby safeguarded China's national independence and security and strengthened its national defence. Major successes have been achieved in economic development. An independent and relatively comprehensive socialist system of industry has basically been established. There has been a marked increase in agricultural production. Significant advances have been made in educational, scientific and cultural undertakings, while education in socialist ideology has produced noteworthy results. The life of the people has improved considerably. 中华人民共和国成立以后,我国社会逐步实现了由新民主主义到社会主义的过渡。生产资料私有制的社会主义改造已经完成,人剥削人的制度已经消灭,社会主义制度已经确立。工人阶级领导的、以工农联盟为基础的人民民主专政,实质上即无产阶级专政,得到巩固和发展。中国人民和中国人民解放军战胜了帝国主义、霸权主义的侵略、破坏和武装挑衅,维护了国家的独立和安全,增强了国防。经济建设取得了重大的成就,独立的、比较完整的社会主义工业体系已经基本形成,农业生产显著提高。教育、科学、文化等事业有了很大的发展,社会主义思想教育取得了明显的成效。广大人民的生活有了较大的改善。
The victory in China's New-Democratic Revolution and the successes in its socialist cause have been achieved by the Chinese people of all nationalities, under the leadership of the Communist Party of China and the guidance of Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought, by upholding truth, correcting errors, and surmounting numerous difficulties and hardships. China will be in the primary stage of socialism for a long time. The basic task of the nation is to concentrate its effort on socialist modernization along the road of Chinese-style socialism. Under the leadership of the Communist Party of China and the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thought of Three Represents, the Scientific Outlook on Development, and Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics in a New Era, the Chinese people of all nationalities will continue to adhere to the people's democratic dictatorship and the socialist road, persevere in reform and opening to the outside world, steadily improve socialist institutions, develop the socialist market economy, develop socialist democracy, improve the socialist rule of law, implement new concepts of development, and press forward self-reliantly to modernize the country's industry, agriculture, national defense, and science and technology step by step and promote the coordinated development of material, political, spiritual, social, and ecological civilizations to build China into a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, powerful, democratic, civilized, harmonious, and beautiful and achieve the grand rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. 中国新民主主义革命的胜利和社会主义事业的成就,是中国共产党领导中国各族人民,在马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想的指引下,坚持真理,修正错误,战胜许多艰难险阻而取得的。我国将长期处于社会主义初级阶段。国家的根本任务是,沿着中国特色社会主义道路,集中力量进行社会主义现代化建设。中国各族人民将继续在中国共产党领导下,在马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观、习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想指引下,坚持人民民主专政,坚持社会主义道路,坚持改革开放,不断完善社会主义的各项制度,发展社会主义市场经济,发展社会主义民主,健全社会主义法治,贯彻新发展理念,自力更生,艰苦奋斗,逐步实现工业、农业、国防和科学技术的现代化,推动物质文明、政治文明、精神文明、社会文明、生态文明协调发展,把我国建设成为富强民主文明和谐美丽的社会主义现代化强国,实现中华民族伟大复兴。
The exploiting classes as such have been abolished in our country. However, class struggle will continue to exist within certain bounds for a long time to come. The Chinese people must fight against those forces and elements, both at home and abroad, that are hostile to China's socialist system and try to undermine it. 在我国,剥削阶级作为阶级已经消灭,但是阶级斗争还将在一定范围内长期存在。中国人民对敌视和破坏我国社会主义制度的国内外的敌对势力和敌对分子,必须进行斗争。
Taiwan is part of the sacred territory of the People's Republic of China. It is the inviolable duty of all Chinese people, including our compatriots in Taiwan, to accomplish the great task of reunifying the motherland. 台湾是中华人民共和国的神圣领土的一部分。完成统一祖国的大业是包括台湾同胞在内的全中国人民的神圣职责。
In building socialism it is essential to rely on workers, farmers, and intellectuals and to unite all forces that can be united. In the long years of revolution, construction, and reform, there has been formed under the leadership of the Communist Party of China a broad patriotic united front composed of the democratic parties and people's organizations and embracing all socialist working people, all builders of socialism, all patriots who support socialism, all patriots who stand for the reunification of the motherland, and all patriots devoted to the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. This united front will continue to be consolidated and developed. The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, a broadly based representative organization of the united front, which has played a significant historical role, will play a still more important role in the country's political and social life, in promoting friendship with other countries, and in the struggle for socialist modernization and for the reunification and unity of the country. The system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation led by the Communist Party of China will exist and develop for a long time. 社会主义的建设事业必须依靠工人、农民和知识分子,团结一切可以团结的力量。在长期的革命、建设、改革过程中,已经结成由中国共产党领导的,有各民主党派和各人民团体参加的,包括全体社会主义劳动者、社会主义事业的建设者、拥护社会主义的爱国者、拥护祖国统一和致力于中华民族伟大复兴的爱国者的广泛的爱国统一战线,这个统一战线将继续巩固和发展。中国人民政治协商会议是有广泛代表性的统一战线组织,过去发挥了重要的历史作用,今后在国家政治生活、社会生活和对外友好活动中,在进行社会主义现代化建设、维护国家的统一和团结的斗争中,将进一步发挥它的重要作用。中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度将长期存在和发展。
The People's Republic of China is a unitary multi-national state created jointly by the people of all its nationalities. Socialist relations of equality, solidarity, mutual assistance, and harmony have been established among all nationalities, and will continue to be strengthened. In the struggle to safeguard the unity of the nationalities, it is necessary to combat big-nation chauvinism, mainly Han chauvinism, and to combat local national chauvinism. The state will do its utmost to promote the common prosperity of all the nationalities. 中华人民共和国是全国各族人民共同缔造的统一的多民族国家。平等团结互助和谐的社会主义民族关系已经确立,并将继续加强。在维护民族团结的斗争中,要反对大民族主义,主要是大汉族主义,也要反对地方民族主义。国家尽一切努力,促进全国各民族的共同繁荣。
China's achievements in revolution, construction, and reform are not possible without the support from people all over the world. The future of China is closely linked to the future of the world. China consistently carries out an independent foreign policy, and adheres to the five principles of mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, non-interference in each other's internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence, to the path of peaceful development, and to the reciprocal, win-win, and open strategy in developing diplomatic relations and economic and cultural exchanges with other countries and promoting the building of a community with a shared future for mankind. China consistently opposes imperialism, hegemonism, and colonialism, works to strengthen unity with the people of other countries, supports the oppressed nations and the developing countries in their just struggle to win and preserve national independence and develop their national economies, and strives to safeguard world peace and promote the cause of human progress. 中国革命、建设、改革的成就是同世界人民的支持分不开的。中国的前途是同世界的前途紧密地联系在一起的。中国坚持独立自主的对外政策,坚持互相尊重主权和领土完整、互不侵犯、互不干涉内政、平等互利、和平共处的五项原则,坚持和平发展道路,坚持互利共赢开放战略,发展同各国的外交关系和经济、文化交流,推动构建人类命运共同体;坚持反对帝国主义、霸权主义、殖民主义,加强同世界各国人民的团结,支持被压迫民族和发展中国家争取和维护民族独立、发展民族经济的正义斗争,为维护世界和平和促进人类进步事业而努力。
This Constitution, in legal form, affirms the achievements of the struggles of the Chinese people of all nationalities and defines the basic system and basic tasks of the state; it is the fundamental law of the state and has supreme legal authority. The people of all nationalities, all state organs, the armed forces, all political parties and public organizations and all enterprises and institutions in the country must take the Constitution as the basic standard of conduct, and they have the duty to uphold the dignity of the Constitution and ensure its implementation. 本宪法以法律的形式确认了中国各族人民奋斗的成果,规定了国家的根本制度和根本任务,是国家的根本法,具有最高的法律效力。全国各族人民、一切国家机关和武装力量、各政党和各社会团体、各企业事业组织,都必须以宪法为根本的活动准则,并且负有维护宪法尊严、保证宪法实施的职责。

第一章 总纲

Article 1 The People's Republic of China is a socialist state under the people's democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants.   第一条 中华人民共和国是工人阶级领导的、以工农联盟为基础的人民民主专政的社会主义国家。
The socialist system is the basic system of the People's Republic of China. The leadership of the Communist Party of China is the defining feature of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Disruption of the socialist system by any organization or individual is prohibited. 社会主义制度是中华人民共和国的根本制度。中国共产党领导是中国特色社会主义最本质的特征。禁止任何组织或者个人破坏社会主义制度。
Article 2 All power in the People's Republic of China belongs to the people.   第二条 中华人民共和国的一切权力属于人民。
The National People's Congress and the local people's congresses at various levels are the organs through which the people exercise state power. 人民行使国家权力的机关是全国人民代表大会和地方各级人民代表大会。
The people administer state affairs and manage economic, cultural and social affairs through various channels and in various ways in accordance with the law. 人民依照法律规定,通过各种途径和形式,管理国家事务,管理经济和文化事业,管理社会事务。
Article 3 The state organs of the People's Republic of China apply the principle of democratic centralism.   第三条 中华人民共和国的国家机构实行民主集中制的原则。
The National People's Congress and the local people's congresses at various levels are constituted through democratic elections. They are responsible to the people and subject to their supervision. 全国人民代表大会和地方各级人民代表大会都由民主选举产生,对人民负责,受人民监督。
All administrative, supervisory, judicial, and procuratorial organs of the State are created by the people's congresses, to which they are responsible and by which they are overseen. 国家行政机关、监察机关、审判机关、检察机关都由人民代表大会产生,对它负责,受它监督。
The division of functions and powers between the central and local state organs is guided by the principle of giving full scope to the initiative and enthusiasm of the local authorities under the unified leadership of the central authorities. 中央和地方的国家机构职权的划分,遵循在中央的统一领导下,充分发挥地方的主动性、积极性的原则。
Article 4 All nationalities in the People's Republic of China are equal. The State protects the lawful rights and interests of ethnic minorities, and upholds and develops relations of equality, solidarity, mutual assistance, and harmony among all nationalities. Discrimination against and oppression of any nationality are prohibited; any act which undermines the unity of the nationalities or instigates division is prohibited.   第四条 中华人民共和国各民族一律平等。国家保障各少数民族的合法的权利和利益,维护和发展各民族的平等团结互助和谐关系。禁止对任何民族的歧视和压迫,禁止破坏民族团结和制造民族分裂的行为。
The state assists areas inhabited by minority nationalities in accelerating their economic and cultural development according to the characteristics and needs of the various minority nationalities. 国家根据各少数民族的特点和需要,帮助各少数民族地区加速经济和文化的发展。
Regional autonomy is practiced in areas where people of minority nationalities live in concentrated communities; in these areas organs of self-government are established to exercise the power of autonomy. All national autonomous areas are integral parts of the People's Republic of China. 各少数民族聚居的地方实行区域自治,设立自治机关,行使自治权。各民族自治地方都是中华人民共和国不可分离的部分。
All nationalities have the freedom to use and develop their own spoken and written languages and to preserve or reform their own folkways and customs. 各民族都有使用和发展自己的语言文字的自由,都有保持或者改革自己的风俗习惯的自由。
Article 5 The People's Republic of China practices ruling the country in accordance with the law and building a socialist country of law.   第五条 中华人民共和国实行依法治国,建设社会主义法治国家。
The state upholds the uniformity and dignity of the socialist legal system. 国家维护社会主义法制的统一和尊严。
No laws or administrative or local rules and regulations may contravene the Constitution. 一切法律、行政法规和地方性法规都不得同宪法相抵触。
All state organs, the armed forces, all political parties and public organizations and all enterprises and institutions must abide by the Constitution and the law. All acts in violation of the Constitution or the law must be investigated. 一切国家机关和武装力量、各政党和各社会团体、各企业事业组织都必须遵守宪法和法律。一切违反宪法和法律的行为,必须予以追究。
No organization or individual is privileged to be beyond the Constitution or the law. 任何组织或者个人都不得有超越宪法和法律的特权。
Article 6 The basis of the socialist economic system of the People's Republic of China is socialist public ownership of the means of production, namely, ownership by the whole people and collective ownership by the working people. The system of socialist public ownership supersedes the system of exploitation of man by man; it applies the principle of "from each according to his ability, to each according to his work."   第六条 中华人民共和国的社会主义经济制度的基础是生产资料的社会主义公有制,即全民所有制和劳动群众集体所有制。社会主义公有制消灭人剥削人的制度,实行各尽所能、按劳分配的原则。
In the primary stage of socialism, the State upholds the basic economic system in which the public ownership is dominant and diverse forms of ownership develop side by side and keeps to the distribution system in which distribution according to work is dominant and diverse modes of distribution coexist 国家在社会主义初级阶段,坚持公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展的基本经济制度,坚持按劳分配为主体、多种分配方式并存的分配制度。
Article 7 The state-owned economy, namely, the socialist economy under ownership by the whole people, is the leading force in the national economy. The state ensures the consolidation and growth of the state-owned economy.   第七条 国有经济,即社会主义全民所有制经济,是国民经济中的主导力量。国家保障国有经济的巩固和发展。
Article 8 Rural collective economic organizations implement a two-level management system characterized by the combination of centralized operation with decentralized operation on the basis of household contracted management. Other forms of cooperative economy in rural areas, such as producers', supply and marketing, credit and consumers' cooperatives, belong to the sector of socialist economy under collective ownership by the working people. Working people who are members of rural collective economic organizations have the right, within the limits prescribed by law, to farm plots of cropland and hilly land allotted for their private use, engage in household sideline production and raise privately-owned livestock.   第八条 农村集体经济组织实行家庭承包经营为基础、统分结合的双层经营体制。农村中的生产、供销、信用、消费等各种形式的合作经济,是社会主义劳动群众集体所有制经济。参加农村集体经济组织的劳动者,有权在法律规定的范围内经营自留地、自留山、家庭副业和饲养自留畜。
The various forms of cooperative economy in the cities and towns, such as those in the handicraft, industrial, building, transport, commercial and service trades, all belong to the sector of socialist economy under collective ownership by the working people. 城镇中的手工业、工业、建筑业、运输业、商业、服务业等行业的各种形式的合作经济,都是社会主义劳动群众集体所有制经济。
The state protects the lawful rights and interests of the urban and rural economic collectives and encourages, guides and helps the growth of the collective economy. 国家保护城乡集体经济组织的合法的权利和利益,鼓励、指导和帮助集体经济的发展。
Article 9 All mineral resources, waters, forests, mountains, grasslands, unreclaimed land, beaches and other natural resources are owned by the state, that is, by the whole people, with the exception of the forests, mountains, grasslands, unreclaimed land and beaches that are owned by collectives in accordance with the law.   第九条 矿藏、水流、森林、山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂等自然资源,都属于国家所有,即全民所有;由法律规定属于集体所有的森林和山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂除外。
The state ensures the rational use of natural resources and protects rare animals and plants. Appropriation or damaging of natural resources by any organization or individual by whatever means is prohibited. 国家保障自然资源的合理利用,保护珍贵的动物和植物。禁止任何组织或者个人用任何手段侵占或者破坏自然资源。
Article 10 Land in the cities is owned by the state.   第十条 城市的土地属于国家所有。
Land in the rural and suburban areas is owned by collectives except for those portions which belong to the state in accordance with the law; house sites and privately farmed plots of cropland and hilly land are also owned by collectives. 农村和城市郊区的土地,除由法律规定属于国家所有的以外,属于集体所有;宅基地和自留地、自留山,也属于集体所有。
The state may, for the public interest, expropriate or take over land for public use, and pay compensation in accordance with the law. 国家为了公共利益的需要,可以依照法律规定对土地实行征收或者征用并给予补偿。
No organization or individual may appropriate, buy, sell or otherwise engage in the transfer of land by unlawful means. The rights to the use of land may be transferred according to law. 任何组织或者个人不得侵占、买卖或者以其他形式非法转让土地。土地的使用权可以依照法律的规定转让。
All organizations and individuals using land must ensure its rational use. 一切使用土地的组织和个人必须合理地利用土地。
Article 11 The individual economy of urban and rural working people, operating within the limits prescribed by law, is a complement to the socialist public economy.   第十一条 在法律规定范围内的个体经济、私营经济等非公有制经济,是社会主义市场经济的重要组成部分。
The state protects the lawful rights and interests of the non-public sectors of the economy, including individual and private sectors of the economy. The state encourages, supports and guides the development of the non-public sectors of the economy, and exercises supervision and control over the non-public sectors according to law.The state permits the private sector of the economy to exist and develop within the limits prescribed by law. The private sector of the economy is a complement to the socialist public economy. The state protects the lawful rights and interests of the private sector of the economy, and exercises guidance, supervision and control over the private sector of the economy. 国家保护个体经济、私营经济等非公有制经济的合法的权利和利益。国家鼓励、支持和引导非公有制经济的发展,并对非公有制经济依法实行监督和管理。
Article 12 Socialist public property is inviolable.   第十二条 社会主义的公共财产神圣不可侵犯。
The state protects socialist public property. Appropriation or damaging of state or collective property by any organization or individual by whatever means is prohibited. 国家保护社会主义的公共财产。禁止任何组织或者个人用任何手段侵占或者破坏国家的和集体的财产。
Article 13 The lawful private property of citizens may not be encroached upon.   第十三条 公民的合法的私有财产不受侵犯。
The state protects by law the right of citizens to own private property and the right to inherit private property. 国家依照法律规定保护公民的私有财产权和继承权。
The state may, for the public interest, expropriate or take over private property of citizens for public use, and pay compensation in accordance with the law. 国家为了公共利益的需要,可以依照法律规定对公民的私有财产实行征收或者征用并给予补偿。
Article 14 The state continuously raises labour productivity, improves economic results and develops the productive forces by enhancing the enthusiasm of the working people, raising the level of their technical skill, disseminating advanced science and technology, improving the systems of economic administration and enterprise operation and management, instituting the socialist system of responsibility in various forms and improving the organization of work.   第十四条 国家通过提高劳动者的积极性和技术水平,推广先进的科学技术,完善经济管理体制和企业经营管理制度,实行各种形式的社会主义责任制,改进劳动组织,以不断提高劳动生产率和经济效益,发展社会生产力。
The state practises strict economy and combats waste. 国家厉行节约,反对浪费。
The state properly apportions accumulation and consumption, concerns itself with the interests of the collective and the individual as well as of the state and, on the basis of expanded production, gradually improves the material and cultural life of the people. 国家合理安排积累和消费,兼顾国家、集体和个人的利益,在发展生产的基础上,逐步改善人民的物质生活和文化生活。
The state establishes and improves the social security system fitting in with the level of economic development. 国家建立健全同经济发展水平相适应的社会保障制度。
Article 15 The state practises socialist market economy.   第十五条 国家实行社会主义市场经济。
The state strengthens economic legislation and improves macro-regulation and control. 国家加强经济立法,完善宏观调控。
The state prohibits in accordance with the law any organization or individual from disturbing the social-economic order. 国家依法禁止任何组织或者个人扰乱社会经济秩序。
Article 16 State-owned enterprises have decision-making power with regard to their operation within the limits prescribed by law.   第十六条 国有企业在法律规定的范围内有权自主经营。
State-owned enterprises practise democratic management through congresses of workers and staff and in other ways in accordance with the law. 国有企业依照法律规定,通过职工代表大会和其他形式,实行民主管理。
Article 17 Collective economic organizations have decision-making power in conducting independent economic activities, on condition that they abide by the relevant laws.   第十七条 集体经济组织在遵守有关法律的前提下,有独立进行经济活动的自主权。
Collective economic organizations practise democratic management in accordance with the law, elect or remove their managerial personnel and decide on major issues concerning operation and management. 集体经济组织实行民主管理,依照法律规定选举和罢免管理人员,决定经营管理的重大问题。
Article 18 The People's Republic of China permits foreign enterprises, other foreign economic organizations and individual foreigners to invest in China and to enter into various forms of economic cooperation with Chinese enterprises and other Chinese economic organizations in accordance with the law of the People's Republic of China.   第十八条 中华人民共和国允许外国的企业和其他经济组织或者个人依照中华人民共和国法律的规定在中国投资,同中国的企业或者其他经济组织进行各种形式的经济合作。
All foreign enterprises, other foreign economic organizations as well as Chinese-foreign joint ventures within Chinese territory shall abide by the law of the People's Republic of China. Their lawful rights and interests are protected by the law of the People's Republic of China. 在中国境内的外国企业和其他外国经济组织以及中外合资经营的企业,都必须遵守中华人民共和国的法律。它们的合法的权利和利益受中华人民共和国法律的保护。
Article 19 The state undertakes the development of socialist education and works to raise the scientific and cultural level of the whole nation.   第十九条 国家发展社会主义的教育事业,提高全国人民的科学文化水平。
The state establishes and administers schools of various types, universalizes compulsory primary education and promotes secondary, vocational and higher education as well as preschool education. 国家举办各种学校,普及初等义务教育,发展中等教育、职业教育和高等教育,并且发展学前教育。
The state develops educational facilities in order to eliminate illiteracy and provide political, scientific, technical and professional education as well as general education for workers, peasants, state functionaries and other working people. It encourages people to become educated through independent study. 国家发展各种教育设施,扫除文盲,对工人、农民、国家工作人员和其他劳动者进行政治、文化、科学、技术、业务的教育,鼓励自学成才。
The state encourages the collective economic organizations, state enterprises and institutions and other sectors of society to establish educational institutions of various types in accordance with the law. 国家鼓励集体经济组织、国家企业事业组织和其他社会力量依照法律规定举办各种教育事业。
The state promotes the nationwide use of Putonghua (common speech based on Beijing pronunciation). 国家推广全国通用的普通话。
Article 20 The state promotes the development of the natural and social sciences, disseminates knowledge of science and technology, and commends and rewards achievements in scientific research as well as technological innovations and inventions.   第二十条 国家发展自然科学和社会科学事业,普及科学和技术知识,奖励科学研究成果和技术发明创造。
Article 21 The state develops medical and health services, promotes modern medicine and traditional Chinese medicine, encourages and supports the setting up of various medical and health facilities by the rural economic collectives, state enterprises and institutions and neighborhood organizations, and promotes health and sanitation activities of a mass character, all for the protection of the people's health.   第二十一条 国家发展医疗卫生事业,发展现代医药和我国传统医药,鼓励和支持农村集体经济组织、国家企业事业组织和街道组织举办各种医疗卫生设施,开展群众性的卫生活动,保护人民健康。
The state develops physical culture and promotes mass sports activities to improve the people's physical fitness. 国家发展体育事业,开展群众性的体育活动,增强人民体质。
Article 22 The state promotes the development of art and literature, the press, radio and television broadcasting, publishing and distribution services, libraries, museums, cultural centers and other cultural undertakings that serve the people and socialism, and it sponsors mass cultural activities.   第二十二条 国家发展为人民服务、为社会主义服务的文学艺术事业、新闻广播电视事业、出版发行事业、图书馆博物馆文化馆和其他文化事业,开展群众性的文化活动。
The state protects sites of scenic and historical interest, valuable cultural monuments and relics and other significant items of China's historical and cultural heritage. 国家保护名胜古迹、珍贵文物和其他重要历史文化遗产。
Article 23 The state trains specialized personnel in all fields who serve socialism, expands the ranks of intellectuals and creates conditions to give full scope to their role in socialist modernization.   第二十三条 国家培养为社会主义服务的各种专业人才,扩大知识分子的队伍,创造条件,充分发挥他们在社会主义现代化建设中的作用。
Article 24 The state strengthens the building of a socialist society with an advanced culture and ideology by promoting education in high ideals, ethics, general knowledge, discipline and legality, and by promoting the formulation and observance of rules of conduct and common pledges by various sections of the people in urban and rural areas.   第二十四条 国家通过普及理想教育、道德教育、文化教育、纪律和法制教育,通过在城乡不同范围的群众中制定和执行各种守则、公约,加强社会主义精神文明的建设。
The state advocates core socialist values and the civic virtues of love of the motherland, of the people, of labor, of science, and of socialism, provides education among the people on patriotism, collectivism, internationalism, and communism and on dialectical and historical materialism, and opposes capitalist, feudal, and other decadent ideas. 国家倡导社会主义核心价值观,提倡爱祖国、爱人民、爱劳动、爱科学、爱社会主义的公德,在人民中进行爱国主义、集体主义和国际主义、共产主义的教育,进行辩证唯物主义和历史唯物主义的教育,反对资本主义的、封建主义的和其他的腐朽思想。
Article 25 The state promotes family planning so that population growth may fit the plans for economic and social development.   第二十五条 国家推行计划生育,使人口的增长同经济和社会发展计划相适应。
Article 26 The state protects and improves the environment in which people live and the ecological environment. It prevents and controls pollution and other public hazards.   第二十六条 国家保护和改善生活环境和生态环境,防治污染和其他公害。
The state organizes and encourages afforestation and the protection of forests. 国家组织和鼓励植树造林,保护林木。
Article 27 All state organs carry out the principle of simple and efficient administration, the system of responsibility for work and the system of training functionaries and appraising their performance in order to constantly improve the quality of work and efficiency and combat bureaucratism.   第二十七条 一切国家机关实行精简的原则,实行工作责任制,实行工作人员的培训和考核制度,不断提高工作质量和工作效率,反对官僚主义。
All state organs and functionaries must rely on the support of the people, keep in close touch with them, hear their opinions and suggestions, accept their supervision and do their best to serve them. 一切国家机关和国家工作人员必须依靠人民的支持,经常保持同人民的密切联系,倾听人民的意见和建议,接受人民的监督,努力为人民服务。
State functionaries shall take a public oath to the Constitution according to the law when taking office. 国家工作人员就职时应当依照法律规定公开进行宪法宣誓。
Article 28 The state maintains public order and suppresses treasonable and other criminal activities that endanger national security; it penalizes criminal activities that endanger public security and disrupt the socialist economy as well as other criminal activities; and it punishes and reforms criminals.   第二十八条 国家维护社会秩序,镇压叛国和其他危害国家安全的犯罪活动,制裁危害社会治安、破坏社会主义经济和其他犯罪的活动,惩办和改造犯罪分子。
Article 29 The armed forces of the People's Republic of China belong to the people. Their tasks are to strengthen national defence, resist aggression, defend the motherland, safeguard the people's peaceful labour, participate in national reconstruction and do their best to serve the people.   第二十九条 中华人民共和国的武装力量属于人民。它的任务是巩固国防,抵抗侵略,保卫祖国,保卫人民的和平劳动,参加国家建设事业,努力为人民服务。
The state strengthens the revolutionization, modernization and regularization of the armed forces in order to increase national defence capability. 国家加强武装力量的革命化、现代化、正规化的建设,增强国防力量。
Article 30 The administrative division of the People's Republic of China is as follows:   第三十条 中华人民共和国的行政区域划分如下:
(1) The country is divided into provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government; (一)全国分为省、自治区、直辖市;
(2) Provinces and autonomous regions are divided into autonomous prefectures, counties, autonomous counties, and cities; (二)省、自治区分为自治州、县、自治县、市;
(3) Counties and autonomous counties are divided into townships, nationality townships, and towns. (三)县、自治县分为乡、民族乡、镇。
Municipalities directly under the Central Government and other large cities are divided into districts and counties. Autonomous prefectures are divided into counties, autonomous counties, and cities. 直辖市和较大的市分为区、县。自治州分为县、自治县、市。
All autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties are national autonomous areas. 自治区、自治州、自治县都是民族自治地方。
Article 31 The state may establish special administrative regions when necessary. The systems to be instituted in special administrative regions shall be prescribed by law enacted by the National People's Congress in light of the specific conditions.   第三十一条 国家在必要时得设立特别行政区。在特别行政区内实行的制度按照具体情况由全国人民代表大会以法律规定。
Article 32 The People's Republic of China protects the lawful rights and interests of foreigners within Chinese territory; foreigners on Chinese territory must abide by the laws of the People's Republic of China.   第三十二条 中华人民共和国保护在中国境内的外国人的合法权利和利益,在中国境内的外国人必须遵守中华人民共和国的法律。
The People's Republic of China may grant asylum to foreigners who request it for political reasons. 中华人民共和国对于因为政治原因要求避难的外国人,可以给予受庇护的权利。

第二章 公民的基本权利和义务

Article 33 All persons holding the nationality of the People's Republic of China are citizens of the People's Republic of China.   第三十三条 凡具有中华人民共和国国籍的人都是中华人民共和国公民。
All citizens of the People's Republic of China are equal before the law. 中华人民共和国公民在法律面前一律平等。
The state respects and protects human rights. 国家尊重和保障人权。
Every citizen is entitled to the rights and at the same time must perform the duties prescribed by the Constitution and the law. 任何公民享有宪法和法律规定的权利,同时必须履行宪法和法律规定的义务。
Article 34 All citizens of the People's Republic of China who have reached the age of 18 have the right to vote and stand for election, regardless of ethnic status, race, sex, occupation, family background, religious belief, education, property status or length of residence, except persons deprived of political rights according to law.   第三十四条 中华人民共和国年满十八周岁的公民,不分民族、种族、性别、职业、家庭出身、宗教信仰、教育程度、财产状况、居住期限,都有选举权和被选举权;但是依照法律被剥夺政治权利的人除外。
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