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Eighth Group of Guiding Cases Published by the Supreme People's Procuratorate [Effective]
最高人民检察院第八批指导性案例 [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】

 
Eighth Group of Guiding Cases Published by the Supreme People's Procuratorate 

最高人民检察院关于印发最高人民检察院第八批指导性案例的通知

(January 4, 2017) (2016年12月29日 高检发研字[2016]13号)

People's Procuratorate of Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province v. Xu Jianhui and Xu Yuxian 各省、自治区、直辖市人民检察院,军事检察院,新疆生产建设兵团人民检察院:
Case about civil public interest litigation 经2016年12月26日最高人民检察院第十二届检察委员会第五十九次会议决定,现将江苏省常州市人民检察院诉许建惠、许玉仙民事公益诉讼案等五个指导性案例印发给你们,供参照适用。
(Case No. 28 of the Supreme People's Procuratorate) 江苏省常州市人民检察院诉许建惠、许玉仙
[Keywords] 民事公益诉讼案
Civil public interest litigation; restoration of the ecological environment; method of virtual disposal costs (检例第28号)
[Basic Facts] 【关键词】
Xu Jianhui, male, born on April 1, 1962. 民事公益诉讼 生态环境修复 虚拟治理成本法
Xu Yuxian, female, born on May 15, 1965. 【基本案情】
From the first half of 2010 to September 2014, Xu Jianhui and Xu Yuxian rented a plant located in Dongfang Village, Yaoguan Township, Wujin District, Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province. Without the business license and the certificate for the operation of hazardous wastes, they engaged in the business of washing waste resin barrels and waste oil barrels. The sewage generated in the washing of such waste barrels was discharged to the outdoor sewage pools without any anti-leakage measure through drainage ditches and the residues generated were piled up around the sewage pools. 许建惠,男,1962年4月1日生。
On September 1, 2014, the public security authority seized 7,789 waste barrels on the site where Xu Jianhui and Xu Yuxian washed them, among which 6,289 have not been washed yet. It was found upon identification that the unwashed barrels and substances therein were hazardous wastes and multiple types of heavy metals, including chromium and zinc, and multiple organics, including TPH, chloralkane, and benzene series, were detected from the underground water on the site, sewage in the sewage pools as well as residues piled up around the sewage pools, and sediment at the bottom of the sewage pools. 许玉仙,女,1965年5月15日生。
On June 17, 2015, for the crime of environmental pollution, Xu Jianhui was sentenced to a fixed- term imprisonments of two years and six months with a suspended execution of four years and Xu Yuxian was sentenced to a fixed-term imprisonment of two years with a suspended execution of four years by the People's Court of Wujin District, Changzhou City, and fines were also imposed on them respectively. Although Xu Jianhui and Xu Yuxian were subject to criminal liability according to the law, there were still 130 unwashed waste barrels on the site, and the residues, sewage, and sludge were not removed, which continuously polluted the soil and underground water. 2010年上半年至2014年9月,许建惠、许玉仙在江苏省常州市武进区遥观镇东方村租用他人厂房,在无营业执照、无危险废物经营许可证的情况下,擅自从事废树脂桶和废油桶的清洗业务。洗桶产生的废水通过排污沟排向无防渗漏措施的露天污水池,产生的残渣被堆放在污水池周围。
[Prelitigation Procedure] 2014年9月1日,公安机关在许建惠、许玉仙洗桶现场查获废桶7789只,其中6289只尚未清洗。经鉴定,未清洗的桶及桶内物质均属于危险废物,现场地下水、污水池内废水以及污水池四周堆放的残渣、污水池底部沉积物中均检出铬、锌等多种重金属和总石油烃、氯代烷烃、苯系物等多种有机物。
It was found upon investigation that the three social organizations of environmental pollution registered with the Civil Affairs Bureau of Changzhou City did not comply with the relevant provisions on the requirements for subjects instituting public interest litigations as prescribed by law and none of them could institute a civil environmental public interest litigation in the Intermediate People's Court of Changzhou City as the plaintiff. 2015年6月17日,许建惠、许玉仙因犯污染环境罪被常州市武进区人民法院分别判处有期徒刑二年六个月、缓刑四年,有期徒刑二年、缓刑四年,并分别判处罚金。许建惠、许玉仙虽被依法追究刑事责任,但现场尚留存130只未清洗的废桶、残渣、污水和污泥尚未清除,对土壤和地下水持续造成污染。
[Proceedings] 【诉前程序】
On December 21, 2015, the People's Procuratorate of Changzhou City instituted a civil public interest litigation in the Intermediate People's Procuratorate of Changzhou City as a public interest litigant and it claimed that the Intermediate People's Court of Changzhou City should (1) order that the two defendants should dispose of the remaining hazardous wastes on the site in a timely manner, so as to eliminate dangers; (2) order that the two defendants should restore the polluted soil to the original state in a timely manner; and (3) order that the two defendants should pay the restoration expenses for eliminating the environmental impacts caused by the field discharge of pollutants according to the law, and with the virtual disposal cost of CNY300,000 as the base, the amount of compensation should be calculated by multiplying the base by 4.5 to 6 times of the environmental sensitivity level of the area. The People's Procuratorate of Changzhou City held that: 经调查,在常州市民政局登记的三家环保类社会组织,均不符合法律对提起公益诉讼主体要求的相关规定,不能作为原告向常州市中级人民法院提起环境民事公益诉讼。
 【诉讼过程】
 2015年12月21日,常州市人民检察院以公益诉讼人身份,向常州市中级人民法院提起民事公益诉讼,诉求:1. 判令二被告依法及时处置场地内遗留的危险废物,消除危险;2. 判令二被告依法及时修复被污染的土壤,恢复原状;3. 判令二被告依法赔偿场地排污对环境影响的修复费用,以虚拟治理成本30万元为基数,根据该区域环境敏感程度以4.5-6倍计算赔偿数额。常州市人民检察院认为:
1. The acts of Xu Jianhui and Xu Yuxian of illegally washing barrels caused damage consequences of environmental pollution. A large amount of waste barrels and residues remaining on the site and the sewage and sludge in the sewage pools were toxic substances, which still caused environmental pollution. It was found upon detection that the underground water and soil beneath the sewage pools have been severely polluted. 一、许建惠、许玉仙非法洗桶行为造成了严重的环境污染损害后果。现场留存的大量废桶、残渣,污水池里的废水、污泥,均属于有毒物质,并且仍在对环境造成污染。经检测,污水池下方的地下水、土壤已遭到严重污染。
2. There was a casual relationship between the acts of Xu Jianhui and Xu Yuxian and the damage consequences of environmental pollution. The pollutants detected from the underground water in the area near the sewage pools were consistent with the particular pollutants generated in the washing of barrels, and this series of particular pollutants were not generated by nearby enterprises engaging in the processing of textile, plastics, and aluminium products. 二、许建惠、许玉仙的行为与环境污染损害后果之间存在因果关系。污水池附近区域的地下水中检测出的污染物与洗桶产生的特征污染物相同,而周边的纺织、塑料和铝制品加工企业等不会产生该系列的特征污染物。
[Trial Result] 【案件结果】
In the court trial, the public interest litigant filed an application with the Intermediate People's Court of Changzhou City that Doctor Su Heng, an environmental expert selected from the environmental emergency expert database of Changzhou City, should serve as the expert advisor to offer an opinion on specialized environmental issues involved. 庭审过程中,公益诉讼人向法院申请由市环保局从常州市环境应急专家库中甄选的环境专家苏衡博士作为专家辅助人,就本案涉及的环境专业性问题发表意见。
On April 14, 2016, the Intermediate People's Court of Changzhou City rendered a judgment of first instance that: 2016年4月14日,常州市中级人民法院作出一审判决:
1. Defendants Xu Jianhu and Xu Yuxian should, within 15 days after the judgment came into force, entrust an entity with the disposal qualification to remove and dispose of the remaining 130 waste barrels on the site located in Dongfang Village, Yaoguan Township, Wujin District, Changzhou City, the sewage in the two sewage pools, the sludge at the bottom of such sewage pools, and the residues piled up in the plant, so as to eliminate the dangers of continuous environmental pollution. 1. 被告许建惠、许玉仙于本判决发生法律效力之日起十五日内,将常州市武进区遥观镇东方村洗桶场地内留存的130只废桶、两个污水池中蓄积的污水及池底污泥以及厂区内堆放的残渣委托有处理资质的单位全部清理处置,消除继续污染环境危险。
2. Defendants Xu Jianhui and Xu Yuxian should, within 30 days after the judgment came into force, entrust an entity with the soil restoration qualification to make a soil restoration plan and upon approval of the Environmental Protection Bureau of Changzhou City after submission, the soil restoration plan should be implemented within 60 days. 2. 被告许建惠、许玉仙于本判决发生法律效力之日起三十日内,委托有土壤处理资质的单位制定土壤修复方案,提交常州市环保局审核通过后,六十日内实施。
3. Defendants Xu Jianhui and Xu Yuxian should compensate CNY1.5 million for other losses to the environment and make payment to the special account of the Environmental Public Interest Funds of Changzhou City within 30 days after the judgment came into force. 3. 被告许建惠、许玉仙赔偿对环境造成的其他损失150万元,该款于判决发生法律效力之日起三十日内支付至常州市环境公益基金专用账户。
After the judgment of first instance was pronounced, Xu Jianhui and Xu Yuxian did not appeal and the judgment has come into force. 一审宣判后,许建惠、许玉仙均未上诉,判决已发生法律效力。
The handling of this case has attracted great concerns of and gained support from the local governments, the relevant administrative law enforcement departments as well as the public welfare organizations, and it played a positive role in guiding governments in improving the social governance and promoting environmental protection departments and other administrative law enforcement departments to intensify their performance of functions. More than 20 media made live court trials and follow-up reports of this case, which has stimulated the public's passion for concerns on public interest litigations. The local governments treated this case as a model case, carried out publicity and education of local enterprises with the effective judgment as the publicity and education material, and created good social atmosphere for the public interest environment protection. 本案的办理得到当地政府、相关行政执法部门以及公益组织的广泛关注和支持,对引导政府完善社会治理,促进环保等行政执法部门加强履职起到了积极作用。本案经20多家媒体直播庭审、跟踪报道,激发了社会公众关注公益诉讼的热情。当地政府将本案作为典型案例,以生效判决文书作为宣教材料,对当地企业开展宣传教育,为进一步推进公益保护工作营造了良好的社会氛围。
[Key Points] 【要旨】
1. Where a tortfeasor has assumed administrative liability or criminal liability for the same conduct, it shall not affect the assumption of civil tort liability according to the law. 1. 侵权人因同一行为已经承担行政责任或者刑事责任的,不影响承担民事侵权责任。
2. Where the damage to the ecological environment caused by the environment pollution fails to be completely restored through a restoration project, the restoration costs are much greater than the benefits, or the evaluation indexes for the restoration of damage to the ecological environment are lacked, the restoration expenses may be calculated by reference to the method of virtual disposal costs. 2. 环境污染导致生态环境损害无法通过恢复工程完全恢复的,恢复成本远远大于其收益的或者缺乏生态环境损害恢复评价指标的,可以参考虚拟治理成本法计算修复费用。
3. For specialized technical issues, an expert advisor may be introduced. The expert opinion upon cross examination may be taken as the basis for determining facts. 3. 专业技术问题,可以引入专家辅助人。专家意见经质证,可以作为认定事实的根据。
[Guiding Significance] 【指导意义】
This case is the first civil public interest litigation case instituted by a procuratorial authority after the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress authorized the procuratorial authorities to carry out the pilot program of public interest litigations. 本案是全国人大常委会授权检察机关开展公益诉讼试点工作后全国首例由检察机关提起的民事公益诉讼案件。
1. , The procuratorial authority shall conduct investigation and verification by centering on essential tort elements. Although the principle of shifting the burden of proof is applicable to the causal relationship in the tort case regarding environmental pollution, for the purpose of ensuring the legitimate and accurate supervision, the procuratorial authority shall still conduct full investigation and verification and find the case facts. The investigation and verification mainly covers (1) whether the tortfeasor has committed an act of environmental pollution; (2) whether the act of the tortfeasor has impaired the public interests; and (3) whether there is relevance between the act of environmental pollution committed by the tortfeasor and the damage caused. 1. 围绕侵权构成要件,开展调查核实。虽然污染环境侵权案件因果关系适用举证责任倒置原则,但为保证依法准确监督,检察机关仍应充分开展调查核实,查明案件事实。调查核实主要包括以下方面:(1)侵权人实施了污染环境的行为;(2)侵权人的行为已经损害社会公共利益;(3)侵权人实施的污染环境行为与损害结果之间具有关联性。
2. The procuratorial authority shall institute public interest litigations by accurately positioning civil tort liability. Article 4 of the Tort Law of the People's Republic of China provides that “Where a tortfeaor shall assume administrative liability or criminal liability for the same conduct, it shall not affect the assumption of tort liability according to the law.” For environmental polluters and tortfeasors that infringe on the lawful rights and interests of many consumers in the field of food and drug safety and impair the public interests, the administrative penalty or criminal penalty imposed on them does not affect the procuratorial authority's institution of a civil public interest litigation against them. The fine or penalty is not within the scope of civil tort liability and cannot offset the amount of compensation for infringement on or impairment to the public interests. 2. 准确定位民事侵权责任,提起公益诉讼。《中华人民共和国侵权责任法》第四条规定,侵权人因同一行为应当承担行政责任或者刑事责任的,不影响依法承担侵权责任。污染环境肇事人、食品药品安全领域侵害众多消费者合法权益等损害社会公共利益的侵权人,因该侵权行为受过行政或刑事处罚,不影响检察机关对该侵权人提起民事公益诉讼。罚款或罚金均不属于民事侵权责任范畴,不能抵销损害社会公共利益的侵权损害赔偿金额。
3. The procuratorial authority may raise reasonable claims by centering on the environmental pollution. When instituting a civil environmental public interest litigation, the procuratorial authority shall, in light of the specific case facts and the relevant evidence, reasonably determine such civil liabilities the polluter should assume as cessation of the tortious act, removal of obstructions, elimination of dangers, restoration to the original state, formal apologies, and compensation for losses. The first claim in the civil environmental public interest litigation instituted by the procuratorial authority shall be cessation of the tortious act, elimination of dangers, and restoration to the original state. In particular, “restoration to the original state” shall be that the tortfeasor is required to assume the liability for pollution disposal and ecological restoration on the premise that the restoration to the original state is possible and necessary. Where complete restoration is impossible or the restoration expenses are munch greater than the benefits, the adoption of alternative restoration methods may be permitted and the defendant may be required to bear the ecological environment restoration expenses. 3. 围绕环境污染情况,提出合理诉求。检察机关提起环境民事公益诉讼,应当结合具体案情和相关证据合理确定污染者承担停止侵害、排除妨碍、消除危险、恢复原状、赔礼道歉、赔偿损失等民事责任。检察机关提起环境民事公益诉讼的第一诉求应是停止侵害、排除危险和恢复原状。其中,“恢复原状”应当是在有恢复原状的可能和必要的前提下,要求损害者承担治理污染和修复生态的责任。无法完全恢复或恢复成本远远大于其收益的,可以准许采用替代性修复方式,也可以要求被告承担生态环境修复费用。
4. The procuratorial authority may determine the amount of compensation by centering on actual circumstances of restoration of the ecological environment. The expenses for restoring the ecological environment include the expenses for making and implementing the restoration plan, monitoring, and supervision, among others. Where the damage to the ecological environment caused by the environmental pollution fails to be completely restored through a restoration project, the restoration costs are much greater than the benefits, or the evaluation indexes for the restoration of damage to the ecological environment are lacked, the method of virtual disposal costs may be adopted to calculate the restoration expenses by reference to the Recommended Methods for the Identification and Evaluation of Environmental Damage formulated by the Ministry of Environmental Protection. That is, the restoration expenses may be reasonably determined by multiplying the sensitivity degree of environmental functions of the affected area by the corresponding sensitivity coefficient. 4. 围绕生态环境修复实际,确定赔偿费用。生态环境修复费用包括制定、实施修复方案的费用和监测、监管等费用。环境污染所致生态环境损害无法通过恢复工程完全恢复的,恢复成本远大于收益的,缺乏生态环境损害恢复评价指标、生态环境修复费用难以确定的,可以参考环境保护部制定的《环境损害鉴定评估推荐方法》,采用虚拟治理成本法计算修复费用,即在虚拟治理成本基数的基础上,根据受污染区域的环境功能敏感程度与对应的敏感系数相乘予以合理确定。
5. The procuratorial authority may introduce an expert advisor by centering on specialized technical issues. For a number of specialized technical issues concerning soil pollution, illegal discharge of pollutants, casual relationship, and environmental restoration in civil environmental public interest litigation cases, the procuratorial authority may clarify specialized technical issues in core evidence by selecting an environmental expert assistance program. The expert advisor may appear in court and make a statement or offer an opinion on the identification opinion issued by an identification expert or regarding a specialized issue such as the casual relationship, the methods of restoring the ecological environment, the expenses for restoring the ecological environment, and the loss of service functions from the period when the ecological environment is damaged to the restoration thereof. The statement or opinion upon cross examination may serve as the basis for determining facts. 5. 围绕专业技术问题,引入专家辅助人。环境民事公益诉讼案件,涉及土壤污染、非法排污、因果关系、环境修复等大量的专业技术问题,检察机关可以通过甄选环境专家协助办案,厘清关键证据中的专业性技术问题。专家辅助人出庭就鉴定人作出的鉴定意见或者就因果关系、生态环境修复方式、生态环境修复费用以及生态环境受到损害至恢复原状期间服务功能的损失等专门性问题,作出说明或提出意见,经质证后可以作为认定事实的根据。
[Legal Provisions] 【相关规定】
Tort Law of the People's Republic of China (Adopted at the 12th session of the Standing Committee of the Eleventh National People's Congress on December 26, 2009) 中华人民共和国侵权责任法》(2009年12月26日第十一届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十二次会议通过)
Article 4 Where a tortfeasor shall assume administrative liability or criminal liability for the same conduct, it shall not affect the assumption of tort liability according to the law. 第四条 侵权人因同一行为应当承担行政责任或者刑事责任的,不影响依法承担侵权责任。
Where the assets of a tortfeasor are not adequate for payments for the tort liability and administrative liability or criminal liability for the same conduct, the tortfeasor shall first assume the tort liability. 因同一行为应当承担侵权责任和行政责任、刑事责任,侵权人的财产不足以支付的,先承担侵权责任。
Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Environmental Pollution by Solid Wastes (2013 Amendment) 中华人民共和国固体废物污染环境防治法》(2013年修正)
Article 17 Entities and individuals that collect, store, transport, utilize or dispose of solid wastes shall take measures to prevent the scattering, run-off, and leakage of solid wastes, as well as other measures against environmental pollution. No entity or individual may dump, pile up, discard, or litter solid wastes. 第十七条 收集、贮存、运输、利用、处置固体废物的单位和个人,必须采取防扬散、防流失、防渗漏或者其他防止污染环境的措施;不得擅自倾倒、堆放、丢弃、遗撒固体废物。
No entity or individual may dump solid wastes into or pile them up at rivers, lakes, canals, ditches, reservoirs, or bottomlands, banks, and slopes under the highest waterline or other places where the wastes are not allowed to be dumped or piled up according to the law and regulation. 禁止任何单位或者个人向江河、湖泊、运河、渠道、水库及其最高水位线以下的滩地和岸坡等法律、法规规定禁止倾倒、堆放废弃物的地点倾倒、堆放固体废物。
Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Several Issues concerning the Application of Law in the Trial of Environmental Civil Public Interest Litigations (Adopted at the 1,631st session of the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court on December 8, 2014) 最高人民法院关于审理环境民事公益诉讼案件适用法律若干问题的解释》(2014年12月8日最高人民法院审判委员会第1631次会议通过)
Article 15 Where a party applies for notifying a person with expertise to appear in court to offer an opinion regarding an identification opinion issued by an identification expert or regarding a specialized issue such as the casual relationship, the methods of restoring the ecological environment, the expenses for restoring the ecological environment, and the loss of service functions from the period when the ecological environment is damaged to the restoration thereof, the people's court may grant such an application. 第十五条 当事人申请通知有专门知识的人出庭,就鉴定人作出的鉴定意见或者就因果关系、生态环境修复方式、生态环境修复费用以及生态环境受到损害至恢复原状期间服务功能的损失等专门性问题提出意见的,人民法院可以准许。
The expert opinions upon cross examination as prescribed in the preceding paragraph may be taken as the basis for determining facts. 前款规定的专家意见经质证,可以作为认定事实的根据。
Article 20 Where the plaintiff requests the restoration to the original state, the people's court may render a judgment according to the law that the defendant shall restore the ecological environment to the state and functions before the damage occurs. If complete restoration is impossible, the people's court may permit the adoption of alternative restoration methods. 第二十条 原告请求恢复原状的,人民法院可以依法判决被告将生态环境修复到损害发生之前的状态和功能。无法完全修复的,可以准许采用替代性修复方式。
The people's court may, when rendering a judgment that the defendant shall restore the ecological environment, determine the expenses for restoring the ecological environment that shall be borne by the defendant when it fails to perform the restoration obligation; or may directly render a judgment that the defendant shall assume the expenses for restoring the ecological environment. 人民法院可以在判决被告修复生态环境的同时,确定被告不履行修复义务时应承担的生态环境修复费用;也可以直接判决被告承担生态环境修复费用。
The expenses for restoring the ecological environment include the expenses for preparing and implementing the restoration plan, monitoring, and supervision, among others. 生态环境修复费用包括制定、实施修复方案的费用和监测、监管等费用。
Article 23 Where the expenses for restoring the ecological environment can hardly be determined or the identification expenses for determining the specific amount is evidently too high, the people's court may reasonably determine the aforesaid expenses in light of the extent and degree of environmental pollution and ecological destruction, the scarcity of the ecological environment, the difficulty to restore the ecological environment, the operating cost of pollution prevention and control equipment, the benefits obtained by the defendant out of the tortious act, the extent of fault, and other factors, and may refer to the opinions of the department assuming environmental protection supervision and administration functions, and expert opinions, among others. 第二十三条 生态环境修复费用难以确定或者确定具体数额所需鉴定费用明显过高的,人民法院可以结合污染环境、破坏生态的范围和程度、生态环境的稀缺性、生态环境恢复的难易程度、防治污染设备的运行成本、被告因侵害行为所获得的利益以及过错程度等因素,并可以参考负有环境保护监督管理职责的部门的意见、专家意见等,予以合理确定。
Measures for the Implementation of the Pilot Program of Instituting Public Interest Actions by the People's Procuratorates (Adopted at the 45th session of the Twelfth Procuratorial Committee of the Supreme People's Procuratorate on December 16, 2015) 人民检察院提起公益诉讼试点工作实施办法》(2015年12月16日最高人民检察院第十二届检察委员会第四十五次会议通过)
Article 14 Where, upon prelitigation procedure, the organ as prescribed in law and the relevant organization fail to institute a civil public interest action or there is no rightful subject to institute an action, and the public interests are still being impaired, the people's procuratorate may institute a civil public interest action. 第十四条 经过诉前程序,法律规定的机关和有关组织没有提起民事公益诉讼,或者没有适格主体提起诉讼,社会公共利益仍处于受侵害状态的,人民检察院可以提起民事公益诉讼。
Article 17 Before instituting a civil public interest action, the people's procuratorate shall submit the following materials: 第十七条 人民检察院提起民事公益诉讼应当提交下列材料:
(1) the written complaint of the civil public interest action; and (一)民事公益诉讼起诉书;
(2) the preliminary evidentiary material proving that the act of the defendant has impaired the public interests. (二)被告的行为已经损害社会公共利益的初步证明材料。
Recommended Methods for the Identification and Evaluation of Environmental Damage (II Edition) 《环境损害鉴定评估推荐方法》(第Ⅱ版)
A.2.3 Method of Virtual Disposal Costs A.2.3 虚拟治理成本法
Virtual disposal costs are expenditures required for the disposal of pollutants discharged to the environment according to the current disposal technologies and level. The method of virtual disposal costs is applicable to circumstances where the damage to the ecological environment caused by the environment pollution fails to be completely restored through a restoration project, the restoration costs are much greater than the benefits, or the evaluation indexes for the restoration of damage to the ecological environment are lacked. For the specific calculation methods for the method of virtual disposal costs, see the Technical Specifications for the Evaluation of Environmental Damage at the Stage of Emergency Disposal of Environmental Emergencies. 虚拟治理成本是按照现行的治理技术和水平治理排放到环境中的污染物所需要的支出。虚拟治理成本法适用于环境污染所致生态环境损害无法通过恢复工程完全恢复、恢复成本远远大于其收益或缺乏生态环境损害恢复评价指标的情形。虚拟治理成本法的具体计算方法见《突发环境事件应急处置阶段环境损害评估技术规范》。
Recommended Methods for the Evaluation of Environmental Damage at the State of Emergency Disposal of Environmental Emergencies (namely, Technical Specifications for the Evaluation of Environmental Damage at the State of Emergency Disposal of Environmental Emergencies) 突发环境事件应急处置阶段环境损害评估推荐方法》(即《突发环境事件应急处置阶段环境损害评估技术规范》)
Annex F Method of Virtual Disposal Costs 附F 虚拟治理成本法
Virtual disposal costs are costs that shall be spent by an industrial enterprise or sewage treatment plant for the disposal of the equivalent amount of pollutants discharged to the environment, which are obtained by multiplying the amount of pollutants discharged by the unit virtual disposal cost of pollutants. Unit virtual disposal cost of pollutants refers to the average cost for the disposal of the unit amount of pollutants by an industrial enterprise or sewage treatment plant at the place where the environmental emergency occurs. In the quantization of damage to the ecological environment, the upper and lower limits of the amount of environmental damage may be obtained by multiplying the sensitive extent of environmental functions in the area affected by the pollution by 1.5 to 10 times. For details on the determination principle, see the Attached Table F-1. The environmental damage calculated by using the method of virtual disposal costs may serve as the basis for compensation for damage to the ecological environment. 虚拟治理成本是指工业企业或污水处理厂治理等量的排放到环境中的污染物应该花费的成本,即污染物排放量与单位污染物虚拟治理成本的乘积。单位污染物虚拟治理成本是指突发环境事件发生地的工业企业或污水处理厂单位污染物治理平均成本(含固定资产折旧)。在量化生态环境损害时,可以根据受污染影响区域的环境功能敏感程度分别乘以1.5-10的倍数作为环境损害数额的上下限值,确定原则见附表F-1。利用虚拟治理成本法计算得到的环境损害可以作为生态环境损害赔偿的依据。
 
People's Procuratorate of Baishan City, Jilin Province v. Health and Family Planning Bureau of Jiangyuan District and Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Jiangyuan District, Baishan City (Civil public interest litigation incidental to an administrative lawsuit) 吉林省白山市人民检察院诉白山市江源区卫生和计划生育局及江源区中医院行政附带民事公益诉讼案
(Case No. 29 of the Supreme People's Procuratorate) (检例第29号)
[Keywords] 【关键词】
Civil public interest litigation incidental to an administrative lawsuit; prelitigationprocedure; jurisdiction 行政附带民事公益诉讼 诉前程序 管辖
[Basic Facts] 【基本案情】
In 2012, when constructing a complex building, the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Jiangyuan District, Baishan City, Jilin Province did not construct sewage treatment facilities. Without passing the environmental protection acceptance, the complex building was put into use. The Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Jiangyuan District directly discharged the medical sewage treated with the disinfectant powder to seepage wells in the Hospital and seepage pits outside the Hospital, causing pollution to the surrounding underground water and soil. On January 8, 2014, in the reconstruction of building facilities, the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Jiangyuan District did not implement the system that the pollution prevention and control measures for a construction project should be designed, constructed, and put into use simultaneously with the main project. The Environmental Protection Bureau of Jiangyuan District imposed an administrative penalty of fine on the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Jiangyuan District and made an administrative decision on ordering the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Jiangyuan District to make corrections and go through environmental protection acceptance formalities within a prescribed time limit. Due to unpaid funds for the construction of the sewage treatment system, the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Jiangyuan District continued to discharge medical sewage through seepage wells and seepage pits. 2012年,吉林省白山市江源区中医院建设综合楼时未建设污水处理设施,综合楼未经环保验收即投入使用,并将医疗污水经消毒粉处理后直接排入院内渗井及院外渗坑,污染了周边地下水及土壤。2014年1月8日,江源区中医院在进行建筑设施改建时,未执行建设项目的防治污染措施应当与主体工程同时设计、同时施工、同时投产使用的“三同时”制度,江源区环保局对区中医院作出罚款行政处罚和责令改正、限期办理环保验收的行政处理。江源区中医院因污水处理系统建设资金未到位,继续通过渗井、渗坑排放医疗污水。
On May 18, 2015, under the circumstance where the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Jiangyuan District did not provide an environmental impact assessment (EIA) compliance report, the Health and Family Planning Bureau of Jiangyuan District determined that the License for Practicing of Medical Institutions of the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Jiangyuan District passed the verification. 2015年5月18日,在江源区中医院未提供环评合格报告的情况下,江源区卫生和计划生育局对区中医院《医疗机构执业许可证》校验结果评定为合格。
[Prelitigation Procedure] 【诉前程序】
On November 18, 2015, the People's Procuratorate of Jianyuan District, Baishan City, Jilin Province offered a procuratorial proposal to the Health and Family Planning Bureau of Jiangyuan District and proposed that the Health and Family Planning Bureau of Jiangyuan District should perform the supervision and administration duties according to the law, take effective measures, and prevent the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Jiangyuan District from illegally discharging medical sewage. On November 23, 2015, the Health and Family Planning Bureau of Jiangyuan District issued a notice on rectification to the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Jiangyuan District and on December 10, 2015, it made a reply to the People's Procuratorate of Jiangyuan District. However, the illegal discharge of medical sewage by the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Jiangyuan District failed to be effectively prevented, causing the continuous impairment of the public interests. 2015年11月18日,吉林省白山市江源区人民检察院向区卫生和计划生育局发出检察建议,建议该局依法履行监督管理职责,采取有效措施,制止江源区中医院违法排放医疗污水。江源区卫生和计划生育局于2015年11月23日向区中医院发出整改通知,并于2015年12月10日向江源区人民检察院作出回复,但一直未能有效制止江源区中医院违法排放医疗污水,导致社会公共利益持续处于受侵害状态。
Upon consultation with the Environmental Protection Department of Jilin Province and the Environmental Protection Bureau and the Civil Affairs Bureau of Baishan City, it was found that there was no non-profit social organization that satisfied the requirements as prescribed by law and may institute a public interest litigation in Jilin Province. 经咨询吉林省环保厅,白山市环保局、民政局,吉林省内没有符合法律规定条件的可以提起公益诉讼的社会公益组织。
[Proceedings] 【诉讼过程】
On February 29, 2016, as a public interest litigant, the People's Procuratorate of Baishan City instituted a civil public interest litigation incidental to an administrative lawsuit in the Intermediate People's Court of Baishan City and requested the Intermediate People's Court of Baishan City to order that the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Jiangyuan District should immediately cease the illegal discharge of medical sewage, confirm that the act of verification supervision and administration of the Health and Family Planning Bureau of Jiangyuan District violated the law, and require the Health and Family Planning Bureau of Jiangyuan District to immediately perform its statutory supervision and administration duties and order the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Jiangyuan District to effectively rectify and construct sewage purification facilities. The People's Procuratorate of Baishan City held that: 2016年2月29日,白山市人民检察院以公益诉讼人身份向白山市中级人民法院提起行政附带民事公益诉讼,诉求判令江源区中医院立即停止违法排放医疗污水,确认江源区卫生和计划生育局校验监管行为违法,并要求江源区卫生和计划生育局立即履行法定监管职责责令区中医院有效整改建设污水净化设施。白山市人民检察院认为:
1. The discharge of medical sewage by the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Jiangyuan District caused environmental pollution and greater hidden risks of environmental pollution. It was found upon sampling and detection that chemical oxygen demand (COD), five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solids, and total residual chlorine in the medical sewage and the surrounding soil of seepage wells all exceeded the prescribed standard limits of the state and have caused pollution of surrounding underground water and soil. According to the identification opinion, the discharge of medical sewage may cause pollution of iatrogenic bacteria to the underground water, domestic water, and surrounding soil and there were hidden risks of bacteria spread. 一、江源区中医院排放医疗污水造成了环境污染及更大环境污染风险隐患。经取样检测,医疗污水及渗井周边土壤化学需氧量、五日生化需氧量、悬浮物、总余氯等均超出国家规定的标准限值,已造成周边地下水、土壤污染。鉴定意见认为,医疗污水的排放可引起医源性细菌对地下水、生活用水及周边土壤的污染,存在细菌传播的隐患。
2. The Health and Family Planning Bureau of Jiangyuan District failed to perform the supervision and administration duties. The Health and Family Planning Bureau of Jiangyuan District had the statutory duties of supervision and administration on medical institutions within its jurisdiction. After the People's Procuratorate of Jiangyuan District offered a procuratorial proposal, the Health and Family Planning Bureau of Jiangyuan District issued a notice on rectification and made a reply, applied for funding to the People's Government of Jiangyuan District, and promoted the investment to and construction of the sewage treatment project of the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Jianyuan District. However, the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital still discharged medical sewage through seepage wells and seepage pits, causing continuous impairment of the public interests. 二、江源区卫生和计划生育局怠于履行监管职责。江源区卫生和计划生育局对辖区内医疗机构具有监督管理的法定职责。江源区人民检察院发出检察建议后,江源区卫生和计划生育局虽然发出整改通知并回复,并通过向江源区人民政府申请资金的方式,促使区中医院污水处理工程投入建设。但江源区中医院仍通过渗井、渗坑违法排放医疗污水,导致社会公共利益持续处于受侵害状态。
3. The act of verification committed by the Health and Family Planning Bureau of Jiangyuan District was illegal. Article 35 of the Detailed Rules on the Implementation of the Regulation on the Administration of Medical Institutions and Article 44 of the Measures of Jilin Province for the Administration of Examination and Approval of Medical Institutions (for Trial Implementation) provide that when applying for verification, a medical institution should submit an application for verification, information on alterations of practice registration items, information on accepted verification, an EIA compliance report, and other materials. Under the circumstance where the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Jiangyuan District did not submit an EIA compliance report, the Health and Family Planning Bureau of Jiangyuan District determined that the Hospital's License for Practicing of Medical Institutions passed the verification, which violated the provisions of the aforesaid rule and regulatory document and the act of verification committed by the Health and Family Planning Bureau of Jiangyuan District was illegal. 三、江源区卫生和计划生育局的校验行为违法。卫生部《医疗机构管理条例实施细则》第三十五条、《吉林省医疗机构审批管理办法(试行)》第四十四条规定,医疗机构申请校验时应提交校验申请、执业登记项目变更情况、接受整改情况、环评合格报告等材料。在江源区中医院未提交环评合格报告的情况下,江源区卫生和计划生育局对区中医院的《医疗机构执业许可证》校验为合格,违反上述规章和规范性文件的规定,江源区卫生和计划生育局的校验行为违法。
[Trial Result] 【案件结果】
On May 11, 2016, the Intermediate People's Court of Baishan City held an open trial of this case. On July 15 of the same year, the Intermediate People's Court of Baishan City rendered an administrative judgment of first instance and a civil judgment of first instance. In the administrative judgment, the administrative act of the Health and Family Planning Bureau of Jiangyuan District of determining that the License for Practicing of Medical Institutions of the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Jiangyuan District passed the verification on May 18, 2015 was illegal; and the Health and Family Planning Bureau of Jiangyuan District was ordered to perform the supervision and administration duties and conduct supervision over the rectification of medical sewage treatment facilities completed by the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Jiangyuan District within three months. In the civil judgment, the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Jiangyuan District was ordered to immediately cease the illegal discharge of medical sewage. 2016年5月11日,白山市中级人民法院公开开庭审理了本案。同年7月15日,白山市中级人民法院分别作出一审行政判决和民事判决。行政判决确认江源区卫生和计划生育局于2015年5月18日对江源区中医院《医疗机构执业许可证》校验合格的行政行为违法;判令江源区卫生和计划生育局履行监督管理职责,监督江源区中医院在三个月内完成医疗污水处理设施的整改。民事判决判令江源区中医院立即停止违法排放医疗污水。
After the judgments of first instance were pronounced, the Health and Family Planning Bureau of Jiangyuan District and the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Jiangyuan District did not appeal and the judgments have come into force. 一审宣判后,江源区卫生和计划生育局、中医院均未上诉,判决已发生法律效力。
After the judgment was rendered, the Municipal Party Committee and People's Government of Baishan City actively promoted the rectification, carried out special campaigns on the treatment of medical wastes and sewage, and required the People's Government of Jiangyuan District to allocate over CNY900,000 for purchasing and installing facilities for purification and treatment of medical sewage. The People's Government of Jiangyuan District voluntarily accepted supervision, actively conducted the rectification, and allocated over CNY900,000 to promote the completion of the rectification. The People's Procuratorate of Jilin Province offered procuratorial proposals on province-wide non-standardized disposal of medical wastes and sewage to the Health and Family Planning Committee and the Environmental Protection Department of Jilin Province and jointly with the Health and Family Planning Committee and the Environmental Protection Department of Jilin Province, held symposiums and issued documents to conduct the special law enforcement inspection and promote the comprehensive investigation, inspection, and control of province-wide medical wastes and sewage. 本案判决作出后,白山市委、市政府为积极推动整改,专门开展医疗废物、废水的专项治理活动,并要求江源区政府拨款90余万元,购买并安装医疗污水净化处理设备。江源区政府主动接受监督,积极整改,拨款90余万元推动完成整改工作。吉林省人民检察院就全省范围内存在的医疗垃圾和污水处理不规范等问题,向省卫计委、环保厅发出检察建议,与省卫计委、环保厅召开座谈会,联合发文开展专项执法检查,推动在全省范围内对医疗垃圾和污水处理问题的全面调研、全面检查、全面治理。
[Key Points] 【要旨】
Where, in the performance of duties, a procuratorial authority discovers any illegal administrative act of an administrative organ with supervision and administration duties, such illegal administrative act causes the occurrence of environmental pollution and impairment of the public interests and it is the prerequisite or premise of a civil tortious act, the illegal administrative act and the civil tortious act are not corrected after going through the prelitigation procedures of administrative public interest litigation and civil public interest litigation, if there is no rightful subject or the rightful subject does not institute a lawsuit, the procuratorial authority may, by reference to the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 61 of the Administrative Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as the “Administrative Procedure Law”), institute a civil public interest litigation incidental to an administrative lawsuit in the people's court and the people's court may try them concurrently. 检察机关在履行职责中发现负有监督管理职责的行政机关存在违法行政行为,导致发生污染环境,侵害社会公共利益的行为,且违法行政行为是民事侵权行为的先决或者前提行为,在履行行政公益诉讼和民事公益诉讼诉前程序后,违法行政行为和民事侵权行为未得到纠正,在没有适格主体或者适格主体不提起诉讼的情况下,检察机关可以参照《中华人民共和国行政诉讼法》第六十一条第一款的规定,向人民法院提起行政附带民事公益诉讼,由法院一并审理。
[Guiding Significance] 【指导意义】
This is the first civil public interest litigation incidental to an administrative lawsuit after the pilot program of public interest litigations has been carried out across the country. 本案是公益诉讼试点后全国首例行政附带民事公益诉讼案。
1. As a public interest litigant, a procuratorial authority may institute a civil public interest litigation incidental to an administrative lawsuit. In accordance with the provisions of Article 56 of the Measures for the Implementation of the Pilot Program of Instituting Public Interest Litigations by the People's Procuratorates (hereinafter referred to as the “Implementation Measures of the Procuratorates”) and Articles 4, 14, and 23 of the Measures for the Implementation of the Pilot Program of Trial by People's Courts of Public Interest Litigation Cases Instituted by People's Procuratorates (hereinafter referred to as the “Implementation Measures of the Courts”), when the people's procuratorate institutes a civil or administrative public interest litigation as a public interest litigant, the litigation rights and obligations shall be governed by the provisions of the Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as the “Civil Procedure Law”) and the Administrative ProcedureLaw on the litigation rights and obligations of the plaintiff. When the people's court tries a public interest litigation case instituted by the people's procuratorate, if there is no specific provision in the Implementation Measures of the Procuratorates and the Implementation Measures of the Courts, the provisions of the Civil Procedure Law, the Administrative ProcedureLaw, and the relevant judicial interpretations shall apply. 1. 检察机关作为公益诉讼人,可以提起行政附带民事公益诉讼。根据《人民检察院提起公益诉讼试点工作实施办法》(以下简称《检察院实施办法》)第五十六条和《人民法院审理人民检察院提起公益诉讼案件试点工作实施办法》(以下简称《法院实施办法》)第四条、第十四条、第二十三条的规定,人民检察院以公益诉讼人身份提起民事或行政公益诉讼,诉讼权利义务参照民事诉讼法行政诉讼法关于原告诉讼权利义务的规定。人民法院审理人民检察院提起的公益诉讼案件,《检察院实施办法》《法院实施办法》没有规定的,适用民事诉讼法行政诉讼法及相关司法解释的规定。
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