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General Principles of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China (2009 Amendment) [Effective]
中华人民共和国民法通则(2009修正) [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】

 
General Principles of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China 

中华人民共和国民法通则

(Adopted at the fourth session of the sixth National People's Congress; Amended in accordance with the Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on Amending Some Laws adopted at the 10th session of the eleventh Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on August 27, 2009) (1986年4月12日第六届全国人民代表大会第四次会议通过 根据2009年8月27日第十一届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十次会议《关于修改部分法律的决定》修正)
 

Chapter I Basic Principles 第一章 基本原则
Article 1. This Law is formulated in accordance with the Constitution
小词儿都挺能整
and the actual situation in our country, drawing upon our practical experience in civil activities, for the purpose of protecting the lawful civil rights and interests of citizens and legal persons and correctly adjusting civil relations, so as to meet the needs of the developing socialist modernization.
   第一条 为了保障公民、法人的合法的民事权益,正确调整民事关系,适应社会主义现代化建设事业发展的需要,根据宪法和我国实际情况,总结民事活动的实践经验,制定本法。
Article 2. The civil Law of the People's Republic of China shall adjust property relationships and personal relationships between civil subjects with equal status, that is, between citizens, between legal persons and between citizens and legal persons.   第二条 中华人民共和国民法调整平等主体的公民之间、法人之间、公民和法人之间的财产关系和人身关系。
Article 3. Parties to a civil activity shall have equal status.   第三条 当事人在民事活动中的地位平等。
Article 4. In civil activities, the principles of voluntariness, fairness, making compensation for equal value, honesty and credibility shall be observed.   第四条 民事活动应当遵循自愿、公平、等价有偿、诚实信用的原则。
Article 5. The Lawful civil Rights and interests of citizens and Legal Persons shall be protected by Law; no organization or Individual may infringe upon them.   第五条 公民、法人的合法的民事权益受法律保护,任何组织和个人不得侵犯。
Article 6. civil activities must be in compliance with the Law; where there are no relevant provisions in the Law, they shall be in compliance with state policies.   第六条 民事活动必须遵守法律,法律没有规定的,应当遵守国家政策。
Article 7. civil activities shall have respect for social ethics and shall not harm the public interest or disrupt social economic order.   第七条 民事活动应当尊重社会公德,不得损害社会公共利益,扰乱社会经济秩序
Article 8. The Law of the People's Republic of China shall apply to civil activities within the People's Republic of China, except as otherwise stipulated by Law.   第八条 在中华人民共和国领域内的民事活动,适用中华人民共和国法律,法律另有规定的除外。
The stipulations of this Law as regards citizens shall apply to foreigners and stateless persons within the People's Republic of China, except as otherwise stipulated by Law. 本法关于公民的规定,适用于在中华人民共和国领域内的外国人、无国籍人,法律另有规定的除外。
Chapter II Citizen (Natural Person) 

第二章 公民(自然人)

Section 1 Capacity for civil Rights and Capacity for civil Conduct 

第一节 民事权利能力和民事行为能力

Article 9. A citizen shall have the capacity for civil Rights from birth to death and shall enjoy civil Rights and assume civil obligations in accordance with the Law.   第九条 公民从出生时起到死亡时止,具有民事权利能力,依法享有民事权利,承担民事义务。
Article 10. All citizens are equal as regards their capacity for civil rights.   第十条 公民的民事权利能力一律平等。
Article 11. A citizen aged 18 or over shall be an adult. He shall have full capacity for civil conduct, may independently engage in civil activities and shall be called a person with full capacity for civil conduct.   第十一条 十八周岁以上的公民是成年人,具有完全民事行为能力,可以独立进行民事活动,是完全民事行为能力人。
A citizen who has reached the age of 16 but not the age 18 and whose main source of income is his own labour shall be regarded as a person with full capacity for civil conduct. 十六周岁以上不满十八周岁的公民,以自己的劳动收入为主要生活来源的,视为完全民事行为能力人。
Article 12. A minor aged 10 or over shall be a person with limited capacity for civil conduct and may engage in civil activities appropriate to his age and intellect; in other civil activities, he shall be represented by his agent ad litem or participate with the consent of his agent ad litem.   第十二条 十周岁以上的未成年人是限制民事行为能力人,可以进行与他的年龄、智力相适应的民事活动;其他民事活动由他的法定代理人代理,或者征得他的法定代理人的同意。
A minor under the age of 10 shall be a person having no capacity for civil conduct and shall be represented in civil activities by his agent ad litem. 不满十周岁的未成年人是无民事行为能力人,由他的法定代理人代理民事活动。
Article 13. A mentally ill person who is unable to recognize his own conduct shall be a person having no capacity for civil conduct and shall be represented in civil activities by his agent ad litem.   第十三条 不能辨认自己行为的精神病人是无民事行为能力人,由他的法定代理人代理民事活动。
A mentally ill person who is unable to fully recognize his own conduct shall be a person with limited capacity for civil conduct and may engage in civil activities appropriate to his mental health; in other civil activities, he shall be represented by his agent ad litem or participate with the consent of his agent ad litem. 不能完全辨认自己行为的精神病人是限制民事行为能力人,可以进行与他的精神健康状况相适应的民事活动;其他民事活动由他的法定代理人代理,或者征得他的法定代理人的同意。
Article 14. The guardian of a person without or with limited capacity for civil conduct shall be his agent ad litem.   第十四条 无民事行为能力人、限制民事行为能力人的监护人是他的法定代理人。
Article 15. The domicile of a citizen shall be the place where his residence is registered; if his habitual residence is not the same as his domicile, his habitual residence shall be regarded as his domicile.   第十五条 公民以他的户籍所在地的居住地为住所,经常居住地与住所不一致的,经常居住地视为住所。
Section 2 Guardianship 

第二节 监护

Article 16. The parents of a minor shall be his guardians.   第十六条 未成年人的父母是未成年人的监护人。
If the parents of a minor are dead or lack the competence to be his guardian, a person from the following categories who has the competence to be a guardian shall act as his guardian: 未成年人的父母已经死亡或者没有监护能力的,由下列人员中有监护能力的人担任监护人:
(1) paternal or maternal grandparent; (一)祖父母、外祖父母;
(2) elder brother or sister; or (二)兄、姐;
(3) any other closely connected relative or friend willing to bear the responsibility of guardianship and having approval from the units of the minor's parents or from the neighbourhood or village committee in the place of the minor's residence. (三)关系密切的其他亲属、朋友愿意承担监护责任,经未成年人的父、母的所在单位或者未成年人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会同意的。
In case of a dispute over guardianship, the units of the minor's parents or the neighbourhood or village committee in the place of his residence shall appoint a guardian from among the minor's near relatives. If disagreement over the appointment leads to a Lawsuit, the people's court shall make a ruling. 对担任监护人有争议的,由未成年人的父、母的所在单位或者未成年人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会在近亲属中指定。对指定不服提起诉讼的,由人民法院裁决。
If none of the persons listed in the first two paragraphs of this Article is available to be the guardian, the units of the minor's parents, the neighbourhood or village committee in the place of the minor's residence or the civil affairs department shall act as his guardian. 没有第一款、第二款规定的监护人的,由未成年人的父、母的所在单位或者未成年人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会或者民政部门担任监护人。
Article 17. A person from the following categories shall act as guardian for a mentally ill person without or with limited capacity for civil conduct:   第十七条 无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力的精神病人,由下列人员担任监护人:
(1) spouse; (一)配偶;
(2) parent; (二)父母;
(3) adult child; (三)成年子女;
(4) any other near relative; (四)其他近亲属;
(5) any other closely connected relative or friend willing to bear the responsibility of guardianship and having approval from the unit to which the mentally ill person belongs or from the neighbourhood or village committee in the place of his residence. (五)关系密切的其他亲属、朋友愿意承担监护责任,经精神病人的所在单位或者住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会同意的。
In case of a dispute over guardianship, the unit to which the mentally ill person belongs, or the neighbourhood or village committee in the place of his residence, shall appoint a guardian from among his near relatives. If disagreement over the appointment leads to a Lawsuit, the people's court shall make a ruling. 对担任监护人有争议的,由精神病人的所在单位或者住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会在近亲属中指定。对指定不服提起诉讼的,由人民法院裁决。
If none of the persons listed in the first paragraph of this Article is available to be the guardian, the unit to which the mentally ill person belongs, the neighbourhood or village committee in the place of his residence or the civil affairs department shall act as his guardian. 没有第一款规定的监护人的,由精神病人的所在单位或者住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会或者民政部门担任监护人。
Article 18. A guardian shall fulfil his duty of guardianship and protect the person, property and other Lawful Rights and interests of his wards. A guardian shall not handle the property of his ward unless it is in the ward's interests.   第十八条 监护人应当履行监护职责,保护被监护人的人身、财产及其他合法权益,除为被监护人的利益外,不得处理被监护人的财产。
A guardian's Rights to fulfil his guardianship in accordance with the Law shall be protected by Law. 监护人依法履行监护的权利,受法律保护。
If a guardian does not fulfil his duties as guardian or infringes upon the Lawful Rights and interests of his ward, he shall be held responsible; if a guardian causes any property loss for his ward, he shall compensate for such loss. The people's court may disqualify a guardian based on the Application of a concerned party or unit. 监护人不履行监护职责或者侵害被监护人的合法权益的,应当承担责任;给被监护人造成财产损失的,应当赔偿损失。人民法院可以根据有关人员或者有关单位的申请,撤销监护人的资格。
Article 19. A person who shares interests with mental patient may apply to a people's court for a declaration that the mental patient is a person without or with limited capacity for civil conduct.   第十九条 精神病人的利害关系人,可以向人民法院申请宣告精神病人为无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人。
with the recovery of the health of a person who has been declared by a people's court to be without or with limited capacity for civil conduct, and upon his own Application or that of an interested person, the people's court may declare him to be a person with limited or full capacity for civil conduct. 被人民法院宣告为无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人的,根据他健康恢复的状况,经本人或者利害关系人申请,人民法院可以宣告他为限制民事行为能力人或者完全民事行为能力人。
Section 3 Declarations of Missing Persons and Death 

第三节 宣告失踪和宣告死亡

Article 20. If a citizen's whereabouts have been unknown for two years, an interested person may apply to a people's court for a declaration of the citizen as missing.   第二十条 公民下落不明满二年的,利害关系人可以向人民法院申请宣告他为失踪人。
If a person's whereabouts become unknown during a war, the calculation of the time period in which his whereabouts are unknown shall begin on the final day of the war. 战争期间下落不明的,下落不明的时间从战争结束之日起计算。
Article 21. A missing person's property shall be placed in the custody of his spouse, parents, adult children or other closely connected relatives or friends. In case of a dispute over custody, if the persons stipulated above are unavailable or are incapable of taking such custody, the property shall be placed in the custody of a person appointed by the people's court.   第二十一条 失踪人的财产由他的配偶、父母、成年子女或者关系密切的其他亲属、朋友代管。代管有争议的,没有以上规定的人或者以上规定的人无能力代管的,由人民法院指定的人代管。
Any taxes, debts and other unpaid expenses owed by a missing person shall defrayed by the custodian out of the missing person's property. 失踪人所欠税款、债务和应付的其他费用,由代管人从失踪人的财产中支付。
Article 22. In the event that a person who has been declared missing reappears or his whereabouts is ascertained, the people's court shall, upon his own Application or that of an interested person, revoke the declaration of his missing person status.   第二十二条 被宣告失踪的人重新出现或者确知他的下落,经本人或者利害关系人申请,人民法院应当撤销对他的失踪宣告。
Article 23. Under any of the following circumstances, an interested person may apply to the people's court for the declaration of a citizen's death:   第二十三条 公民有下列情形之一的,利害关系人可以向人民法院申请宣告他死亡:
(1) if the citizen's whereabouts have been unknown for four years; or (一)下落不明满四年的;
(2) if the citizen's whereabouts have been unknown for two years after the date of an accident in which he was involved. (二)因意外事故下落不明,从事故发生之日起满二年的。
If a person's whereabouts become unknown during a war, the calculation of the time period in which his whereabouts are unknown shall begin on the final day of the war. 战争期间下落不明的,下落不明的时间从战争结束之日起计算。
Article 24. In the event that a person who has been declared as dead reappears or it is ascertained that he is alive, the people's court shall, upon his own Application or that of an interested person, revoke the declaration of his death.   第二十四条 被宣告死亡的人重新出现或者确知他没有死亡,经本人或者利害关系人申请,人民法院应当撤销对他的死亡宣告。
Any civil Juristic Acts performed by a person with capacity for civil conduct during the period in which he has been declared dead shall be valid. 有民事行为能力人在被宣告死亡期间实施的民事法律行为有效。
Article 25. A person shall have the right to request the return of his property, if the declaration of his death has been revoked. Any citizen or organization that has obtained such property in accordance with the Inheritance Law shall return the original items or make appropriate compensation if the original items are no longer existent.   第二十五条 被撤销死亡宣告的人有权请求返还财产。依照继承法取得他的财产的公民或者组织,应当返还原物;原物不存在的,给予适当补偿。
Section 4 Individual Businesses and Leaseholding Farm Households 

第四节 个体工商户,农村承包经营户

Article 26. " Individual Businesses " refers to Businesses run by Individual citizens who have been Lawfully registered and approved to engage in industrial or commercial operation within the sphere permitted by Law. An Individual business may adopt a shop name.   第二十六条 公民在法律允许的范围内,依法经核准登记,从事工商业经营的,为个体工商户。个体工商户可以起字号。
Article 27. " Leaseholding Farm Households " refers to members of a rural collective economic organization who engage in commodity production under a Contract and within the spheres permitted by Law.   第二十七条 农村集体经济组织的成员,在法律允许的范围内,按照承包合同规定从事商品经营的,为农村承包经营户。
Article 28. The legitimate Rights and interests of Individual Businesses and Leaseholding Farm Households shall be protected by Law.   第二十八条 个体工商户,农村承包经营户的合法权益,受法律保护。
Article 29. The debts of an Individual business or a Leaseholding farm household shall be secured with the Individual 's property if the business is operated by an Individual and with the family's property if the business is operated by a family.   第二十九条 个体工商户,农村承包经营户的债务,个人经营的,以个人财产承担;家庭经营的,以家庭财产承担。
Section 5 Individual Parthership 

第五节 个人合伙

Article 30. " Individual Parthership " refers to two or more citizens associated in a business and working together, with each providing funds, material objects, techniques and so on according to an agreement.   第三十条 个人合伙是指两个以上公民按照协议,各自提供资金、实物、技术等,合伙经营、共同劳动。
Article 31. Partners shall make a written agreement covering the funds each is to provide, the distribution of profits, the responsibility for debts, the entering into and withdrawal from partnership, the ending of partnership and other such matters.   第三十一条 合伙人应当对出资数额、盈余分配、债务承担、入伙、退伙、合伙终止等事项,订立书面协议。
Article 32. The property provided by the partners shall be under their unified management and use.   第三十二条 合伙人投入的财产,由合伙人统一管理和使用。
The property accumulated in a partnership operation shall belong to all the partners. 合伙经营积累的财产,归合伙人共有。
Article 33. An Individual Parthership may adopt a shop name; it shall be approved and registered in accordance with Law and conduct business operations within the range as approved and registered.   第三十三条 个人合伙可以起字号,依法经核准登记,在核准登记的经营范围内从事经营。
Article 34. The operational activities of an Individual Parthership shall be decided jointly by the partners, who each shall have the right to carry out and supervise over those activities.   第三十四条 个人合伙的经营活动,由合伙人共同决定,合伙人有执行或监督的权利。
The partners may elect a responsible person. All partners shall bear civil Liability for the operational activities of the responsible person and other personnel. 合伙人可以推举负责人。合伙负责人和其他人员的经营活动,由全体合伙人承担民事责任。
Article 35. A partnership's debts shall be secured with the partners' property in proportion to their respective contributions to the investment or according to the agreement made.   第三十五条 合伙的债务,由合伙人按照出资比例或者协议的约定,以各自的财产承担清偿责任。
Partners shall undertake joint Liability for their partnership's debts, except as otherwise stipulated by Law. Any partner who overpays his share of the partnership's debts shall have the right to claim compensation from the other partners. 合伙人对合伙的债务承担连带责任,法律另有规定的除外。偿还合伙债务超过自己应当承担数额的合伙人,有权向其他合伙人追偿。
Chapter III Legal Persons 

第三章 法人

Section 1 General Stipulations 

第一节 一般规定

Article 36. A legal person shall be an organization that has capacity for civil Rights and capacity for civil conduct and independently enjoys civil Rights and assumes civil obligations in accordance with the Law.   第三十六条 法人是具有民事权利能力和民事行为能力,依法独立享有民事权利和承担民事义务的组织。
A legal person's capacity for civil Rights and capacity for civil conduct shall begin when the legal person is established and shall end when the legal person terminates. 法人的民事权利能力和民事行为能力,从法人成立时产生,到法人终止时消灭。
Article 37. A legal person shall have the following qualifications:   第三十七条 法人应当具备下列条件:
(1) establishment in accordance with the Law; (一)依法成立;
(2) possession of the necessary property or funds; (二)有必要的财产或者经费;
(3) possession of its own name, organization and premises; and (三)有自己的名称、组织机构和场所;
(4) ability to independently bear civil Liability. (四)能够独立承担民事责任。
Article 38. In accordance with the Law or the articles of association of the legal person, the responsible person who Acts on behalf of the legal person in exercising its functions and powers shall be its legal representative.   第三十八条 依照法律或者法人组织章程规定,代表法人行使职权的负责人,是法人的法定代表人。
Article 39. A legal person's domicile shall be the place where its main administrative office is located.   第三十九条 法人以它的主要办事机构所在地为住所。
Article 40. When a legal person terminates, it shall go into liquidation in accordance with the Law and discontinue all other activities.   第四十条 法人终止,应当依法进行清算,停止清算范围外的活动。
Section 2 Enterprise as Legal Person 

第二节 企业法人

Article 41. An enterprise under Ownership by the whole people or under collective Ownership shall be qualified as a legal person when it has sufficient funds as stipulated by the state; has articles of association, an organization and premises; has the ability to independently bear civil Liability; and has been approved and registered by the competent authority.   第四十一条 全民所有制企业、集体所有制企业有符合国家规定的资金数额,有组织章程、组织机构和场所,能够独立承担民事责任,经主管机关核准登记,取得法人资格。
A Chinese-foreign equity joint venture, Chinese-foreign Contractual joint venture or foreign-capital enterprise established within the People's Republic of China shall be qualified as a legal person in China, if it has the qualifications of a legal person and has been approved and registered by the administrative Agency for industry and commerce in accordance with the Law. 在中华人民共和国领域内设立的中外合资经营企业,中外合作经营企业和外资企业,具备法人条件的,依法经工商行政管理机关核准登记,取得中国法人资格。
Article 42. An Enterprise as Legal Person shall conduct operations within the range approved and registered.   第四十二条 企业法人应当在核准登记的经营范围内从事经营。
Article 43. An Enterprise as Legal Person shall bear civil Liability for the operational activities of its legal representatives and other personnel.   第四十三条 企业法人对它的法定代表人和其他工作人员的经营活动,承担民事责任。
Article 44. If an Enterprise as Legal Person is divided or merged or undergoes any other important change, it shall register the change with the registration authority and publicly announce it.   第四十四条 企业法人分立、合并上或有其他重要事项变更,应当向登记机关办理登记并公告。
When an Enterprise as Legal Person is divided or merged, its Rights and obligations shall be enjoyed and assumed by the new legal person that results from the change. 企业法人分立、合并,它的权利和义务由变更后的法人享有和承担。
Article 45. An Enterprise as Legal Person shall terminate for any of the following reasons:   第四十五条 企业法人由于下列原因之一终止:
(1) if it is dissolved by Law; (一)依法被撤销;
(2) if it is disbanded; (二)解散;
(3) if it is declared bankrupt in accordance with the Law; or (三)依法宣告破产;
(4) for other reasons. (四)其他原因。
Article 46. When an Enterprise as Legal Person terminates, it shall cancel its registration with the registration authority and publicly announce the termination. 
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  第四十六条 企业法人终止,应当向登记机关办理注销登记并公告。
Article 47. When an Enterprise as Legal Person is disbanded, it shall establish a liquidation organization and go into liquidation. When an Enterprise as Legal Person is dissolved or is declared bankrupt, the competent authority or a people's court shall organize the organs and personnel concerned to establish a liquidation organization to liquidate the enterprise.   第四十七条 企业法人解散,应当成立清算组织,进行清算。企业法人被撤销、被宣告破产的,应当由主管机关或者人民法院组织有关机关和有关人员成立清算组织,进行清算。
Article 48. An enterprise under Ownership by the whole people, as legal person, shall bear civil Liability with the property that the state authorizes it to manage. An enterprise under collective Ownership, as legal person, shall bear civil Liability with the property it owns. A Chinese-foreign equity joint venture, Chinese-foreign Contractual joint venture or foreign-capital Enterprise as Legal Person shall bear civil Liability with the property it owns, except as stipulated otherwise by Law.   第四十八条 全民所有制企业法人以国家授予它经营管理的财产承担民事责任。集体所有制企业法人以企业所有的财产承担民事责任。中外合资经营企业法人、中外合作经营企业法人和外资企业法人以企业所有的财产承担民事责任,法律另有规定的除外。
Article 49. Under any of the following circumstances, an Enterprise as Legal Person shall bear Liability, its legal representative may additionally be given administrative sanctions and fined and, if the offence constitutes a crime, criminal responsibility shall be investigated in accordance with the Law:   第四十九条 企业法人有下列情形之一的,除法人承担责任外,对法定代表人可以给予行政处分、罚款,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任:
(1) conducting illegal operations beyond the range approved and registered by the registration authority; (一)超出登记机关核准登记的经营范围从事非法经营的;
(2) concealing fActs from the registration and tax authorities and practising fraud; (二)向登记机关、税务机关隐瞒真实情况、弄虚作假的;
(3) secretly withdrawing funds or hiding property to evade repayment of debts; (三)抽逃资金、隐匿财产逃避债务的;
(4) disposing of property without authorization after the enterprise is dissolved, disbanded or declared bankrupt; (四)解散、被撤销、被宣告破产后,擅自处理财产的;
(5) failing to apply for registration and make a public announcement promptly when the enterprise undergoes a change or terminates, thus causing interested persons to suffer heavy losses; (五)变更、终止时不及时申请办理登记和公告,使利害关系人遭受重大损失的;
(6) engaging in other activities prohibited by Law, damaging the interests of the state or the public interest. (六)从事法律禁止的其他活动,损害国家利益或者社会公共利益的。
Section 3 official Organ, Institution and Social Organization AS Legal Persons 

第三节 机关、事业单位和社会团体法人

Article 50. An independently funded official Organ shall be qualified as a legal person on the day it is established.   第五十条 有独立经费的机关从成立之日起,具有法人资格。
If according to Law an Institution or Social Organization having the qualifications of a legal person needs not go through the procedures for registering as a legal person, it shall be qualified as a legal person on the day it is established; if according to Law it does need to go through the registration procedures, it shall be qualified as a legal person after being approved and registered. 具备法人条件的事业单位、社会团体,依法不需要办理法人登记的,从成立之日起,具有法人资格;依法需要办理法人登记的,经核准登记,取得法人资格。
Section 4 Econimic Association 

第四节 联营

Article 51. If a new economic entity is formed by the enterprises or an enterprise and an Institution that engage in Econimic Association and it independently bears civil Liability and has the qualifications of a legal person, the new entity shall be qualified as a legal person after being approved and registered by the competent authority.   第五十一条 企业之间或者企业、事业单位之间联营,组成新的经济实体,独立承担民事责任,具备法人条件的,经主管机关核准登记,取得法人资格。
Article 52. If the enterprises or an enterprise and an Institution that engage in Econimic Association conduct joint operation but do not have the qualifications of a legal person, each party to the association shall, in proportion to its respective contribution to the investment or according to the agreement made, bear civil Liability with the property each party owns or manages. If joint Liability is specified by Law or by agreement, the parties shall assume joint Liability.   第五十二条 企业之间或者企业、事业单位之间联营,共同经营、不具备法人条件的,由联营各方按照出资比例或者协议的约定,以各自所有的或者经营管理的财产承担民事责任。依照法律的规定或者协议的约定负连带责任的,承担连带责任。
Article 53. If the Contract for Econimic Association of enterprises or of an enterprise and an Institution specifies that each party shall conduct operations independently, it shall stipulate the Rights and obligations of each party, and each party shall bear civil Liability separately.   第五十三条 企业之间或者企业、事业单位之间联营,按照合同的约定各自独立经营的,它的权利和义务由合同约定,各自承担民事责任。
Chapter IV Civil Juristic Acts and Agency 

第四章 民事法律行为和代理

Section 1 Civil Juristic Acts 

第一节 民事法律行为

Article 54. A civil Juristic act shall be the Lawful act of a citizen or legal person to establish, change or terminate civil Rights and obligations.
......
   第五十四条 民事法律行为是公民或者法人设立、变更、终止民事权利和民事义务的合法行为。
......

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