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Notice by the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security and the Ministry of Justice of Issuing the Opinions on Several Issues concerning the Handling of “Trap Loan” Criminal Cases [Effective]
最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部印发《关于办理“套路贷”刑事案件若干问题的意见》的通知 [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】

Notice by the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security and the Ministry of Justice of Issuing the Opinions on Several Issues concerning the Handling of “Trap Loan” Criminal Cases 

最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部印发《关于办理“套路贷”刑事案件若干问题的意见》的通知

(No.11 [2019] of the Supreme People's Court) (法发〔2019〕11号)

The higher people's courts, people's procuratorates, departments (bureaus) of public security, and justice departments (bureaus) of all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government; the Military Court and Military Procuratorate of the People's Liberation Army; the Production and Construction Corps Branch of the Higher People's Court of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region; and the People's Procuratorate, the Public Security Bureau and the Judicial Bureau of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps: 各省、自治区、直辖市高级人民法院、人民检察院、公安厅(局)、司法厅(局),解放军军事法院、军事检察院,新疆维吾尔自治区高级人民法院生产建设兵团分院、新疆生产建设兵团人民检察院、公安局、司法局:
For the purposes of advancing the special campaign against organized crime and accurately identifying and severely punishing offenders who commit the “Trap Loan” fraud, the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security and the Ministry of Justice have jointly issued the Opinions on Several Issues concerning the Handling of “Trap Loan” Criminal Cases to you for your conscientious implementation. 为持续深入开展扫黑除恶专项斗争,准确甄别和依法严厉惩处“套路贷”违法犯罪分子,最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部联合印发了《关于办理“套路贷”刑事案件若干问题的意见》,请认真贯彻执行。
Supreme People's Court 最高人民法院
Supreme People's Procuratorate 最高人民检察院
Ministry of Public Security 公安部
Ministry of Justice 司法部
February 28, 2019 2019年2月28日
Opinions of the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security and the Ministry of Justice on Several Issues concerning the Handling of “Trap Loan” Criminal Cases 最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部关于办理“套路贷”刑事案件若干问题的意见
...... 为持续深入开展扫黑除恶专项斗争,准确甄别和依法严厉惩处“套路贷”违法犯罪分子,根据刑法刑事诉讼法、有关司法解释以及最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部《关于办理黑恶势力犯罪案件若干问题的指导意见》等规范性文件的规定,现对办理“套路贷”刑事案件若干问题提出如下意见:
 一、准确把握“套路贷”与民间借贷的区别
 1.“套路贷”,是对以非法占有为目的,假借民间借贷之名,诱使或迫使被害人签订“借贷”或变相“借贷”“抵押”“担保”等相关协议,通过虚增借贷金额、恶意制造违约、肆意认定违约、毁匿还款证据等方式形成虚假债权债务,并借助诉讼、仲裁、公证或者采用暴力、威胁以及其他手段非法占有被害人财物的相关违法犯罪活动的概括性称谓。
 2.“套路贷”与平等主体之间基于意思自治而形成的民事借贷关系存在本质区别,民间借贷的出借人是为了到期按照协议约定的内容收回本金并获取利息,不具有非法占有他人财物的目的,也不会在签订、履行借贷协议过程中实施虚增借贷金额、制造虚假给付痕迹、恶意制造违约、肆意认定违约、毁匿还款证据等行为。
 司法实践中,应当注意非法讨债引发的案件与“套路贷”案件的区别,犯罪嫌疑人、被告人不具有非法占有目的,也未使用“套路”与借款人形成虚假债权债务,不应视为“套路贷”。因使用暴力、威胁以及其他手段强行索债构成犯罪的,应当根据具体案件事实定罪处罚。
 3.实践中,“套路贷”的常见犯罪手法和步骤包括但不限于以下情形:
 (1)制造民间借贷假象。犯罪嫌疑人、被告人往往以“小额贷款公司”“投资公司”“咨询公司”“担保公司”“网络借贷平台”等名义对外宣传,以低息、无抵押、无担保、快速放款等为诱饵吸引被害人借款,继而以“保证金”“行规”等虚假理由诱使被害人基于错误认识签订金额虚高的“借贷”协议或相关协议。有的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人还会以被害人先前借贷违约等理由,迫使对方签订金额虚高的“借贷”协议或相关协议。
 (2)制造资金走账流水等虚假给付事实。犯罪嫌疑人、被告人按照虚高的“借贷”协议金额将资金转入被害人账户,制造已将全部借款交付被害人的银行流水痕迹,随后便采取各种手段将其中全部或者部分资金收回,被害人实际上并未取得或者完全取得“借贷”协议、银行流水上显示的钱款。
 ......

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